Arkhangelsk. (late 19th — early 20th century)
H. L. Tselikova (ur.Leuzinger).
I do not assume a full analysis of the life of the city and the people of that time, but try to imagine how the guests saw the city and how my grandfathers and grandfathers lived, and sometimes comment on the events. We always accompany the guests and ask: "how did our city like it, what impression did it leave, not only the streets, but also the people?".
This is how the city of Arkhangelsk was seen by the writer-ethnographer who made a trip to the North, Sergey Maksimov (1831-1901) in 1856 in his book "Year in the North".
"Late in the evening I drove up for the first time to Arkhangelsk... Evening, it is cloudy, and on a question where to define me on a lent I receive the answer of the coachman, - there are no Hotels uniform". Pushed into the Inn, let. The owner has fenced off a corner in the Billiards room, get a room. At tea, began a conversation about the city, but the owner replied with meditation and riddles. From a conversation with the owner revealed that he is already 30 years consists in the fact that farms in the "city" Germans, all commercial people, the Russian spirit is not love. The company just between themselves and the lead is always ahead of our city going." On another day we went to explore the city. "I saw one endless street with stone and wooden houses in the beginning: some state inscriptions, others private, saying that there is a shop. Seen endless the street, almost the only one that ran four miles along the shore of the Northern Dvina.
On the way he passed the Trinity Cathedral, founded on October 11, 1709 and finished in 1765, majestic.
To the left of the path turned up the dilapidated stone building, which the cab driver called the mint, and in fact it was the ruins of the German Gostiny Dvor, then do can be seen the ruins of the mint, which is a part of the customs of the castle, the bricks for which were brought from Holland…
The Central square with the monument to M. V. Lomonosov. The monument, Where M. V. Lomonosov is depicted in a toga of a Roman citizen on his shoulder, rather than a simple Northern man who became a great scientist and thinker, caused bewilderment of citizens. This is a lesson to the authors of the monument.
Next was the house clean, the wooden for the most part sheathed with boards and painted all sorts of colors colors. This is a German settlement, where all the commercial population of the city huddles.
To the left and to the right begin to roll down from the main street of lane, but those and others go not far, breaking at Dvina, on the other hand cross the second Avenue (and the last), resting against the tundra bog which has no end".
Maksimov lamented that with the decline of trade has removed many classes of urban dwellers, who were busy making the finest linen, not inferior in quality to the Dutch. But apparently, to replace the manual production of it's factory, was established "Trade house of Fontaines, Gribanov and K°", the factory was located in Krasavino, near Veliky Ustyug. The auction is conducted abroad. Here such saw our city a guest in 1856.
Has anything changed to 1898. when there is another guest and decided to explore the city? Nikolai Aleksandrovich Leikin (1841 - 1906) -writer made a trip from Moscow to Arkhangelsk on the steamer from Vologda to Arkhangelsk and back by rail, and described his journey in the book "the wild North".
"In Arkhangelsk they came in the first hour night, naturally embarked question about a lodging for the night. The captain contacted the Directorate of the shipping company, which kindly allowed passengers of the first and second classes to spend the night on the boat, but the rest, who were pilgrims to Solovki, had to walk through the night city to the Solovetsky farmstead."
In the morning, the travelers moved to the Trinity hotel. As the author noted: "the Hotel was such that it would be suitable for the capital in its purity, but the prices for the premises in it were Metropolitan. The room looked out onto the promenade, bed with good linen…»
Now after 30 years, how he saw the city of new traveler. "Arkhangelsk in its appearance is a very clean city for the province. Quite often found himself the center of the city, and the outskirts of his... Of 21 thousand residents, a good third are foreigners.
Nothing has changed in the appearance of the city, in Arkhangelsk as there were two streets: the Embankment and Trinity Avenue, where the best houses and shops were concentrated", and kept the sizes. The author drew attention that many shop signs with foreign surnames though signs of modification from Paris and London were not listed, however, ladies walk in fashionable hats, on the newfangledness do not lag behind capital, and really in Arkhangelsk there were many hat and hat shops, and fashionable Studio of headdresses of Mitrofanov An. Petrovich, which was on Cathedral street in the house of a Duplex, sending their products for export. As would said storyteller Boris Shergin: "To the city of Paris."
And again, the Author pays attention that all the little cross streets run into the tundra. This tundra does not allow Arkhangelsk to grow deeper and deeper from the shore, but is limited to a small bypass channel.
As G. p. Popov wrote in His book about the importance of the construction of this canal, which was built more than 30 years: "it allowed the city to provide a draught of large swamps and clear it under the arable land and even allocate space for the device of the racetrack and Bicycle path, the first semblance of a stadium."When it was finished dug a channel to the device has taken the fire brigade, money was allocated from the city budget, and soon came the announcement of the upcoming races (the area between the Pomeranian and the resurrection). Created "Running society" (1912), which encouraged lynx horse breeding, and successfully worked until the end of the first world war. Citizens had private stables and contained fine horses. And indeed the main mode of transport in the city were horse-drawn. To get out of the Mymax in the summer needed a steamboat, but in the winter on the winter only on a horse.
The mayor of the city rode in his carriage, in any case, according to the census of 1897 in the house of Yakov Ivanovich Leuzinger lived coachman Baboshin Nikolai Frolovich (26 years). And Wilhelm Wilghelmovich Hoevelaken was a horse with a temper and didn't budge until it was treated to a piece of bread. Water to the city from the river brought in the horses water-carriers in special barrels to the houses where it was not near the speaker or booth for the distribution of water.
The roadway of the streets were paved with cobblestones, you can imagine what a roar it was, when the cab was speeding along the street. Before the city was the issue in 1896 on the construction of the city rail — tram that led to heated debates in the city Council wanting to get a contract for this construction was not enough.
It took many years before the tram went through the city. The Grand opening took place on 12 June 1916, and later a tram line connected the Solombala and Maimaksa, but could not resist the pressure of the new Russian and reposed in the Lord in 2003.
What drew the attention of the writer, visiting the city. It turned out that the city had a lot of dogs - huskies? Urban residents were excellent hunters, and hunting has got special rocks on the burrowing of animals, waterfowl, hounds and gundogs. And without production never returned from hunting. In winter, bear and moose hunting was organized.
The whole city is Nikolai Leykin was examined for four hours. "Returning to the hotel, the guests ordered dinner, very good, but suddenly in the hall there were musicians and began to play something familiar, but very much lied. And so they entertained the audience until midnight." It should be noted that the city was founded by the Society of music lovers on August 9, 1881. Lovers music engaged in as in orchestra, so and in instrumental ensembles. On the main street in each house there was a musical instrument, mainly a piano. In 1900, Nikolai Kartashov took over the management of musical life, created a Symphony orchestra, staged operas and operettas, and organized charity concerts. The fire society was created in 1902, its brass band, which performed in parks, on city holidays, played marches and dance music. At Kartashov's request, the music school was opened on August 15, 1907, but it should be noted that before there was a music and vocal Sunday school headed by Yu. des Fontaines (Hansen 1867-), which should be regarded as the founder of music education in Arkhangelsk. (By the way not later than August 17, our Governor announced the creation of a Governor's orchestra in the Arkhangelsk Philharmonic)
When we remember the German settlement, immediately before the eyes rises the picture of Trinity Avenue with a beautiful house, belonging to the family des Fontaines. The pedigree of this family is placed in the second edition of the Northern genealogies, edited by L. D. Popova. In the collection of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty on the Trade house E. des Fontaines written "Firm founded in 1890, the Founders and owners it was a hereditary honorary citizen Edmund A. des Fontaines (22.05.1866, Arkhangelsk - 5.10.1938. Brussels) and hereditary honorary citizen Eduard-Wilhelm E. des Fontaines.(3.11.1861, Arkhangelsk-30.04.1908 Arkhangelsk).
In 1908, after the death of Eduard Eduardovich, the company passed into the possession of Edmund Alexandrovich, which he owns. The company has a large sawmill, equipped with the latest technology. (In Mymax) The firm conducts exclusively foreign trade, exporting forest materials only in the developed form. Sales mainly in England, France, Belgium, Holland and partly in Germany, Australia and South Africa. In 1912 was sent to timber standards ( article - 4,72 m) England — 12088 century France - 2679 St., Holland - 2066 - article, Belgium - 1937., Australia — St. 865 total : 19635 article this year export ( 1913) will be significantly increased. In addition, the company has 5 river boats designed exclusively for towing the forest to the plant. Thing personally directs Edmund Aleksandrovich. Arkhangelsk.»
The Maritime business of Fontaine's developed and flourished, without receiving subsidies from the state, until 1912, when, due to the unsuccessful market conditions, the trading house had to sell all its ships abroad. River vessels remained at the disposal of the house. Revenues have fallen, and are accustomed to live in Grand style, from Edmund appeared a lot of debts and outstanding bills. It decided to use its companion at the trading house "Gribanov, Fontaines Ko" Ilya Y. Gribanov, offering to marry the daughter Anna for his son Vladimir, who received financial education in England. The daughter of an aristocrat for a man! But, on reflection, my father decided the fate of the daughters in favor of Vladimir. Debts were repaid. The couple moved to St. Petersburg, they have lived at the promenade des Anglais, etc .66, had no children, but raised niece.
The family had three houses, construction drawings are perfectly considered in works of L. D. Popova, Y. A. Barashkova, but what were they like inside?
The house stood on Troitsky prospect on the odd side in front of the city Council. Before them was a wonderful garden, in the street the Police were birch alley, where crows settled in the spring and arranged so gray that the janitor had to scare them with shots from a gun. The house had a front entrance with a white marble porch. To inform about your arrival, you had to ring the bell. The call was arranged as follows: a metal lever was worn through the wall, on the one hand attached a cord with a wooden handle, and on the other — inside the house — it was attached to the bell, pulling the cord, the house heard a call that reported the arrival of guests. The guests came to the lobby left outerwear, umbrellas, galoshes and climbed up the white marble staircase that went in two marches, branching on the mezzanine in the two sides. The railing was a rope that was supported by copper columns, in the corners of the staircase were adorned with graceful marble statues on pedestals, sculptures of animals, the walls were decorated with stuffed animals and birds, paintings and mirrors.
The rooms are large, arranged in a row, beautiful tiled stoves, fireplaces with firewood. The Windows were hung with heavy silk curtains, carpets hid the noise of steps. The furniture is pleasing to the eye. Each room was furnished in its own manner, white dining room, brown Smoking room, pink nursery. A wonderful library of books and notes, all the inhabitants of the house were familiar with the musical notation. The table serverbase, table fine porcelain, the silver, which mysteriously disappeared, drowned in the basement when he was hiding in 1919
In the yard there were outbuildings: cattle yard, stable, hayloft, the owners kept a cow, there was a beautiful horse carriage. But the debt... After the revolution, almost the whole family went abroad, he left several families, including Alexander E. des Fontaines (1892-1971), virtually without a livelihood, living in Arkhangelsk, led the sports movement until 1936 the Family had two homes: wood street Vologda and stone on the Waterfront, which was sold to the city in 1914, still stands.
Near Trinity Avenue stood the Commercial club, where they spent free time the representatives of the Archangel's names, the wealthy and not so, when held balls, if not charity, the girls were allowed regardless of class, decently dressed. Men played cards, women could talk a lot, listen to music or dance.
At this ball I met the son of the mayor of Yakov Ivanovich Leuzinger Vyacheslav (25.12.1898 - 15.03.1938) a student of the law faculty of St. Petersburg University and the daughter of a timber merchant Rudolf Karlovich PEC Gertrude ( 21.05 .1889 - 29.08.1959). Young people fell in love with each other, but the mayor Yakov Ivanovich categorically forbade to think of a wedding, first of all material inequality, and secondly other religion! Was a great tragedy, Gardocki began full depression.
The head of the family was familiar, both members of the city Council. The city went a rumor that Kartochka dies. Then Rudolf Karlovich, having laid down the best crew, goes on a visit, but rather on arrangements, to Yakov Ivanovich. The conversation lasted about two hours, then shook hands, and the case was solved. Vyacheslav sends a petition to the University to obtain the right to marry, in addition it was necessary to coordinate issues with the churches, and they were crowned in the Orthodox and Lutheran churches. The wedding took place on October 27, 1912 Father-in-law gave to Vyacheslav the Manager at its mill No. 13. The couple was happy and went on a honeymoon trip to Europe. Indeed, the merchants could afford to travel abroad, as many had relatives there, and the trade had to go.
When observers said that urban residents do not go on vacation, it is puzzling, because living by the river, and do not have a boat, it would be at least strange. In the summer a favorite place of citizens was Kegostrov, which went by families, and even a samovar, vacationing with children Cecht, Lakhta, Pingere, and even in Narva.
The trip to Solovki was an indispensable ritual of a large "German" youth company every year.
In 1911 was organized by the city Yacht club, the third in Russia, it was a men's club, with a strict Charter, families were invited no more than once a month. Each member of the club had its own vessel-a yacht of local construction, and more wealthy and steam boats, competitions were held.
Thanks to the existing photo workshops and photo masters the city has a large number of photos and postcards about the life of a small town. May 10, 1909 was the first meeting of photography lovers, which announced the Charter, already approved by the Duma. The society lasted until 1920, Its members were Leutzinger, Y. I., Y. I. Seberg (had their workshops), Secretary-was elected A. A. Poplavsky.
The town was small, many were simply familiar, maybe even relatives, so everything that happened in families, immediately became the property of the majority of residents.
In this message, I have tried to imagine what and how my family lived in those early years. But most importantly, we have lost a lot, good relations have forgotten or never knew, we begin to live from scratch, inventing the bike.
Have you ever thought, how to perceive our city visitors. My good friend, visiting his hometown, exclaimed: "What have you done with the city, the city has lost its face, lost airiness, it is stuffy!"Learn, my friend, the scientist reduces our experience of fast-moving life." Pushkin references:
1. Northern pedigree, issue two, Arkhangelsk, 2008
2. The year in the North. S. V. Maksimov, Arkhangelsk, 1984
3. To the North the wild Nikolai Leikin, Arkhangelsk,2007
4. Old Arkhangelsk. Gennady Popov, 2003, Arkhangelsk
5. Arkhangelsk rodoslovets N..Shumilov. 2009, Arkhangelsk
6. Northern shipping companies of Russia R. V. Lapshin, A. A. Smolin, 2011 Arkhangelsk
7. The Architecture Of Arkhangelsk, Popova L. D., Arkhangelsk, 2010
8. Ten centuries in search of freedom and happiness.
9. The story of one family G. Linden, A. Landres, St. Petersburg, USA, Washington DC,1993
10. Arkhangelsk — the city of music, volume 1, G. S. Shchurov, Arkhangelsk, 1995.
firstname.lastname@example.org Natalia Lvovna
Light memory of Evgeny Petrovich Bozhko, historian-researcher