Chronicles of the ancient genus PEC (Paetz), little-known pages of history from the XIV century to the present day
Light memory of Evgeny Petrovich Bozhko, historian-researcher
The Saga of the Pros and Krause
(Translated from German: Z. R. Kalimova, J. A. Parsheva).
In the early 1980s, when I began to take an interest in the history of our family, I asked my mother if she had any desire to write the history of her family, as well as everything she had experienced. We often talked on this subject, and I realized that she has a great memory, and it is quite well remembers what he endured in childhood and adolescence, even remembers what he heard from his brothers and sisters and older relatives. The idea (thought) about how to write it, like my mom. But, when in early 1989 she died in a street accident (accident), I found in her papers only one single sentence about this intention:
"On July 2( n. in); June 19 (art.) I was born the fifth child in the family of Alexander Edward Lyurs ( merchant) and his lawful wife Alma (nee Meyer), in Arkhangelsk."
That was it. Even the year of birth is missing. Very sorry that as a result of an accident forever lost what she knew she had never set out on paper all her memories. First, I knew that in recent years she was often tired, and so I couldn't concentrate and explain it all the way her intentions required. Second, in this reverberate its the essence of and demands to itself the most. She was always happy to communicate with people so that sometimes we were a little uncomfortable with the children. The main point of such communication was that she was genuinely interested in the fate of people, was able to listen to them and loved it. As a result of such conversations, she knew very well the life stories and problems of these people. In many cases, it was a unilateral conversation.
During the funeral of my mother, the pastor briefly told the biography of my mother and many realized that they did not know her life, because she rarely talked about herself and her life. However, it was known that she sound "R" was pronounced with unusual emphasis, which was especially noticeable in telephone conversations, but where she came from, how and why there in Heinola (Heinola (it. Barntrup) is a city in Germany, in the land of North Rhine-Westphalia. Is subject to administrative district Detmold) and how she lived the first years after the war, knew very few people. However, she was not a closed person. When asked, she answered willingly and was glad, as it seemed to me, that people were interested in her life. As regards activity in relation to the others, she loved to talk about his life story and the experiences associated with the event as a refugee and widow of a wartime, she believed that her life story isn't important to people, that's why she didn't set it down in written form. Since I knew very well that she would hardly write about her life, under various circumstances I tried to ask her as much as possible about important events and Affairs, and at the same time I made records. These notes cover the period between 1919, when her family left Russia during the Civil war, and 1945, when she came as a refugee to Barntrup (nem. Bamtrup), and had a desire to write about her life. Some of the events were supplemented by oral and written communications, which I met based on the notes of her brothers and sisters and other relatives. On my first five years of life, which she spent in Russia, my mother could only remember a few details. Most of these memories were associated with oral stories and messages of older relatives. All these relatives from the generations of my grandparents, who knew life in Russia on their personal observations and for decades those memories were real, as I was able to learn it during my meetings and conversations is long gone. Even from my mother's generation, there is no one alive.
As a result of the death of some relatives during the last 25 years, I managed to get a number of drawings, papers, letters, photos and memories that helped to learn more about the history of my mother's family in Russia. Some of the material I learned and received from me for unknown distant relatives who all of a sudden turned out to be (found) in England, Scotland, USA, and after a major transformation during the time of Gorbachev they were in Russia who have had the same interest in our family history as me. Thus, the material that I collected, and which remained in documents and in desks, appeared demanded, and I in the first chapters presented that I learned on history of our family in Russia, namely history of life of my mother.
To properly understand the history of life the ancestors of my mother, need to talk about the Archangel, the hometown of my mother.
Arkhangelsk is located in the far North of the European part of Russia at the mouth of the Dvina river when it flows into the White sea. Russians call this river Northern Dvina to distinguish it from Western Dvina – in German it is called “Duena” and it flows in the Western direction through the North of Russia, Belarus and the Baltic sea, then flows into the Baltic sea near Riga. As and Weser (Weser (him. Weser [ˈveːzɐ], n-it. Werser) is a river in Germany, flowing in the Northern direction, crossing the German Midlands and North German lowlands. Its name is starting from city Gunn), it does not have its own source, it arises from the merger of Ferry and Fulda, so there is the Northern Dvina river from the confluence of the Sukhona and Yug from the old Russian town of Veliky Ustyug, which is located 750 km South-East of Arkhangelsk, and family history of lyurs played a significant role at a certain time.
From the very beginning, the economic life in Arkhangelsk was largely determined by the activity of foreign merchants and trading firms of foreign merchants, who settled here and for some time were de facto monopolists in export trade. At first it was the British, who dominated the economic life of the city, then the Dutch appeared. Also, several German families from the Baltic States settled in Arkhangelsk. Since the second half of the NINETEENTH century, the Germans from Northern Germany, and here, first of all, from Hamburg, are increasingly looking for new areas in Arkhangelsk for their activities. "In Arkhangelsk the money is lying on the street — - so they said then, and enterprising people were looking for here in Arkhangelsk trade and business ties up to the fact that they left their Homeland forever to create their business life in the North of Russia.
Despite the fact that the majority of foreigners who settled in Arkhangelsk, and then natives of Russia spoke very well in Russian, and most of them took Russian citizenship, they led a special, own way of life. Most of them built their homes in the so-called "German settlement". The center of the German settlement was located in the Northern part of the then Cathedral square, along the main street of Arkhangelsk — Trinity Avenue.
Almost all foreigners communicated with each other in their native language. The younger generation for education and for the preservation of their cultural identity for some time, went to the home of a parent or the Western countries. Foreigners had their own clubs and institutions and, above all, Evangelical churches. The pastors of these churches came to Arkhangelsk: the reformers of Holland, the Lutherans – from Hamburg. When the number of members of the community began to decline in the early XIX century, the two Evangelical churches in 1818 United in a single unit Church throughout Russia.
Also continue to Arkhangelsk pastors came almost exclusively from Northern Germany, and in some cases later came from the Baltic, as for example, very early deceased father-in-law of my mother, Hugo Krause, who from 1912 until his death in 1915году held the position of pastor at the German Church in Arkhangelsk.
The Church community taught children in its own school, so that most children from families of German origin did not go to Russian schools, but to German Church schools. Children from Russian families were admitted to this school only when paying a large sum of money for education.
This manifested itself, first of all, and at the conclusion of marriages. Despite the fact that foreigners ' own lives were surrounded by the Russian population, despite various economic contacts with Russian businessmen, marriages with Russians were concluded only in isolated cases. The main colony, living in Arkhangelsk, entered into marriages among their tribesmen. When it came to marriage, partners were sought in the circle of long-settled families of German, Baltic-German, Dutch or even English or Norwegian origin. Since the number of foreigners and residents of foreign origin living in Arkhangelsk, even in the most prosperous times, remained unchanged, marriage between nephews and cousins of the first or second generation in these families was not uncommon. If the newcomer settled in Arkhangelsk for a long time, he joined the Arkhangelsk society only when he started a family. From the circle of these families, Dutch, and Baltic German origin, who settled in the outskirts of HYIII and early NINETEENTH centuries, there are all direct ancestors of my mother. Along with the names of lyurs and Meyer that are most often found at birth my mother's parents in the family bloodline, since the second half of HYIII century, it bears the names of van Brinen, Gernet, Lindes, Scholz and PEC. Some of these surnames are repeatedly shown in view of the above-mentioned reasons and testify to close interlacing of families in Arkhangelsk. So, for example, among eight grandmothers and great-grandparents my mothers only three brothers and sisters from family guernet.
Carl Lurs first Lyurs in Arkhangelsk (CA. 1765-1807 HS) and his family.
The family history of lyurs in Arkhangelsk can be traced in local archives (GAAO) the surviving documents and data from the last years of the reign of Catherine II at the end Hook when, together with Karl Larcom arrived first Lyursy to Arkhangelsk. Carl Lurz was a tailor by trade, and arrived in 1794 from the city of Wolfsburg (ger. Diepholz, the land of lower Saxony), at that time, the city belonged to the elector Hannover ( in 1714 the elector Hannover Georg-Ludwig of the ancient princely family of the Welf occupied simultaneously the English throne under the name of king George I. Hanover dynasty, whose founder he became, ruled in England until 1901 Elector (letters. - "Prince elector"; kuer-choice), he arrived in Arkhangelsk through St. Petersburg. Manuscript preserved in the archival documents, it appears in the then, quite often, with errors written in Cyrillic transcription, as Carl Lyurs, Carl LIRs, Carl Lirt or many sources miraculously turned into Carsten LIRs or Lyursa. That this speech is clearly about the same person, according to the data, further detailed in other documents. When he settled in Arkhangelsk in 1794, Karl was about 30 years old. When and where he was born, who were his parents and whether he intended to stay in Russia for a long time – there are no such documents. His father's name was Johannes Lurs. As it became clear, it is very simple, in Russia it was accepted to call the person by name to patronymic – "Karl Iogannovich". In Wolfsburg, a city that Carl called his home at the entrance to Russia, apparently, he was not born as a fully preserved in the Church books of the local Evangelical community, he did not appear. Although the name of lyurs had met, and in our time such a name exists there. Maybe Carl settled in Wolfsburg only after his training as a tailor, maybe he was from a small town near Wolfsburg. Or maybe he was a native of Hamburg, as confirmed in one of their surviving documents in the archives of Arkhangelsk. After his arrival in Arkhangelsk Carl Luers continued to work at his trade as a tailor. There was included in the lists of craftsmen, and later in 1799, listed as a class burghers, which was made by artisans and small traders and existing laws of that time and foreigners. In 1797 or 1798 Karl Lurz he married Maria Vlasova Julia Natit, which was younger than his 9 years and was a native of Bremen. How, when and why she came to Arkhangelsk, we do not know. Johann Natit, who also came to Arkhangelsk from Bremen in 1784, was a sailor. Could be the older brother of Maria, according to the date of his birth. Their father was Johann Natit, but it is still unknown. In German, this is an unusual name, so in archival documents such a name does not appear, most likely phonetic transcription in Cyrillic sounds German surname Neutiet. Three people by the names in Hoot until 1755года specified in Bremen. But, direct communication of the Arkhangelsk Nalitov, living in Bremen by the name Natit definitely not discovered so far.
Karl and Maria Lyurs had four children: Karl Samuel, Anna, Wilhelmina and Peter, who were born between 1798 and 1806. But, in January 1807, Karl Lurs ' father died at the age of about 40, and his wife remains a widow with three young children in Arkhangelsk. The eldest daughter Anna died in infancy before his father's death. After her husband's death Mary Lurz earned to feed the family, as stated in the record the list of residents of Arkhangelsk, "from their labors". In the lists of inhabitants in 1814 she and her eldest son Samuel is no longer listed. What became of them we do not know. Maybe they died, maybe they left Arkhangelsk. The younger son Peter later spread the rumor according to family tradition, he supposedly "child remained in Arkhangelsk". What exactly can be said about this is unclear. Anyway, in the list of inhabitants of, 1814, appeared the names of the younger children Lussow, Wilhelmina and Peter, as they mean, they challenged his father's legacy "from his father's estate". Who took on the education of young children, from one source or another is unknown. The eldest girl Wilhelmina, born between 1800 and 1802, later married a German native of Mecklenburg, named Jacob Menk, who, like her father, was a tailor. The older girl of the two daughters of this marriage married a tailor, the More we never heard of them.
Actually, I should say that Carl Lurs first Lyurs in Arkhangelsk, during his short life in their new Homeland in Russia, lived in abundance, but didn't have a career, like many immigrants of the time, hoping for success. He lived with his family until his death in a rented apartment and for thirteen years of life and work in Arkhangelsk could not buy his own house. As times decent household it was thought in Arkhangelsk indicator of economic success. Thus, we can conclude on the few surviving sources, Carl Lyurs in Arkhangelsk was a humble and respected craftsman and as such died on 16 January 1807 at the age of about 40 years.
Peter Lurz (1806 – 1879), great-grandfather of my mother and his family.
In front of his son, Peter's grandfather, my mother managed to make a successful economic career and enter the circle of founders of Arkhangelsk, in his entrepreneurial activities, he also suffered heavy losses. Peter Lurz was born October 6 (Church calendar) 1806года in Arkhangelsk in the family of Charles and Mary Lyurs youngest son. In the first year of his life my father died, and from the age of seven he grew up without a mother. So about his childhood and youth almost nothing is unknown. First of all, we do not know, as mentioned above, who took him and his older sister to raise. Only by hearsay known that Peter studied at the Evangelical school of the Church of Arkhangelsk and probably received a commercial education. In 1825/1826 we found him as a" clerk " (commercial employee) in Becker's and Amburger's firm, on behalf of which he made business trips in the North of Russia. Has a separate passport, which he used for these visits, so as by the time he was a citizen of Hanover, although born in Russia, was considered a foreigner. At the end of 1826 he was unemployed, "unemployed", as it appeared in the records, what he did in the next five years, where and by whom he worked, is unknown.
A big turning point in his life occurred in 1832, when he was 25 years old. In may of this year, he married 16-year-old Carolina PEC, the eldest daughter of the Baker Andreas Traugott PEC, who was originally from the ancient dynasty of bakers from Weissenfels (Weissenfels). Weißenfels) is a city in Germany, in Saxony-Anhalt. Included in the district of Weissenfels), Saxony — Anhalt. His father August PEC arrived in Arkhangelsk on 20 years earlier than the father of Peter Lyursa Carl Lurz and opened a very successful business – a bakery. His son Andreas Traugott PEC, father-in-law Peter Lyurs, expanded his business and was considered a very successful and respected businessman in Arkhangelsk. Now it is no longer possible to establish whether this marriage and the associated support for a prosperous father-in-law and allowed Peter Lyurs to quickly get back on his feet, or he himself was able to make a fortune over the years. Maybe it was both. In any case, it is a fact that Peter Lurz in the same 1832 with his young wife received Russian citizenship, was included in the lists of the Arkhangelsk merchant of 2nd Guild with a trading capital of 20,000 thousand rubles, and in proof of his long stay in Arkhangelsk is the identity on the purchase of the purchased home. The order of increase in its declared trade capital can be measured by the fact that the house and land in the so-called German settlement at that time was estimated from 3000 to 6000 thousand rubles.
In the next 1833 Peter Lurz along with other merchant Abraham des Fontaines established import / export firm "by A. des Fontaines and Lyurs", which was so successful that Peter Lurz and A. des Fontaines, in 1836, could be written in the first Guild of merchants and traders.
In 1838, a Russian merchant Gribanov, Ilya became the third partner of the firm, which was called "Gribanov, Fontaines and Lyurs" and within few years has grown to the second largest trading house in Arkhangelsk. This success is reflected in the records on the list of vessels in the port of Arkhangelsk, who noted in 1844 that the firm "Gribanov, Fontaines and Lyurs" to export a used 96 vessels, slightly less than the largest German trading company "Willy Brandt and sons", but much more than all three largest English firms in Arkhangelsk.
In the same year, Peter Lurz bought another, however, the old house, demolished it and on its site built a beautiful new house. In 1846, as reported by the teacher of German Church schools of the United Klaus, Peter Lurz engaged in economic activities and could, together with his family in the same year to conduct the planned trip to a resort abroad, and then came a more relaxed economic Affairs.
But at that time not only purely economic success was valued, at that time they sought to rise to the highest circles of the Archangel society, that is, to become a respected member. For wealthy merchants it was considered very important to establish themselves in the Church, which had an Evangelical Church school, in numerous social and cultural institutions, as well as in the bodies of municipal self-government.
In 1836, the Evangelical community, where Peter himself studied at school, developed a new Church Statute to maintain its independence from the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia. Peter Lurz at 30 years old was the youngest representative in the then convened a Church meeting. In this society, along with numerous influential personalities of the Arkhangelsk society were also his partners in the firm, Fontanez and his father-in-law Andreas T. PEC. In view of his permanent representation in the Church community (he was a member of the service of the Church chief in 1867) Peter Lyurs was later awarded the title "honorary patron (citizen) of the Evangelical community. Thanks to his Church activities, he participated in various services of municipal self-government in the forties and was a member of the Arkhangelsk commercial court, and from 1845 to 1847. even its Chairman. In 1849 Peter Lura was awarded the title "honorary Hereditary citizen", as well as his wife and children. This title created in 1832 in Russia was an award for the new class both for the merchant class consisting in Guild, and for nobility. And the purpose was the creation of a privileged urban high society. Peter Lurz belonged to the merchants of the 1st Guild, it further gave the right to commercial activity and determined its affiliation to the Guild.
Later than two years prior to this Peter Lurz made the decision, which was to define a second sharp turn in his economic career, and be a decisive step in his future life: according to the action from 01.01.1848 year, he withdrew from the still successful firms "Gribanov, Fontaines and Lyurs". Instead, this firm became the son Gribanova, Vladimir, and the firm became known as "Gribanov, Fontaines and company", later it operated its business successfully. Peter Lurz he decided to conduct his Affairs and became a large merchant in Arkhangelsk. Nineteen ships, who came in 1850 to Arkhangelsk, was addressed to Peter Lurs. What specific reasons made Peter Lyursa to leave a prosperous joint venture, details of the information was not. Serious divorce between him and his former partners is excluded, because first of all with Gribanov he was closely connected in further commercial Affairs.
The decisive reason, most likely, was the new orientation of Peter Lyurs, as he said about the long phase of planning in a conversation with Gribanov. Along with imports and exports, it had to find a more successful and profitable field of activity, namely, those years marked the beginning and flourishing of the textile industry in Russia. These were the years when the transition from domestic manual labor in textile production to industrial production was carried out in Russia. This is a profound transformation in Russia, primarily associated with the name of the German merchant Ludwig Knoop (Knoop Ludwig 3.08.1821 Bremen – Moscow 1894), which In Russia has turned into a Lion gerasimovitch of Knoop. Ludwig Knoop is the German father of Russian textiles, thinking strategically for the future. Every merchant knew that the factory builds Knoop. Office with L. K. 1846года supplied British textile machines to the Russian factories. He was also called the "Cotton king" of the Russian Empire.
Ludwig Knoop (03.08.1821 Bremen – 1894) was born in a small merchant large family of Bremen. After graduating from the commercial school he had an internship in England at his uncle's firm in Manchester, where he got acquainted with the basics and methods of textile production in England, which at that time was a leading country in the industry. Acquired knowledge he used when applying for a job as an employee of the firm, which opened its branch in Moscow. Instead of, as it has been so far, supplying Russian entrepreneurs with finished yarn from England, which entrepreneurs distributed to villages for further processing of weavers by hand, he began to encourage Russian entrepreneurs to build their own textile factories.
Since 1846 the office of Ludwig knop began to supply the English textile machinery to Russian factories, and also he supplied them, thanks to his connections in England, all that is necessary for the construction of enterprises: loans, machines, raw materials and even work trained experts and engineers. In 1849, with the help of knop, the first Russian mechanized spinning-house was opened. After L. Knoop independently carried out this business, this was followed by the construction of more than 100 spinning rods, and then weavers and dyes were built. To financially secure such activities, L. Knoop participated in the creation of various banks and insurance companies. His own textile factory "krengolm" near Narva was considered at that time the largest in Europe, if not all over the world. His role in the development of the textile industry in Russia is invaluable. The omnipresence knop became a byword: "Where the Church is, there is a pop where the factory is, there is a Button" — sentenced in Moscow. (Moscow saying of the late XIX century.). In 1877 L. Knoop for achievements in the industrialization of Russia, Tsar Alexander II granted him the title of Baron of the Russian Empire. At that time, L. Knoop was considered one of the richest people in the world. But from its vast textile Empire did not remain after his death (1894) and after the turmoil of the Russian revolution. His magnificent estate, Mühlenthal castle in Northern Bremen, also disappeared long ago; the castle was destroyed in 1933. The only thing that has survived on the high Bank of the river. Lesum flows into the river Weser, divided by order of the Knoop vast magnificent Park called "Park of Knoop", one of the most beautiful parks of Bremen, the area of Bremen called Bremen Switzerland (Die Bremer Schweiz) and updated in recent years, the mausoleum of the family of Knoop cemetery Waller in Bremen.
Did Peter Lurz personal contacts, with Knoop unknown to us. Its entry into the textile industry is happening in parallel with the first independent activity of the press in Russia and also their particular things while creating factories similar to the smallest details. But, on the other hand, there is a striking difference in approaches to the business of these two men. While Knoop on the basis of its English experience and connections showed the activity only in the industry of cotton fabric, Peter Lyurs worked in the North of Russia, and here, and first of all, in the Vologda region, processing of flax was widespread. Their business and their residence, Peter Lurz moved to Great Ustyug, which is located on the Sukhona river at the border between Arkhangelsk and Vologda provinces, and where he and his wife bought their own house. What kind of relationship at the time linked him with the Great Ustyug, is not clear.
According to available sources, it is known that the commercial partner of Peter Lyurs, Gribanov in the vicinity of the Great Ustyug had a large estate and was engaged in active commercial activity there.
Christians PEC, brother of the wife of Peter Lyursa, who later held the position of burgomaster in the town of Veliky Ustyug, in 1844, worked as an employee at Gribanova. There are indications that Peter himself Lurs there in the forties participated in Commerce on linen, and began to build a plant for the production of bricks, until 1842. Anyway, it is certified by documents that Peter Lyurs in three and a half years after the exit from the Arkhangelsk trade export firm, opened one of the most modern textile factories of Russia on processing of flax and a cloth in D. Krasavino (06.06.1851), which is 25 km North of the Great Ustyug, namely, rented land from his partner Ilya Gribanov. A fairly detailed description of this plant, in which in 4 of its workshops were presented all the working processes from spinning flax to the final dressing of linen fabrics, as well as the processing of the canvas, can be found in the detailed article of the newspaper "Vologda provincial Gazette" for October 1851. So also all the details of the data, which machines, what the company ordered and purchased their Peter Lurz. Imported fleet of cars from England cost him at a cost of 60,000 rubles silver. Along with 5 specialists and engineers brought from England, 100 Russian workers worked at the factory. But at the end of this article with all the positive aspects were noted the first difficulties of the manufacturer, in October 1851, after 4 months after the opening of the factory, and then for a long time the factory did not work. As it turned out, in looms lacked details. In some other articles that were written about the factory, were referred to other reasons why such a success started the company soon ran into great difficulties. The main problem could be that the flax and linen production, which started Peter Lurz, this production has always lagged behind the successful cotton industry because cotton was easier to process with modern machinery, and he has found a wider application, and it was easier to grow and process.
What was the cause of the economic success that promised to be for Peter Lyursa in the development of the textile industry, but did not take place, it has become more evident in later years when he was in the creation of their textile production took care of all financial costs. He was unable to pay the loans granted to him, as well as to pay his debts on time, it remained only to declare a tender, insolvency in 1859. The personal consequences for him were not as difficult as it seemed, since his former trading companion Ilya Gribanov took over all his debts and his enterprise, as the main creditor on whose land the factory was built.
Ilya Gribanov died a year after the acquisition of the company. However, his son Vladimir inherited the case of his father, and he managed to successfully lead and even multiply it. In the nineties, after Vladimir's death, a joint-stock company was established, but as a result of the Russian revolution in 1918 it became a state enterprise and still exists. Formed on the basis of factory of flax processing enterprise, OJSC "Vologda textile" (Vologda and G. Krasavino) with a full cycle of production - from minced flax to finished fabrics and garments home textiles, one of the largest Russian flax processing enterprises, which is known for high-quality production of linen fabric. For many years, is one of the largest and oldest flax processing enterprises in Russia, the Creator and founder of which is Peter Lurz.
However, at present the company temporarily suspended its activities. We hope that this is a forced stop.
The collapse of the activities of its textile factories is not meant for Peter Lyursa the end of its economic career, although from time to time he conducted speculative transactions, but much remains unknown to us. He opened his own firm under his own name, but it is not clear what exactly he was doing from the sources provided. In any case, the main activity was the trade in flax. Moreover, it is likely in later years was closely associated with Gribanova.
The death certificate of his son Herman, who lived in England and later in Scotland, reports his profession as a "Flax Merchant“, and Peter's profession is referred to as” Flax Shipper", so it can be concluded that his firm mainly specialized in the trade of flax and the transport of flax. The first of January, 1867, he entered the company of his older sons Karl and Herman, the firm did business under the name "Peter Lurz and sons."
Until the end of the sixties some official and public documents indicate that Peter was LWRs in Arkhangelsk and participated in the Archangel branch of the State Bank, the commercial Council, the Committee for control of goods in the port of Arkhangelsk. They show that the life of Peter will again take place in Arkhangelsk. The estate, which he bought in 1850 near the Great Ustyug, he sold in 1871 to his already mentioned relative Christian PEC, who by that time became the mayor (mayor) of the Great Ustyug and for a long time was the commercial Director of the joint-stock company owned by Vladimir Gribanov.
About the last years of the life of Peter Lyursa no knowledge of future home buying and selling land. He died 10 (by the Julian calendar) January 1879 at the age of 72. His tombstone and the tombstone of his wife, who survived him for 20 years, were preserved at the Lutheran cemetery in Arkhangelsk. Abandoned tombs with fallen tombstones were put in order after the end of the era of" communism " by voluntary assistants, who for the most part are looking for their ancestors and the roots of their families. The graves were lovingly restored to the best of their ability.
Burials at the Vologda cemetery. Memorial. Arkhangelsk.
Peter and Caroline (nee PEC), had six children. It is noteworthy and unusual for those times is that the first child was born only six years after marriage. Since the infant and child mortality rate was very high at the time, as was the case in other families, it is possible that the first child could have died early, and this fact has not been documented. The Church books in which to learn the documents, in Arkhangelsk in those days did not exist. But if you look at the other side, Carolina was only 16 when she got married. Then it could be a thoughtful decision about the birth of children. We'll never know.
From six children the third son Alexander Vilgelm, the grandfather of my mother, the only one who lived in Arkhangelsk for a long time. All the other kids left Arkhangelsk and died somewhere in Russia or abroad.
The first eldest child is the daughter of Ernestine born in 1838, married to Edward Marguis (Marquis), who lived in Arkhangelsk pharmacist. Together with him she moved to the Baltic, where he was born. The only thing we know about her is that she was alive in 1903 when her younger brother died.
Two years later, Carl's son was born, as most boys, from those public circles at the time, chose a commercial career. His father in 1867 took him as a companion, as mentioned, in his trading firm "p. Lyurs and sons", and in 1881, two years after his father's death, he opened as a merchant of the 1st Guild his import-export business called"Lyurs and company". Carl Lurs a long time he lived with Alexandra Veselovskaya outside of marriage. She was the daughter of the Russian soldier, along with him, she begot three children. Later, she and her children moved to Petersburg, where, after their official marriage was born four children. In 1894 Carl Luers died in St. Petersburg. The names of his widow and his two sons until 1916 appeared in various telephone directories of St. Petersburg. Then this trace is lost in the whirlwinds of The Russian revolution and during the First world war.
Peter's second son, born in 1842, Herman, who became a companion in his father's firm, by which time he was two years in England, where, as a representative of the company (agent) of his father worked in London. In 1872, he moved his business from London to Dundee, Scotland.
Dundee was a centre for trade in flax in Britain, where Herman Luers, his firm “and G. H. Luers,” was one of the most influential businessmen on linen. He married the Englishwoman Isabella Greig Sewell, he had 8 children in this marriage. He died in 1919 in Broughty Ferri (Scotland), a suburb on the Eastern side of Dundee, while the rich Jute barons settled there ("jute barons") were the most expensive plots of land in the world. His great-grandson Cleve Lurs (Clive Luers), my cousin, has long been trying to compile a complete pedigree of the numerous offspring of Herman Lyursa.
I am grateful to Cleave for the variety of information and interesting photos on the history of the family, which is reflected better in his branch of the family, as his family since the resettlement of his great-grandfather Hermann Lyurs in England, and then in Scotland, remained in the UK for permanent residence.
The second daughter of Peter Julia was born in 1845, also died in England. She married Wilhelm Christian Meyer, from the Archangel of the family Meyer, from which the Alma Meyer, the mother of my mother. The William H. Meyer, describes how his brother, from his youth was a true Anglophile, who had all the look of a man from England. In 1872, when his son Herman Luers brought his business on linen from London to Dundee, he moved as an agent (representative) of the company "Gribanov, Fontaines and company" in London. Later he was acting alone, and his wife after his death moved to a small estate Sussex (historical County in Southeast England), where he spent his entire life surrounded by many servants. From her will, in which she took care of their loved ones, relatives and a large domestic servant, you can find out that her husband was a successful businessman. They had no children.
Alexander Wilhelm, the third son of Peter Lyurs and my mother's grandfather, is reported in the next Chapter.
Very little is known about George, the youngest and last son of Peter and Carolina Lyurs, who was born in 1853, seven years after his brother Alexander (one Russian source cites 1856 as the year of his birth, but it is probably a mistake). He, like his brother, studied at an Evangelical Church school in Arkhangelsk, and then passed commercial training, as he later appears with the rank of merchant of 1 Guild. Likely he was, at least in the business of flax partly companion of his brother Herman in Dundee, as the name implies local company “H. and G. Luers", where the letter " G "probably means"Georg". Documented it is known only on his death. He died on 21.12.1903 in Hong Kong at the age of 50, and was buried there. There is also a photo of his grave. These data are given in the death certificate on the company " Cashier Lindholn and Co” (so!). This is consistent with the alleged his participation in the company on linen with his brother, Herman, we don't know.
Alexander William Luers (1846-1884) and Emma Lyurs, nee Scholz (1850-1921), grandpa and grandma, my mom, and their family.
Alexander William Luers, my mother's grandfather, was born November 2 (Church calendar) 1846, the fifth child of Peter and Caroline Lurs in Arkhangelsk (date of birth 26.XI.1846 on the remaining tombstone is, most likely, wrong. His life is much less reported than his father's. The reason, in my opinion, is simple: he was almost two times less years than his father, when in 1884 he died at the age of 37 years, survived his father only for 5 years. At that time, his children were too small, the eldest was 11 years old, and the youngest was 1 year old. When my mother, his granddaughter, was born in 1914, her grandfather was 30 years old. There are almost no personal memories of him passed down from generation to generation.
Like most boys of a similar lifestyle families, Alexander first studied at an Evangelical Church school in the city of Arkhangelsk, and then received a commercial education, and what the firm was trained is unknown. When his father decided in 1866 to take his sons Carl and Herman companions to his firm, the third son Alexander was only 20 years old. Whether his age was a decisive factor or whether his father's firm wasn't big enough to provide work and income for three companions, we don't know. Anyway, Alexander as the third son in the paternal firm “P. Luers und Soehne” created in 1867 didn't participate. His commercial career began not in Arkhangelsk, and in the distant Vyatka, today Kirov in various Russian sources it is mentioned as Vyatka merchant of 1 Guild. It is unknown how he got there, and what commercial ties he had in Vyatka. However, his hometown was left Arkhangelsk. There he married Emma Scholz, the daughter of the owner of a major Archangel forest firm, in September 1871. Five years later he was recorded by a merchant of 2 Guild of the city of Arkhangelsk. That he was a respected man of the Archangel society can be learned from the fact that in December 1878 and four years later he was elected to the city Duma, the city Council of Arkhangelsk, a member of which consisted until his early death. He was interested in music and was a gifted man. In the archival documents of the Arkhangelsk alleged that he was the first conductor of the orchestra of the "Society of friends of music."
For their growing family, he bought in 1880 for 3000 rubles by today's standards it was a huge house with many additional buildings on the corner of Olonetskaya street and Trinity Avenue. The house was later transformed into four large apartments. In the spirit of revolutionary transformation in 1920, it was municipalised. In the archives of the Arkhangelsk preserved land documents and construction drawings of the house. Photo of the now defunct house remained in our family in England.
Only after buying this house, Alexander was listed as a merchants Guild 1 Arkhangelsk commercial companies.
Alexander Wilhelm Lyurs was waiting for a promising career, but soon he became seriously ill and died on August 26, 1884, a few weeks before his 38th birthday. What the disease was, from which he died to establish from surviving documents could not ( In all likelihood it was cholera(?).
The Archangel archive I have composed two days before his death his will, which helped create and signed pastor Hansen, the then pastor of the Evangelical community, instead, since at that time Alexander was no longer able himself to write. He approved and signed the will, as pastor Hansen reports: "with a clear consciousness and full of spiritual forces."
The will reads as follows: "since I do not know whether it is the will of the Lord that I may recover from my illness, I want to put my earthly Affairs in order. What I possess in this world is my wealth, acquired by my labour, and so I do not wish any interference from the judges and appoint my beloved wife Emma, nee Scholz, the mother of my children, my only principal heir. I will all your inheritance, namely, the house with all the equipment and utensils, as well as all the documents on the capital of my books, the amount of money on insurance of my life, namely, that it can dispose of all others..... (?).
My biggest pain is that I will not be able to participate in the education of our children. But I know she'll do anything to raise them as kind and honest people. To my beloved son-in-law Mr. Adolf Scholz I ask to fulfill this last will in the future, when I will not, to help my beloved wife in all difficulties and word and deed. Lord, bless her and my dear children!»
Alexander William Luers was hereditary honorary citizen. When his son Adolf Scholz presented his will to the competent court, it was officially established that the entire inheritance is estimated at 25.655 rubles.08kop.
The 20,000 rubles included in this will life insurance were in the personal business of his son-in-law Adolf Scholz. On 5000rubley was estimated the cost of a residential building with a plot of land and all additional buildings. A small balance was in cash. From all this it is clear that Alexander William Luers was not a very rich merchant in Arkhangelsk (was not considered a rich businessman …)
When Alexander died, his 34 year old wife was left with five small children, three girls and two boys. The eldest daughter Agnes 11yrs, her sister Lucia was 10 years old, the youngest daughter Elsa was only a year old. The eldest son, Alexander Edward, father of my mother, after the death of his father, was 7 years old, and the younger brother of Arvid only 3 years. Two daughters, Clara and Maria, died at the age of two years during his father's life, in 1878 and 1882. The gravestone of these two girls, as well as a monument to their father, remained on The Lutheran cemetery of the city of Arkhangelsk.
The shock caused the sudden death of her husband from Her and what challenges she faced, left with three small children, it is difficult to imagine. Her condition worsened due to the fact that it became increasingly apparent that she herself was mentally unstable, if not seriously ill. Her condition was described by different people who knew her, most often in relation to her mental state he used the word "sadness, melancholy". She could never make her own decision. Today, that would mean depression.
What further suppressed and oppressed her was the fact that the Scholz family had already known similar and even worse cases of mental illness. Emma's uncle, Karl Scholz, her father's younger brother, after a perfectly normal youth, at the age of 21, suddenly became ill and showed, as described by his former teacher in his labeled form: "traces of insanity," since living as Untid called it "in a frustrated way of thinking," and finally in 1842, "he was placed in a psychiatric hospital in St. Petersburg."
Also, Clara's older sister Elizabeth, aunt Emma, Untid, was diagnosed with similar symptoms; he wrote in March 1842, "her older sister is showing melancholy and despondency, and as a result she has now gone to St. Petersburg."
As for Emma, Lurs, what feelings she had felt for her the worst part was that her younger son Arvid was also mentally ill that she already had a premonition. His disease was perceived by others in different ways; some perceived him as an epileptic, others thought that a strange crank, which behaves very unusually. But, for younger children, as he recalled my aunt Renata, the eldest sister of my mother, he made a frightening impression.
And his older sister, Agnes, which is often called aggie, was manifested at a later age mental oddities. For several years, Agnes instilled in herself that she could not speak, and only spoke in writing to her loved ones. But it wasn't that long. In a letter dated March 12, 1947, her sister Lucia wrote to my grandmother: "... think only, we have a great joy, eggy talks for 14 days! Think about it, almost 10 years she got better. God grant it to be so!»
Some of the biographies and sketches about Arkhangelsk should observe a certain trend. Similar sad cases and destinies arose from the fact that the social relations that were observed in the limited population, and the closed life of foreigners in Arkhangelsk, led to the fact that for generations cousins married their cousins until almost everyone was in relationship with each other. But, gladly perceived in this context, something that is completely not related to this circle of people, for example, new arrivals or also Russian, was married, as stated, brought "fresh blood" in a closed society. From this point of view, this is possible and fair, but such a General explanation requires caution. For the Scholz family, the above-mentioned social relations do not apply. First Scholz in Arkhangelsk, the merchant Johann Scholtz, came to Arkhangelsk to 1780, of Posen, married to a Brit originally from London, with whom he was not exact relationships. His son Franz, the grandfather of Emma Scholz, married the daughter of a merchant from Hamburg, and, as we know, he had no family ties. But, two of the four children from this marriage, the aforementioned Carl and Elizabeth Scholz, were mentally ill or at least showed clear signs in this direction. As well as in the next two generations of this family, as already mentioned, some family members have observed such a (similar) symptoms, it may be possible to consider this phenomenon hereditary predisposition or heredity as it is explained, witty testified teacher Until in 1841. But it wasn't a inevitability in the lives of children and the following generations shows the fact that these cases remained single, and that in subsequent generations of Emma Scholz/Lors haven't been more cases of mental or mental illness, except as her children, Arvid and Agnes.
After the death of her husband, Emma Lyurs and his five children lived in a house acquired in 1880. She received efficient support from the already aged, but still vigorous mother-in-law Caroline Lurs. Later she settled Emilia PEC, niece of the mother-in-law, and remained there until the death of Emma. She was a regular assistant. When the two older daughters, Agnes and Lucius got married, they also had to live with their families at home mother, the house was so big that everyone had enough space. The sick son of Arvid also lived with them in his mother's house for how long, no one could say. Probably, during the last military years and in troubled times of civil war and allied intervention, he was placed in a shelter in St. Petersburg, where he died in 1919. More accurate information about his last years of his life and his death are not available.
The other four children of Alexander Wilhelm and Emma Lyurs left Russia in 1919/1920 in the same way as many other families who lived in Arkhangelsk. Having overseas roots (of foreign origin). The reason was that they did not see any chance to lead a previous lifestyle, maintain their social status and, above all, they thought that the end of their lives is inevitable.
After the first entry of the Bolshevik government into Arkhangelsk from February to the end of July 1918, some still had hope for military assistance of allies who arrived in Arkhangelsk on August 2 and, as Lenin called it, "supported the counter-revolutionary government". But the government soon turned out to be extremely unstable. After the first major defeats white in the South of Russia in the spring and summer of 1919, and because of the hopeless military situation in the North of Russia, the British government and the rest of the allies (France, USA, etc.) decided to take the Archangel, which was not the main focus in the Civil war. The last British warships left Arkhangelsk 27.09.1919. In parallel with the withdrawal of the allies began the Exodus of many foreign families from the city. Women and children were the first to leave the city. Men, partially, at first remained in the city, as many of them still served in the white army, or hoping on the resistance of the remaining white forces under the leadership of General Miller, who, as it turned out, in vain tried to keep the area around Arkhangelsk, even without the help of the invaders, resisting the advancing red army.
Similarly it happened with children Emma, Lurs. Her eldest daughter Agnes and youngest daughter, Elsa, Arkhangelsk was not unusual, married two brothers from a family of Lindes, Edward and George (often called Jolya). These were the descendants of Johann Heinrich Lindes, who in 1783 was sent as a pastor from Hamburg to Arkhangelsk, and there left behind numerous offspring.
Both brothers fought on the side of the white, and so they waited for the worst with the victory of the Bolsheviks. Thus, their families left Arkhangelsk by steamboat in the autumn of 1919 in the direction of Broughtx Ferri (Scotland, ferry port, suburb on the Eastern side of Dundee), where their cousin Bertram Lyurs, the son of the deceased shortly before their arrival Herman Lyurs. He was able to shelter and help in the future to settle. With them went also a third daughter Lucia with her husband Arthur Pilecki, son of the former Director of the Russian gymnasium in Arkhangelsk, he was from the Baltic. These three families with 8 children (family Pilecki was childless) lived six months in Broughtx Ferri. Arrived at the beginning of 1920, remaining in Arkhangelsk husbands Edward and George Lindesy. After a brief stay in London and Bournemouth (town in Dorset, a beautiful resort on the shores of the English channel), all the profit finally to Hamburg, where he finally settled. Here they met again with the family of their brother-in-law or brother-in-law Alexander Edward Lyurs, my grandfather, who also settled with his family in Hamburg, having got there another way. All four Lurs brothers and sisters are resting today in family crypts at The tonndorf cemetery in Hamburg. Tombstones Pilecki family and the family of George Lindes with their names and dates are not preserved.
Only mother Emma Lyurs the only family Lyurs remained in Arkhangelsk. It already was in the time almost 70 years. She probably could not have one because of her age and her psychological state to decide to change your life and start living again. There she remained, surrounded by the care of faithful Emilia PEC and lived in a house, later confiscated by the Bolsheviks, in three rooms, where she lived with distant relatives.
My grandfather, who had a hard time leaving her alone, later tried to move her to Holland by applying to the Dutch government, where he lived with his family for two years. The petition was granted, but before this intention was fulfilled, it was reported from Russia that Emma Lyurs died in Arkhangelsk on June 19, 1921. As my grandfather writes, she is buried near her husband's grave at the Lutheran cemetery in Arkhangelsk. A headstone was not found, probably it was not, as anyone from that family has remained in Arkhangelsk, who would have to pay for it. In those years it was impossible to erect a monument in the cemetery. Her faithful companion Emilia PEC, whom the children called aunt Mula, later moved to Hamburg and died there in 1942. She is buried in the family grave of Edward and Agnes Lindes.
My grandfather Alexander Edward Lyurs, the eldest son of Alexander Wilhelm Lyurs and his wife Emma, 5th 1905 married Alma Louise Meyer, the eldest daughter of Wilhelm I. Meyer and his wife Jenny, nee guernet. Before you give some details about the life of my mother's parents in Russia, it is necessary to focus on the history of the Arkhangelsk Meyer family, where my grandmother came from.
The family Meyer in Arkhangelsk.
Information on the history of the Archangel family Meyer mostly more known than information on the history of the family Lyurs. Barthold Jacob Benjamin Meyer, the first Meyer, who arrived in Arkhangelsk in 1803, himself compiled a chronicle of his life, where he gives information about the most important dates and events. Details of his childhood and youth, which for years are becoming less and less scarce, until the end only consist of separate dates, and since 1848 completely interrupted. His grandson Alexander Ferdinand Meyer (1842-1913) continued this chronicle, including his own biography and complementing it, however, quite haphazardly and superficially. Thus, the chronicle recycles again, but his grandson Henry Robin Meyer Manfred von ELTZ (1912-2006), these more detailed records of his grandfather and sistematizirovat them with his hand, again according to the dates to the end of his own life trying to complete it. These records I received from him and, thus, this twice augmented chronicle of Bartold Jacob Benjamin Meyer is based mainly on the following information from the history of the Meyer family in Arkhangelsk.
The Barthold Jacob Benjamin Meyer first Meyer in Arkhangelsk (1781-1868) and his family.
The Barthold Jacob Benjamin Meyer – his name was, most likely, Benjamin Meyer, and so I signed up – was descended from an ancient family of Hamburg. He had three brothers and sisters. His grandfather Philip Meyer profession was a pastry chef, his father Benjamin Meyer in 1780 was recorded as a citizen of Hamburg as a host, but for a long time lived on income from his arena (stable) in his estate, which later went bankrupt due to the occupation of Napoleon (Napoleon's army). So he had to sell it below its value.
Parents tried to give their son a good education. So first he studied under three years in private school in house pastor in Mecklenburg, and then has come back in Hamburg, where some time studied under in several schools, but, as he himself said, with small success. So in 1795 at the age of 14 he was given a commercial training, which he completed after 5 and a half years, but he was not satisfied with the training. A further long stay in Frankfurt am main and London is not made clear in his life in terms of what to do next. Sometimes he thought to enter the military service, then he changed his mind and finally returned to Hamburg, where in early 1803 he entered the service of the broker for chartering ships. Soon after that, he accidentally met with an Arkhangelsk businessman, who just stopped in Hamburg, which helped to take the place that had just been vacated, and for three years he worked in the company "S. A. Rodde and Co" in Arkhangelsk. "In the morning I did not expect any changes and within an hour was invited to work in Arkhangelsk"-says Benjamin Meyer about this amazing turn in his life.
Similar stories have occurred with other young people, as Arkhangelsk commercial firms have shown great interest in the young, budding educated businessmen. After serving for three years at the firm, Benjamin Meyer came back through St. Petersburg and lübeck to Hamburg. He was going through a big win in Lotto, which he organized in Arkhangelsk, to start your own company in Hamburg. The occupation of Hamburg by the French in November 1806, in the framework of Napoleon's blockade of the continent, and the blockade of the Elbe by the British as a response, had an adverse impact on the plans for the founding of the company, as the sea trade in Hamburg at that time was hopeless.
In 1807 he returned to Arkhangelsk and stayed there until his death, having lived in Arkhangelsk for 60 years. On return from months-long, full of adventure, business travel, on behalf of the Arkhangelsk company, to the Peninsula of Kola, during which he was confrontional directly with the practices of the British naval blockade, he married in December 1810, to Margaret Elizabeth Gernet, daughter of deceased in 1807 Arkhangelsk businessman Peter Gernet.
The descendants of Peter guernet, who was born in revel (present-day Tallinn) and in 1765 a young man came and settled in Arkhangelsk, will appear many times in the pedigree of the Meyer family, in the same way in the already mentioned Scholz family.
After his marriage Benjamin Meyer created his own small ship chartering business in 1811, but quite successful. Who over and above his expectations brought him the right income. The following year, at the request of the Arkhangelsk circle of merchants, he took the seat of a dispatcher in Arkhangelsk. The task of the dispatcher, often referred to as the emergency Commissioner, is to investigate the occurrence of losses during transport by sea and to regulate, on behalf of the participating loss allocation plan. Due to the fact that this institution was transferred to public administration, Benjamin Meyer in September 1812 became a Russian citizen and thus became a state citizen of Russia.
Since 1815, Benjamin Meyer's records have become shorter and contain mostly only dates of birth, baptism, confirmation, and some important events in the lives of children and grandchildren. About his own life records little. So in 1822 it is briefly told that this year it became the broker on chartering of sea vessels and it is chosen by the adviser in City Council. In 1830, he held a position in the firm “Clark, Morgan and Co “, in which he worked according to his grandson until his death, although as noted by the grandson, in his last years of life was no longer able to work. In the early forties the letters of the teacher Untidy Benjamin Meyer described as "old Meyer, who has already grown old and quickly rolls down the mountain".
But that he was considered a respected and worthy member of the Archangel society, evidenced by the fact that in addition to the previous activities of the City Council, he was selected in 1840 the member of the Arkhangelsk commercial court. He also helped the Church all his life, entering its various departments. For example, he was a member of the aforementioned Church Assembly from 1863, which was developed by the new Board of the Church for the Evangelical community of Arkhangelsk. In 1841, he was elected Chairman of the Church community and, finally, in 1845, he was elected head of the Church. At the same time, we do not know exactly what tasks and functions are associated with these ranks and services. During these years he was awarded the title "honorary patron of the community" for his Church services.At the ripe old age of 86 years Benjamin Meyer died on 12 Jan 1868 in Arkhangelsk. As noted by his grandson AF Meyer in continuation of his Chronicle, he left his offspring no significant wealth, except for his home.
From Benjamin Meyer and his wife Margaret had ten children. Three of the first four children died in infancy, as the infant mortality rate in the Arkhangelsk foreign colony was quite high at the time. My parents still have seven children whom they brought up three boys and four girls.
In his letters repeatedly referred to the teacher is reported in its ironic tone about "four girls Meyer", "His daughter (the old Meijer) are independent. They should, as it is commonly done by many young girls their age, place network, I hope not in vain." Two of them, Julia and Emilia, in the family circle their name was Olsen (Julochka) and Emma remained unmarried. However, in the Arkhangelsk colony left a vivid mark: from a small private primary school under the leadership of Julia and the assistance of her sister Emma, this school has become a well-known public primary school, in which almost all the children of the German colony received primary education before they entered Church school. In addition, with their income, the sisters maintained their younger brother Alexander for a long time until his death in 1890. After Emma's death in 1889, the school was run for several years by Julia until it was closed in the early twentieth century. In her last years, Julia received a pension from the German community and died at an advanced age in 1906 at the age of 80 years.
Based on the fact that the children died early, it is believed that the eldest son of Benjamin Meyer was Carl Christian Meyer, who after years of commercial activity in various firms in Norway, Onega and St. Petersburg from the forties was a leading and successful in the economy employee of the firm "Gribanov, Fonteynes and Co" in Arkhangelsk. He also played a significant role in the political life of Arkhangelsk. In the sixties, he was Consul of Hanover, German Consul and briefly served as Consul of Bremen in Arkhangelsk. In 1870, he was elected for the first time, and in the eighties again, the mayor (mayor) of Arkhangelsk. In this office, he could and should have participated in 1883 in the solemn meeting of the Emperor of all Russia Alexander III, "however, for his money," as edko says his grandson, as the city Treasury was empty, and therefore the city could not help him financially. In 1888 at the age of 74 years, Carl Christian Meyer died in Arkhangelsk.
Carl Christian Meyer was married twice, and he had eleven children, eight from his first marriage. The second oldest, born in 1840, son from his first marriage, Wilhelm Christian Meyer, and appears in the family chronicle Lussow, namely, as wife of the daughters of Peter Lyursa Julia Lurs. They moved to England, where both became naturalized (took the citizenship of another country, in this case – England), were childless, and died there. It was the first direct relationship between the Lurs and Meyer families.
Already mentioned third son from the first marriage, Alexander Ferdinand Meyer, we are grateful for the continuation of the Chronicle of his grandfather Benjamin Meyer, as it is thanks to this that most of the facts from the history of the family Meyer in the second half of the NINETEENTH century. For a long time in his notes, he acted very critically in his medical profession. Finally, he was a railroad doctor and a quarantine doctor in BOLDERAYA (lat. Bolderaja). The town is located near Riga (Kurzeme district of Riga, on the left Bank of Daugava). At the end of his life he chose his place of residence with his family in Riga.
Based on the fact that three boys died early, the second oldest son was Wilhelm Heinrich Meyer, my mother's great-grandfather.
Wilhelm Heinrich Meyer (1817-1848), my mother's great-grandfather and his family.
Wilhelm Heinrich Meyer was born on may 21, 1817 as The fifth child in the Meyer family. In the pedigree of the family it appears as Wilhelm Heinrich Meyer second, because already a year ago before his birth he lost his little brother, who was baptized under this name. It was the fourth child of Benjamin Meyer. Some seem unacceptable strange decision to give the newly born son the name of only his dead brother, but this family happened twice. The last son born in 1829 was named Alexander, and Alexander was already the second son of Benjamin Meyer, who died at the age of seven in 1820.
Wilhelm Heinrich Meyer did not engage, like most young people from similar families, in commercial activities, but chose the profession of pharmacist. In 1831, he enrolled as a student at Schiller's pharmacy in Arkhangelsk. After studying for three and a half years, he went to Derpt (Dorpat, now Tartu) to pass the exam for assistant pharmacist. In 1835, he passed the exam with honors, but did not return immediately to his profession, and continued to study medicine. After a few semesters in 1837 he graduated. After a short activity as a chemist in St. Petersburg, Arkhangelsk and again in St. Petersburg, he for a short time in 1840 came to what to do with my pharmacist as the druggist. In September 1841 he finally returned to Arkhangelsk and took the lead over the former pharmacy Schiller, whom the father 30 500 rubles bought from his former master teacher for Wilhelm, because the pharmacist left Arkhangelsk. As a pharmacist, Wilhelm established himself in the highest circles of Arkhangelsk. Married three years later on his 16-year-old cousin Louise Antoinette Gernet, whose father Johann (John) Gernet was the mother's brother, Wilhelm. Wilhelm's marriage lasted only an incomplete four years. During the summer of 1848 in Arkhangelsk once again broke out an epidemic of cholera. This epidemic claimed the life of Wilhelm Heinrich Meyer at the age of 31 years. This sudden death of his son was the last entry in Benjamin Meyer's Chronicle, which ends with the mournful event of 1848.
William G. Meyer has left a 21-year-old and pregnant with third child wife Louise Antoinette. A young widow with two small children, three year old daughter Louisa and her two year old son Wilhelm Johann. A third child from this marriage, Henry, was born a few months after his father's death.
Very little is known about the life of Louise and Henry. Louise later married Charles Birze (Charles Birse), presumably English. Children in this marriage not was.
Henry became a pharmacist like his father, and, as shown by the dates of his life, lived only 39 years. From this marriage had a son Johann Wilhelm, who later became the grandfather of my mother.
His mother, Louise Antoinette Meyer, survived her husband for 60 years and died in 1909 at the age of 81. Married after her husband's early death a second time (?). But this marriage, the second husband was from Belgium, did not last long. Johann Kramers died in March 1858, less than 10 years after the death of her first husband.
Martha Hansen, one of the last teachers of the German school in Arkhangelsk, who, as I was able to see, had a phenomenal memory of family events and family dates, could report that from this second marriage there were three children whose names were known, but no other data. Louise Antoinette Kramer, nee Gernet, widow of Meyer's 31 years old, and a second time widowed. Her situation was much more difficult than that of her niece Emma Lyurs, a nee Scholz who had already been discussed. If the widow of 34 years was to take care of five young children, then Luza Antoinette Kramers, remaining a widow of 31 years, had to take care of six children of the same age, of which the oldest child was only 12 years. Without the support of another family, she couldn't handle it.
Wilhelm Johannes Meyer (1846-1911) and Jenny Meyer, nee guernet (1853-1921), grandfather and grandmother of my mother.
Wilhelm Johannes Meyer, my mother's grandfather, was born on 3 October 1846 as the second child of Wilhelm Heinrich Meyer and his wife Louise Antoinette Meyer, nee guernet. He practically did not know his own father, as his father had died, as had already been mentioned, in 1848, when William Johannes was not even two years old. For several years he was raised by his stepfather Johann Kramer, as his mother after the early death of his father, he married a second time. But Johann Kramers died soon after, when Wilhelm was a child. From the age of twelve, he grew up without a father. His cousin Alexander F. Meyer reports that Wilhelm received "usual education", that for Arkhangelsk society of the time could mean, that he, as all children from such families, studied under in German ecclesiastical school.
The difficult situation in which his mother, one of six young children, was brought up, was the reason that he in 1860, together with his cousin Edward Scholz, brother of Emma Scholz, would be sent to a boarding school, namely, in Hollandersche –boarding school in Birkenru under the then city of Wenden in Livonia, now Cesis. Located on the river Gauja, the oldest city in Latvia.
This private school was known as the best educational institution of the Russian Empire and, above all, on the Baltic sea. It was later transformed into a "Tsesisky State school" (Landesgumnasium) of the Livonian knighthood, was founded in 1826 by teacher Albert Holandesa (1796-1868). It was to address, in a sense, as a gymnasium reform, the shortcomings in higher education in the Baltic provinces of the Baltic region. The purpose of the school should be to link scientific education with mental education for later moral and religious life.
Wilhelm Meyer successfully graduated from the secondary course and in 1865 entered the University of Dorpat in Estonia today, where he could do most of the graduates of this school. He chose to study Philology. What subjects were taught there, is not named. However, subjects which he later taught in various schools, it can be concluded that his study subjects were German, history and theology. He's almost nine years he studied in Dorpat and only in 1874 his training "ended the master's degree," explains his brother that William Meier was very active in the public life of the Livonian Corporation, which he joined, and of which he was for a long time. This was founded in 1822 at the University of Dorpat, the Corporation was an Association of students, which included primarily the Baltic Germans then the Russian Baltic provinces. In a narrow sense, Wilhelm Meyer did not belong to the Baltic Germans, however, his family on the maternal side was descended from the Baltic sea, it already mentioned the great-grandfather of Peter Gernet in 1765 arrived in Arkhangelsk from revel (Kolyvan now Tallinn) and for a long time remained in Arkhangelsk.
After passing the exam in 1874 in Derpt received a place of teacher reformation schools in St. Petersburg and taught there in Wiedermannschen-private gymnasium. A year later, in December 1875, he married his cousin Jenny Louise guernet, whose father Johannes guernet (in Russian Ivan Ivanovich guernet) was the elder brother of Wilhelm's mother and a successful businessman in Arkhangelsk. In addition, he was Consul of Prussia and Hamburg in Arkhangelsk. In 1868 he became Consul of the North German Union and after the founding of the Empire (Reich) in 1871 he became Consul of The German Reich in Arkhangelsk, in this post remained until his death in 1884.
After five years of teaching in St. Petersburg, where his eldest daughter Alma was born, my grandmother, Wilhelm Meyer returned with his family to Arkhangelsk in 1880, where he began teaching German language, history and religion at the German school.
Then, at the insistence of his father-in-law, he left his teaching career and joined a forestry firm, which in December 1884 he headed as Executive commercial Director, and then handed over the leadership to his wife, who was the sole heir to the father's business (enterprise).
As a businessman, Wilhelm Meyer benefited from the latest decision of his father-in-law, who shortly before his death had a capital of 55,000 rubles. Wilhelm Meyer, together with his Russian partner, founded the forest trade firm Amosov, guernet and the company, which later became one of the largest and most successful companies in Arkhangelsk. That is evidenced by the number of workers 715 people (in 1913) who worked in the company. Wilhelm Meyer and his wife became wealthy people who, with their income and wealth, also by Wilhelm's mother, as well as his half-brother and his family, could be provided, although cousin Alexander F. Meyer noted "nothing was produced." He also noted in his records that social and economic activity was never able to bring satisfaction to Wilhelm Meyer. About the last years of life by Wilhelm Meyer in the new century, he was informed that Wilhelm had suffered a variety of serious diseases, which complicated the life of his wife Jenny. Whether it really was, or Alexander F. Meyer had a tendency to look at some things from the point of view of the doctor, we will never know about it, because there are no other sources.
Similarly, however, it is known that the couple William and Jenny Meyer to the economic and social plan in the coming new century was considered an influential family of the Arkhangelsk society. In 1885, Wilhelm was appointed German Consul in Arkhangelsk as the successor of his son-in-law and retained this position until his death in 1911. In another source it is reported that in 1895 he was elected mayor (mayor) of Arkhangelsk, but refused the post.
Another public Foundation, in which Meyers became famous in their circles, was originally drawn up and preserved invitation in honor of the celebration of their silver wedding, which they sent in December 1900.
"We dare to ask You to be at the ball, which will be held on December 29 at 9 o'clock in the Commercial club on the occasion of our silver wedding, we ask you to honor your presence
William and Jenny Meyer.
Arkhangelsk, December 1900.»
When William died in 1911 in Riga, he left his wife a widow and quite wealthy co-owner of thriving enterprises in the export of wood from which she soon after her husband's death was excluded.
After 36 years of marriage, William and Jenny Meyer had seven children, of whom only three survived, another example of the high infant mortality rate of the time. The eldest daughter Alma, my grandmother, was born in St. Petersburg, the other two, Gertrude under 8 years (in the family called Gerta) and Conrad, under 9 years, were born in Arkhangelsk.
Alexander Edward Lyurs (1847 — 1942), and Alma Louise Lurz, nee Meyer (1876 — 1953), my mother's parents. Their lives and their families before they fled Russia.
Alexander Lyurs and Alma Louise Meyer were married, as already mentioned, in 1905 in Arkhangelsk on the 28th birthday of my grandfather.
They were cousins, brother and sister of the 2nd degree of kinship, and also this marriage is often seen intertwining, and sometimes subtle interweaving of relationships in Arkhangelsk. The grandmother of Alexander E. Lyursa mother's side, was the grandmother of Alma Meyer on the father's side, were brothers and sisters of the three children of the Arkhangelsk merchant John Gernet and his wife Margaret Caroline, nee van Brinen. Then aunt Alexandra E. Lyursa Julia Lurs married Wilhelm Christian Meyer, uncle of Alma Meyer (2nd degree of kinship), has carried out the first direct relationship between the families of lyurs and Meyer. They did not have children. And to illustrate even further the complex diversity of relationships: the sisters of Alexander E. Lyurs, Agnes and Elsa married two brothers from a large Lindes family, and one of the nee Lindes was Alma Meyer's maternal grandmother.
For genealogists, who carefully, if possible, explore the relationships of large families of Arkhangelsk and, accordingly, could graphically depict it, represent a serious challenge to multilateral relationships.
About childhood and adolescence, my mother's parents, about the years until their escape from Russia, especially after the death of their last children, very little is known. Written sources are almost absent. The reason is obvious and simple. When the family was forced to leave Russia because of the Russian revolution and the civil war, there was no way to take many personal belongings with them. And much of what we were able to save and take abroad, namely, personal memorabilia, letters and papers, could not survive the night of the bombing in Hamburg from 26/27 July 1942, during which the house of my mother's family got a bomb and completely destroyed the house.
Thus, the next memory is largely based (rests) on some of the facts and the dates that the Russian relatives and friends helped to find over the past years in the Archives of Arkhangelsk (GAAO), as well as on the personal recollections of relatives mainly from the generation of my mother.
Alexander Eduard Lyurs was born on 6/18 may 1877 as the eldest son of Alexander Wilhelm Lyurs and his wife Emma, nee Scholz, in Arkhangelsk. As his father and his grandfather, he studied at the Evangelical Church school in Arkhangelsk. Then he started to get commercial vocational education in the office of one of the largest forestry firms, which was located to the North of the Arkhangelsk forest was Maimaxa. Probably, and now there is this name. Maybe it was founded in 1856 forest firm (stock exchange) by Scholz, now it was under the leadership of uncle Alexander Adolf Scholz, and in which early deceased father Alexander had his share (several shares). In his already mentioned will, the father asked his brother-in-law to help in word and deed to his wife Emma, sister of Adolf, it so happened, Adolf complied with his request. Adolf helped his nephew Alexander get an education, and then gave him a place in his firm. In 1898 my grandfather was supposed to travel on official business of the firm for some time in London. It was a joyous occasion for him. He had previously visited England and Scotland, where his aunt Julia Meyer, née Lurs, and his uncle Herman Luers, my mother's brother recalled that he heard about it. In any case, it can be explained that my grandfather spoke English well, and from the twenties of the twentieth century business correspondence, which he led in English, remained. In what firm he received commercial education it isn't known. In 1901, at the age of 24 years he became co-Director of the forest company Scholz in Maimaksa, which he directed together with his uncle Adolf Holzem and his son Adolf, together they carried out the business practices. When his uncle Scholz died in June 1918, my grandfather assumed the role of managing Director of the firm.
In the twenties my grandfather represented interests of shareholders of this firm in which before world war I nearly 900 people worked. In London banks and the proceedings in the courts of England it was a question of whether the firm is international law or has become a state during the Russian revolution. The legal solution to this issue depended on whether the owners of the firm had access to significant property, while the deposits were mostly placed in English banks. With 12/90 shares in the firm, my grandfather was second only to the widow of the deceased Adolf Scholz.
When Alexander Eduard Lyurs married my future grandmother Alma Meyer in 1905, he was co-Director of the successful forest firm Scholz, and in this capacity he became a strong member of the commercial and business circles of the Arkhangelsk society. As a direct descendant of Peter Lyursa he was awarded the title "Honorary hereditary citizen" and, finally, in the last years of his life in Russia he belonged to the Guild 1 Arkhangelsk merchants.
His future wife, Alma Louise Meyer, was the eldest daughter of Wilhelm I. Meyer and his wife Jenny, nee guernet, born in St. Petersburg. Wilhelm I. Meyer was considered a very successful businessman, was thanks to his wife co-owner of one of the largest Arkhangelsk forest companies, owned three houses in the center of the "German settlement" and enjoyed authority as a German Consul. Therefore it is not surprising that besides his very attractive daughter was considered as exclusively good party in public circles of Arkhangelsk.
Based on the modern point of view, it belonged to a special species, which today is extremely rare. Girls, daughters of affluent parents from a wealthy home, such as her, could not attend a private or ecclesiastical school and were often taught by home teachers. Often, to broaden their horizons, they were sent abroad for a while so that they could take part in excursions, balls and other similar entertainments in a circle of the same-minded, that is, with similar people. Practical activities and skills played a minor role here; all this was done in the first place, the numerous staff of servants, contained in the house. The future of vocational education were given in rare cases. Only girls who remained unmarried later received a profession or some work in the profession, mostly they served as educators, economizers or, if their qualification allowed, worked as teachers. Most of the girls and young women in this community married very young, and they had many children, of whom, however, many died in childhood, as already mentioned many times, and became burdened with concerns (multi-employed) mothers and exemplary spouses.
The life of my grandmother corresponded to a bit that way. Whether she attended school, when and what, or received home education, this is not reported anywhere, and records of girls ' lives, especially archival documents, were very limited. Since it usually contained factual data and events from the life of the business and profession, such as buying a house or selling it, the Foundation of firms and their participants, business travel, the conclusion of trade agreements, transactions and other similar documents. And this world at that time was exclusively a male domain.
My uncle, Otto Lurs, and remember that my grandmother as a young girl spent some time abroad, specifically in Kiel or near Kiel, and for a long time corresponded with the daughter of host family, Alma Myerson. From this correspondence there are two letters to my grandmother. What could be saved of the time, only a few with the dedication and photos.
When my grandmother got married, she was already 28 years old, for the Archangel society quite overripe bride. Her husband was a few months younger than her, which also did not correspond to the usual household of the time. However, so happened, the next 14 years the family lived in Arkhangelsk, they had seven children, four boys and three girls: Herbert (1907); Renata (1909); Alex (1910); Erich (1912), Magda — my mother (1914); Otto (1915) and Elsa (1917). In 1923 in Germany was born the eighth child, a girl, Gertrude, Trudy, for that was her name in the family.
Until my grandfather and grandmother got married, my grandfather didn't have his own house. He probably lived with his mom and with his brothers and sisters in a fairly spacious house that his father bought 25 years ago for his family. Both his older sisters were already married and lived with their husbands. When his grandfather married, Agnes's eldest daughter had three children. Therefore, my grandfather settled with his wife in the largest of the three houses that belonged to his father-in-law. The family called this house" Consulate", not only because his father-in-law was a German Consul, but also because this house, representative and large, as my elder aunt recalled, housed an English Consulate.
Five older brothers and sisters (right to left) Herbert, Renata, Alex, Fritz and Magda were my mother (1915).
Right next to the Consulate was a small house, in Russian-a wing, here after marriage lived in 1908, Gerta, my grandmother's younger sister, with his family. She was married to Dutch merchant Anton Hoogendijk, who worked in Siberia as a fur buying agent for the American-canadian company Hudson Bay company and was often absent for a long time because of long business trips. In this family there were eight children, of approximately the same age that Lurav. During the revolution Hoogendijks family left Russia. After years of stay in Haarlem, a city in the West of the Netherlands, the capital of the province of North Holland, the port on the river Sparne, 20 km West of Amsterdam, near the coastal dunes, moved to Canada. Where they, as seen from their letters, led a very difficult and unstable (changeable) life. Herta died in 1950 in Canada.
Trinity on the Avenue, separated by a garden from "the Consulate" was the house of the pastor of the German Church, a large two-storeyed wooden building, which formerly belonged to Peter Lurs. In this house from 1912-1915 was my second grandfather pastor Hugo Wilhelm Krause and his wife, Elspeth., nee will bostrem with their five children: Irmgard, Dietrich (my father), Behrend, Walter and Helmut. The two older were born in Estonia, where he was born, the family, the two youngest were born in Arkhangelsk.
Pastor Krause studied theology, after graduation he worked in his hometown of Fellina (Viljandi nem).Fellin-unofficially Naz. The summer capital of Estonia, the most beautiful resort town, from Tallinn 161km, from pärnu 97km) in Estonia, teacher theologian, and then after the death of his Archangelsk predecessor pastor Bock was sent by the pastor to the German Evangelical Church in Arkhangelsk. His wife, Elzbeth, was the head of the Church kindergarten, which was created by her husband, and also taught at the German Church school.
The eldest daughter Irmgard, which in the forties of the twentieth century was quite detailed and heartfelt message about his childhood in Arkhangelsk, played often with the eldest daughter of Lyurs Renata and was able to report terrible things about his elder brother Herbert, especially about how he brazenly behaved in relation to the Russian servant. Pastoral daughters and cousin of the children Lyurs, Yevhen Fraser, nee Scholz, who wrote an interesting book about the history of her family and about her own childhood in Arkhangelsk confirm that this is no fiction. This book has become a bestseller in England for some time. She reminisced about the amazing festive celebration on the occasion of the birthday of the family Lussow, during which time named Herbert jumped on the festively decorated table and kicked the feet of the cake so that he fell to the floor. This case E. Fraser, of course, not described, not reflected in his book, although many children this incident made a lasting impression. Herbert's older sisters, according to stories preserved in family stories, also did not differ in angelic character.
After three years as a pastor in Arkhangelsk, my grandfather Krause fell ill with typhus in winter 1914/1915 and died there on February 20, 1915. One of his last service ordinances was my mother's baptism in July 1914. No one at that time could not imagine that 25 years later she would become his daughter-in-law.
After the death of her husband, grandmother Krause returned with five children to Estonia, where she remained until the resettlement of the Baltic Germans in 1939. She carried the coffin of her husband in Estonia and they buried him in the cemetery in Felline.
Five children of Hugo and Elizabeth Krause, Irmgard, Dietrich (my father), Behrend, Walter and Helmut. ((Fellini, CA. 1921)
When the Consulate house was occupied by British allies during the intervention, my mother's family moved across the street to Meyer's third house, where Jenny Meyer's grandmother lived. Her husband died in 1911, whether in this house or in the "Consulate" is unknown. This third house of Meyer, whose garden bordered on the land of the site of the German Church, as my aunt Renata recalled, was smaller than the house of the "Consulate", but had a large garden, greenhouse, stables and barn, because my grandmother had many horses and pigs. Thus, in her house there were a lot of staff: a servant Peter, coachman Alex, the gardener, Matthew, and 2 cooks. When Lyurs moved into her house, a nanny for Lyurs ' children was hired. The atmosphere of life that resembled 19th-century Russian novels suddenly changed as a result of revolution, civil war and intervention.
As the subsequent circumstances of time determine life, can change or destroy, clearly traced to the life of my grandmother's brother, Conrad Meyer and his wife. Conrad was born in 1893 and was 17 years younger than my grandmother, attended the German private school in Dorpat (now Tartu), where the teaching led program of the St. Petersburg high school, where he completed his training in 1910. After one, maybe two or three semesters interrupted the study of history, and then studied law from 1913-1917 year, probably also in Dorpat. If he has finished his education in the law, we do not know. As told in the family circle, he treated serious study was considered a spoiled, rich young man, the idler. In 1917 he returned to Arkhangelsk, and there, in 1918-1919 he was drafted into the army of General Miller, who was supposed to defend the North and Arkhangelsk from the advancing red Army. In Arkhangelsk, he met a young Polish woman Natasha Galina Kvyatkovskaya, who, after the outbreak of world war I, together with her mother, fled Warsaw to Arkhangelsk from German troops. Conrad married her, she was expecting a baby from him. When the allies left Arkhangelsk in 1919, Conrad's wife left the dangerous city and fled to the West, probably back to Poland. Born girl called hell, most likely she gave birth to her after fleeing from Arkhangelsk. Thus, the father never saw the child.
In 1923 Conrad's wife appeared for some time in the family of her mother-in-law Hoogendijk in Holland. She was confused, didn't know how to move on. She really wanted to go back to Conrad to Russia, but wasn't sure how to do this in practice and had no idea how the rest of her relations with Konrad. Conrad was probably against her original plans and stayed in Arkhangelsk after the departure of her last allies. He could not leave or would not, because he had an affair with another woman. There he even married a second time, this could only assume both of his sisters, as can be seen from their correspondence. Soon their contact with the brother was interrupted, first of all because during Stalin's reign it was too dangerous to maintain contacts with abroad. In 1923, he tried in vain through his Dever Hoogendijk to get a place in” Hudson Bay company " in Russia, because the company's business in Russia was completely collapsed. In 1924, he was listed as a member of the "unemployed" community, but according to his friend Alexander Fontaines, he was forced to work for a while as a chemist for the extraction of iodine on the Solovetsky Islands, which are located at the mouth of the Dvina river in the White sea. In the mid-thirties finally, Conrad Meyer was one of the first in the long list of the accused in the process against the so-called espionage case Wiklund Norwegian Consul in Arkhangelsk. Conrad was arrested in 1935 and sentenced in 1936 to 10 years of forced labour, of which he only survived two years: in Gulag/ Ukhto-Pechora camp, chibyu settlement in modern Ukhta, he died in 1938 at the age of 45.
Conrad's wife Natalia Galina Kvyatkovskaya for a long time did not know anything about Conrad, divorced and married twice, First for a pole by the name of Vasilevsky, and then for an Englishman by the name of Borkovsky. Husbands died quite early so Natalya remained in Warsaw in very constrained conditions with two sons, from the second marriage, on hands.
Her eldest niece, my aunt Renata, Lurs, sent her parcels regularly, and visited her in the late seventies of the XX century in Warsaw. Before that, she saw her aunt during world war II in Warsaw, where Renata, who spoke Russian well, served as an interpreter in Poland in the German Wehrmacht (in the German armed forces). On that occasion she also met up with his cousin Ada, daughter of Natalia and Konrad, who behaved towards her rather sharply and detached, they could not then understand. The reason for this behavior was clarified later. Ada and her husband were actively involved in the Polish Resistance against the German occupiers.
According to Alexander des Fontaines, they were both shot by German soldiers on 15 October 1942. Other reports indicate that Ada was hanged by German soldiers on the street.
Differently, than her brother Conrad, my grandmother arrived, having left Arkhangelsk by sea, then she had seven children, as at the majority of women of "German colony", at once with retreat of allied army of invaders. He keeps her passport, from which you can find the stop for the trip, as well as a certificate that was issued by the provisional government in Arkhangelsk, allowing my grandmother to take abroad some gold and silver items.
In total, the voyage lasted almost three weeks, and passed through vardø at the extreme North-East of Norway (23 Sep 1919); Bergen, where they stayed from 29 September 1919 and after a short intermediate stop at Rotterdam, 13th October 1919. From there they went to Haarlem (Harlem), where he was waiting for her family Hoogendijk, the family of the sister of my grandmother, who had left the Archangel a bit earlier. My grandfather who still remained in Arkhangelsk, as well as many other men. From Arkhangelsk he left only for the last seconds in February 1920. Both his son-in-law, Edward and George, Lurs, who fought on the side of the whites, took place on Board the icebreaker "Kozma Minin", which became the salvation for many, because it was probably the last ship that managed to get out from Arkhangelsk before joining the red Army.
Since my grandfather, being the eldest son of a widow, was not subject to conscription and therefore was not able to get a place on this ship, he tried to get on this ship, get a Stoker, just to leave Arkhangelsk. When leaving the Harbor, the ship was shelled by parts of the red Army.
The reason for my grandmother's departure with all the children in the passport was "to educate her children"; this decision opened all opportunities for the future. In fact, my grandfather, and above all his son-in-law Anton Hoogendijk, hoped for a long time, as it is obvious from their correspondence that the Russian revolution for a short time and they will be able in the near future to return to their "old homeland" and continue their work there. But it was a vain hope that we know today.
Family. Holland before the end of time learning with my mom (1919 -1933.)
For obvious reasons, the places to escape for the most part of large families and family unions (clans), who left Russia during and after the revolution, often chosen countries and places where relatives lived, which could help in the above-mentioned unusual conditions. So the families of my grandfather's sisters, both Lindes families and Pilacki couple arrived first for a few months at Broughty Ferri (Scotland), where her uncle Herman Lyurs's family lived, who had settled there since 1872 as a flax seller for a long time. Only a few months before their arrival, Herman Luers died. His family and, above all, his son Bertram with a high degree of willingness to help, accepted their relatives who so suddenly arrived from Russia, a total of 14 people.
My grandmother with seven children, who were from one year to 12 years, did not go neither to Scotland nor to England, where lived an aunt of the family, Lurs, Julia Meyer, née Lors, in a fairly prosperous condition. She went to Holland to the family of her sister Hertha, who was married to a fursman Anton Hoogendijk. Hoogendijks family left Arkhangelsk earlier and settled in Harlem. Here on the street Zomerluststraat house 20 and stopped Lyurs family for almost 2 years. The son of a pastor Arkhangelsk communities, Fritz Burnell, too, has left from Arkhangelsk along with Lurani, and lived during these years together with them, to some extent it is even considered a family member.
My mother's older brothers and sisters, and later also her younger brother Otto, studied in the usual Dutch schools of Harlem (Haarlem, in Russian texts is often transliterated as Harlem, a Dutch city in the West of the Netherlands, located 17km from Amsterdam). For my mother, who at that time was 5 years old, and besides she was a very timid (shy) child, was assigned a home teacher freulein (unmarried woman or girl in Germany) Geveke from Hanover. My mom couldn't have known much about this time, nor could she have told me about it. She could only remember the Indonesian servant Dahlan of neighbor Bigel because he had made a great impression on her. According to my mother's memoirs, her father lived little or not at all in Harlem. Anyway, for a long time he stayed in London (England) where he had to decide commercial cases with its activities as a commercial Director Maimaksa forestry firms Scholz, who was in Maimaksa at Archangel. He was the second largest shareholder in the firm. First of all, it was a rather difficult question whether the company after the revolution will be considered as a state and thus the sole owner of the company will be the state and so respectively serviced, or, as and when former shareholders will have access to movable property in monetary terms, which is in British banks in large amounts. The question then arose as to the extent to which my grandfather could be recognized as managing Director of managing director as the sole negotiator on the part of the firm. The negotiations went on for a painfully long time, until finally ended in 1926 by a compromise agreement in which most of the available money under certain conditions was awarded to former shareholders. What specific amounts were discussed in the available documents is not reported. But the contract itself and the legal expertise on the basis of the contract remained.
My mother's impression that my grandfather did not live in Haarlem should be seen as the point of view of a child who suffered from the fact that he had not seen his father for a long time. This impression does not correspond to the facts. Most of the personal and commercial (business) correspondence of my grandfather from those two years, as can be seen from the surviving papers, refers to Harlem.
A year after the arrival of the family Lyurs in Holland, took place departure grandmother Meyer from Arkhangelsk. She was unable to leave with my grandmother's family due to health problems. Now she also traveled by sea through Norway and arrived in November 1920 in Haarlem, where she also found refuge in the family of my grandmother's sister. She was 67 years old, and she couldn't start a new life. Five months later, she died on 24 March 1921 in Harlem.
Attempt by my grandfather to take his mother from Arkhangelsk to Holland also did not materialize. Her trip was already approved, she had already received permission to travel to Holland, but on June 19, 1921 she died in Arkhangelsk before she was able to carry out her plans. So, shortly before his birth at the age of seven, my mother had no grandmothers or grandfathers.
Two years later, the family lived in Holland, from his grandfather suddenly came a telegram with the message that he bought a house in Hamburg in the urban district of Wandsbek.
He is also from Russia had invested the money in the Bank of England. More precisely about this not knew nor his wife, nor his children. On commercial Affairs, he recalled how my mother, the family never openly said Allen was a purely masculine affair, in which the wife is not dedicated.
The family moved to Hamburg (town of Hamburg, a suburb of Hamburg) 14 Nov 1921 in Harlem and immediately received bad news. Bargain on the house were immediately cancelled. The house was bought by my grandfather from Yugoslavia, as it turned out, which is repeatedly "captured". That's why the trial started, which my grandfather lost. But, the saleswoman of the house had to pay court costs. Later my grandfather explained to my mother that he had no papers in order. The whole family after fleeing from Russia was considered not having citizenship of the country in which they arrived, and only later in 1928 she received a so-called "Nansen passport" (In 1921year under the auspices of the League of Nations established a Commission, whose Chairman and Commissioner for Russian refugees (Feb.1921). was Fridtjof Nansen, the famous Norwegian polar Explorer, who introduced to them a special identity, the so-called "Nansen passport", later recognized in the 31st country in the world. Thanks to these certificates, more than 25 thousand refugees were employed (in the USA, Austria, Germany, the Czech Republic, etc.), which was introduced as an international foreign certificate for Russian refugees who do not have citizenship, over time recognized in the 31st country of the world. German citizenship the family received much later, probably only in 1932.
Meanwhile the whole family, including Fritz Barnes and home teacher Fraulein Geweke, have already arrived in Hamburg, she lived almost six months in the hotel "Hof Wandsbek" Landsrecherche square, which cost large sums of money. Finally, my grandfather managed to buy their own home on Wilhelmstrasse,46 (now Titanicheskie) close to the station Wandsbek. In this house lived the divorced first wife of Grand Admiral Raeder (1876 -1960 (*After the Declaration of war in 1939, Raeder wrote in his diary: "Our surface fleet does not remain anything else how to show that he can bravely die." By order of Reder was conducted mining of British waters and launched cruising operations in the Atlantic. Initiated and led the plan for the occupation of Norway ("Weserübung-Nord") , a native of the town of Hamburg in Hamburg, which then went out of the house.
So like my grandmother, because of her different last youth and education, was not a good housekeeper and couldn't cook, two sisters, Erna and Martha Timmermann, both work in the hotel hotel "Landsberger Hof", moved in as housekeeper and cook together with the family of my grandmother on wilhelmstraße. They lived there, on the top floor of the house. In addition, the house worked as a gardener, intended for gardening, and laundress, Mrs. Rat. Much was reminiscent of the previous living conditions in Russia.
Some families from the former Arkhangelsk German "colony" bought a home not far from Hamburg. Son-in-law George (Yale) Lindes, who had married the younger sister of my grandfather's Elsa, with whom grandpa maintained a very close personal and business relationship, lived in close proximity to surviving in today Marienstrasse,14 (now Shaftmasters,48). With them lived a middle sister of my grandfather, Lucius with her husband Arthur Pilecki who have not had their children and five children of Elsa and Spruce were considered to be their children.
In 1923 my grandparents Lyurs born another child, the eighth, it was the girl who in baptism was given the name Gertrude, but everyone called her all his life Tudi. Some of the older brothers and sisters felt the birth of this girls chore, it should be noted this hostile fact. This part of the brothers and sisters believed that poor child is some kind of "invader", "rogues", the "Invader". This belief did not concern all brothers and sisters, first of all, it did not concern the younger ones, who were cordial and caring for the little sister. For a while, the nurse for Tudi became freulein Geweke, but she soon returned home, and instead came another teacher Laura Gramann, also from Hanover.
Since my grandfather did not recognize ordinary public schools in Germany and considered the best private schools, Erich, Otto and my mother had been studying in private schools in Hamburg since 1921, which at that time were separate for boys and girls. My mother went every day with his younger brother Otto on the train to Rahlstedt (Hamburg Rahlstedt), he school Angelica Schultz, she's in a private school of Mrs. Prange, where she was admitted directly to the second class. She believed the school and teachers are terrible, were rather timid and once from fear even describe. She was also ashamed of her thick cotton coat because other children looked at her in this coat with interest, and her older brothers and sisters called her because of this coat "man" (in Russian means peasant). A year and a half my mother and Otto had left the school in Rahlstedt. Otto and his brother Erich went to Schmidt's private school in Eilenau for two years, where he was able to jump through the classroom. Since 1925, all four brothers went together to The real kirchenpauer gymnasium at Landver station.
My mother in 1923 he was enrolled in Andbecause the Lyceum, where it was defined in the seventh class (the reference class of the time was very different than today). There she met Liselotte Hartmann, who became her friend for life, who after her marriage was called Neubuser. We children always called her as "aunt Lil".
My mother later became even the godmother of her eldest son jürgen. Lyceum, the present-day school Charlotte, Poulsen in the Center, in which myself through the decades for some time he studied and graduated as rivendare (Intern; teacher or lawyer in the preparatory service before the second exam), was initially only school to grade 10 (current calculation). Then was transformed into the higher the Lyceum up to the exam for matriculation. In this school previously failed Renata, the eldest sister of my mother. She was very talented for languages, but everything else was pretty stubborn and willful, clashed with everyone, if it did not meet its requirements. She had to leave this school. To this school went now my mom and the Easter 1933 passed the examination for matriculation, together with Liselotte Hartmann and her two other friends Irma, Teichmann and Edith Hinge.
About political events of that time – Hitler's capture of the power took place after the end of her final examinations, — this arrival to the power didn't really affect their family as she remembered. They lived in the Center is quite isolated from the outside world, mostly in the circle who settled there the inhabitants of Arkhangelsk. Regarding her school education of that time, my mother remembered that in her class there were Jewish girls, but she had no close contacts with them.
My grandparents Lyurs (Summer 1926 in bad Nenndorf (Bad Nenndorf ) – sulfur resort is located near Hannover)
All eight children of the family lived at that time together in the house in the Center, as well as the eldest son, Herbert, who diligently studied law in Hamburg. Between him and Herbert, as a child in Russia, were often very intemperate, and sometimes bold, and my grandfather was always a very strained relationship that sometimes ended in major confrontations. My gentle and kind grandmother, from which no one has ever heard an unkind or hurtful words, the next morning secretly hid in a pot of Breakfast (Breakfast Burger) for your Gerbini, so that the enraged father did not notice it.
In financial terms, family Affairs in those years were not very good. Due to monetary difficulties, the upper floors of the house were rented out. Among the employers was Mrs. Zerno with her adopted daughter Greta. Otto, although a great student, even jumped one class, for financial reasons, had to leave the gymnasium in 1932, and after a one-year study at the Higher trade school, received a commercial education in the import-export company. My mom, too, like Otto, had to leave school for financial reasons. Only thanks to the requests (petitions) of her teachers did she manage to finish her studies at school.
These economic problems and financial difficulties have never been openly discussed in the family. Only occasionally my mother and her brothers and sisters later recalled this life.
So my grandfather, along with his son-in-law Georg (El) Lindes, probably in 1924, founded a small shipping company, called it the firm "Nordische Handels und Ruderei Gesellschaft" "Northern trade shipping company", and its location is decorated in Hamburg on the New Shaft-10. But it did not have economic success and soon ceased to exist.
After lien removal (unlock) in 1926 with money accounts of its joint ownership of Maimaksa Arkhangelsk forest firms, the grandfather put the money in as co-investors in the production of the Hamburg brewery, it was probably brewery Bostelmann, one of the oldest Breweries of Hamburg, the result of which had large pecuniary losses. These losses were associated with the global economic crisis of 1929, which led to the collapse of all economic life in Germany and Europe. From these failures and the loss of my grandfather never was able to recover. In 1936, he engaged in a very modest business with automatic machines, which was not very profitable business, and for the previously successful businessman even unpleasant. Low incomes and control over the work of machines in baths (baths) did not satisfy him. Finally, he got a good place (position) in the financial institution of Hamburg on Steinstrasse, which helped him find his son-in-law Georg Lindes. According to Otto grandpa felt good again, happy and, above all, was certain in economic terms.
During these past years, neither he nor his wife and children were insured.
My mom's life, after finishing her studies until the end of the Second world war (1933 – 1945)
After passing the matriculation exams, my mother had no idea what she could do specifically, and what profession she would like to choose. Therefore, she had to go for several months to the existing school — DFAD "Freillige Arbeits Dienst" or "Voluntary labor service" (Female "labor duty" in Nazi Germany ( 1933-1939) - in those days in Nazi Germany (1933-1939) ... girls of 17-25 years of "Aryan origin", who lost their jobs or did not find a job within two years after graduating from school, could join DFAD. 05.01.1931 G. the government of Heinrich Brünning has introduced work obligations for unemployed youth.) or regular women's labor camp in Sacele under the Rotenburg-Wümme. The main occupation was plowing wasteland (uncultivated land). The girls were supposed to be there at the beginning of 20 weeks, then the term was increased to 40 weeks. Here she met, who would later serve for many years to her friend, Inga waltz, with which it in my spare time have made their first long walk in Northern Germany.
After school DFAD mother returned to Hamburg. Clarity about their future lives she has never appeared. For some time it for a couple of pfennigs was carrying a small boy out of the Baumeister family. Along with this, she, at the request of parents, their friend Martha Hansen,who lived near Antonstrasse,8 (now Nenne, 9), took lessons of the Russian language, to improve it.
That Martha Hansen called all Arkhangelsk "Hansi" or "aunt Hansi," was, despite his modesty and boundless willingness to extend all help, important person and a meeting place for all Arkhangelsk, living in Hamburg. She was single. Before her flight from Russia, she worked for many years as a teacher at a German Church school, was a close friend and colleague of my grandmother Krause, and became the head of a kindergarten founded by a Church school after her grandmother's departure to Estonia in 1915. This garden was founded by my grandfather, pastor Krause. Since then, she has been interested not only because of her profession, but also because of love for people, families, all Germans living in Arkhangelsk, their Chronicles (history) and their family relations. For a long time, having a phenomenal memory, it became a walking help Desk for all who addressed it on the message on the branched network of personal relationships, history of families of Arkhangelsk, and everyone learned something interesting about the family, and also learned about the related communications. Although Hansen lived in Hamburg for over 40 years, she seemed to me to be in her thoughts and feelings in Russia, which she considered her Homeland. In Germany, she was a stranger. When she died in 1968, all who knew her closer, he felt a great loss. With the departure of her life still living in Hamburg Archangelsk and their descendants have lost an important link with the Russian past.
After an eventful life on November 28, 1968 our beloved, kind and revered by all March Ingeborg Hansen died. Born on 9 October 1885 in Arkhangelsk, deeply mourn those who were tied to the old Motherland
Funeral on Thursday 5th December 1968 at 12 o'clock at The tonndorf cemetery in Hamburg in Hamburg-Wandsbek.
The effort to learn Russian from my mother, according to her, was not crowned with much success. Although my mother could speak Russian and understood Russian, but not as well as her older brothers and sisters. Since it is still before the beginning of his training left Russia, and at school the study was conducted in the German language, Russian language, she taught for some time but my aunt Hansi. But not only that was the reason. The reason, mainly, was that baby and early young years were spent in Germany. Both older brother and sister, Herbert and Renata, often spoke very well with their mother in Russian. The younger kids have already experienced difficulties with the Russian language. They were ashamed of their friends and friends, if in their house talked La Russe. They feel obvious to strangers that are not really in the circle of his friends.
At the beginning of 1934, after almost a one-year waiting period after passing the matriculation examination, my mother made an important decision for her future life. Without saying anything to the parents, she secretly applied to become a nurse in the hospital of Hamburg, i.e. to obtain a medical education. Her older sister Renata shortly before it lost training in the hospital Bethesda (Bethesda Krankenhaus Bergdorf Hamburg) and was dismissed. First of all, because of this unfortunate experience, my grandfather, when he found out about my mom's statement, tried to dissuade her from this intention. But, she stayed true to her decision, was accepted and began working at the hospital Center at Easter 1934, as student nurses. The hospital was located near the house.
During a two-year training for a nurse from 1934 to 1936, my mother lived in the dormitory of the hospital for nurses and soon met a very important friend for her, Doris Hermann, later on her husband Doris Brandenburg, who remained her faithful friend for many years. However, the beginning of this friendship was, as he recalled my mother and her friend with a smile, not quite so friendly. When my mother, as a newly admitted student, poured water into the bucket on the nurse and stood at the washbasin holding her hand over the water tap, at this time diligent nurse Doris taught her, "Sister Magda, we can not hold on to the water tap when they collect water." Friendship began after the warm-up. Together with Doris and another friend, Erica Steenbock, my mother in her spare time again made long walks around the country, up to Mecklenburg. Later she realized, that these walk not quite safe. Several times they had to meet with rather Intrusive men, from whom they could hardly escape. Both her friends on such walks were much more experienced than my mom, which she will later say about himself, was naive and shy and just not interested in Dating men.
In the hospital, she coped well with her duties and in 1936 passed the examination for the profession of nurse, and immediately received the place of nurse in the same hospital in Wandsbek. There she met with the senior nurse Gertrude Heydenreich, with whom she maintained close friendly contact throughout her life. My mother, Gertrude Heydenreich and the already mentioned Doris Brandenburg, were friends of three, and as she called it, they made up a"drawn three".
The political events of the time very little reference to them in her own memories. About the Nazis in the district of Wandsbek knew little, as they do not touch the lives of their families. She referred herself to those who are not interested in politics. She also valued her father for being outside politics, although he probably joined the German national socialist workers ' party (NSDAP). On one of the last photos, before his death, he appears with a party badge on the lapel of his jacket. Most of still extant copies of this photo icon has been retouched with a pencil so that only upon closer examination one could see him.
My grandmother Alma, his wife, was completely indifferent to politics. She was only interested in a world of their own families, the world of friends and families from Arkhangelsk. Like all economic issues, politics for her, and this was a consequence of her upbringing in Russia, her special youth, was considered a matter of men, in which she never intervened.
Renata's eldest daughter was, as my mother called it, a "non-political youth movement" and opposed against everything and everyone that somehow looked authority.
The third son Erich was a member of the storm detachment (SA). Otto's youngest son was primarily an active member of the Concordia football society in Hamburg and was more interested in football than politics. Throughout his life, he has not participated in any organization other than his favorite football club.
Born in Hamburg, the daughter of Tudi at the time was still a foolish teenager. About the other brothers and sisters my mother had nothing to provide more specific, so she lived at home and lived in a hostel for nurses at the hospital, and his family had little contact. With regard to the political events of that time, she was able to recall precisely that the Sudeten crisis of 1938 (12 September 1938, after the failure of the negotiations, a second Sudeten crisis was triggered. ... September 22, Hitler makes an ultimatum: do not interfere with Germany in the occupation of the Sudetenland) she took very seriously and felt then the first time real fear.
After three years working as a nurse in the hospital of Hamburg in 1939, in the personal life of my mother at a crucial point. My future father, Dietrich Krause, the eldest son of pastor Hugo Krause who died in Arkhangelsk in 1915, first graduated in 1939 from the textile College in Chemnitz and before returning to Estonia, where he lived with his mother, brothers and sisters since 1915, wanted to travel to Germany. His mother asked during this trip is sure to Arkhangelsk to visit her friend Marta Hansen in Hamburg, with which it has been already mentioned, for three years he taught in the Arkhangelsk Church school and served kindergarten, established at the school my grandfather Krause. When Dietrich Krause arrived in Hamburg in March at the request of his mother, he stayed for a couple of days in the house of always hospitable aunt Hansi.
March 17, the birthday of Herbert, the elder brother of my mother, Dietrich K. came to visit with aunt Hansi family Lyursa. My mom also came to my brother's birthday party for a couple hours from the hospital. She was probably all she'd known, the last child, who is the pastor Krause before his death baptized in Arkhangelsk. On this feast in honor of the birthday of my mother were fooling around together with her younger sister Tudi so that my grandmother Lyurs the next day with a rebuke said to her: "What should think of you, Mr. Krause?"My mother comforted her by saying that they had already agreed to meet with Mr. Krause the next day. From the day of birth to the hospital it was carried out: El Lindes, aunt Hansi and named Mr. Dietrich Krause. The next day, my father, the future, called her at the hospital. Although no one was allowed to do so, a sympathetic gatekeeper called her on the phone to my mother, and they agreed to meet the next day. My mother remembered this day well. It was March 19, 1939. They went to Hamburg, where just there was a Grand procession of the Nazis. But they did not think about it, and went to the cafe, where they spent a wonderful evening. My father invited my mother to visit Estonia, and they promised to correspond with each other. My father was "very interested," as my mother called it. Later that evening, he walked my mom through the woods Andbecause to the hospital. Then at night she went to her trusted friend Doris Brandenburg, who had a night shift, and told her everything.
As it was due, my parents began texting and have specifically been preparing the visit to my mom in Estonia. When everything was prepared, the sad news came, Helmut, my father's younger brother, suddenly dies in Fellina in June of spinal tuberculosis. My grandfather tried to dissuade my mother from the planned trip because of these circumstances, but my father in Estonia insisted, despite this hard blow for their family, on the planned visit of my mother. To the horror of her father, my mother really in June 1939 gathered on the road to Estonia. My father accompanied her to revel (now Tallinn) on the boat. From there they went to Fellin, where Krause's family lived since 1915. During the entire visit my mother lived not in family Krause, and have their friends nearby. 14 days later, my parents got engaged in Fellina, but the engagement was not official. All were devastated by the death of Helmut. At home then was my father's sister Irmgard, as well as the second oldest son Berend, he met with my mother only once, he at that time probably already lived in Riga. Since my father, who worked in Fellina, could not get a leave of absence, his younger brother Walter took care of my mother, as the grandmother of sister Krause, aunt Matzi, spoke out in a rather ironic form: "with one engaged, and with the other walking everywhere." My mother was very depressed and disappointed by the reaction of her future mother-in-law, who took part in the engagement, and reacted with the following phrase: "Now I have lost my second son."
After some time mother went back to Hamburg on the steamer. But even here this engagement was not recognized as official. However, my grandfather, despite earlier excuses against this trip, made every effort to establish communication with the Krause family. He knew this family from Arkhangelsk and highly respected Mrs. pastors. She was a surprisingly strong and working woman and managed to put her husband on his feet and raise five children in Estonia after his early death. She was the only one that showed up in her reaction to the son's party with my mom, very intolerant and stubborn in their views. So, for example, she went out of the room, if in its presence of discussed religious or sexual questions and problems. Playing cards was strictly forbidden in her house, and she was terribly outraged if my mom sometimes smoked.
What was hiding behind such hypocritical (hypocritical) behavior, was determined only half a century after her death, at least partially. Was no doubt that she is in 1924, being already in a fairly advanced age, the widow of a pastor, gave birth to another child, an illegitimate son about whom nobody knew anything. He was born in a hospital in Helsinki, and she adopted him immediately after his birth. The father of the child is unknown. How she managed to hide her pregnancy from her own children, the elders were already older, and also all the relatives and friends in a small town Fallin, remains a mystery today. When her fifth son in 1999, announced he already been the doctor retired, he lived on the Finnish åland Islands, its origin can be uniquely set according to the found documents, all of his half (maternal) brothers and sisters had already died. Obviously, none of them were unaware that they had another brother. This brother, who from the day of his adoption was called Niels Eric lang, had close contacts with some of the few surviving relatives in Germany, first of all, with his niece Elzbeth Krause, daughter of his brother-in-law Berend Krause. Niels Erik Lange died in 2006 at the Aland Islands and was buried there.
This mystery of her life, hidden from the whole family and from all friends, and probably a strong sense of guilt, may help to explain at least partially some of the moments in her behavior, as well as her sharpness and rigor towards others, but still probably more to herself.
With the return of my mom from Estonia to Hamburg in the ship, already then there was great concern regarding the "corridor". Soon followed by the announcement of the Second world war on 1 September 1939, which my mom found out during the night shift. From Estonia in the weeks that followed we received new news in October, referring to Hitler's speech from October 6, it was argued that the issue of resettlement of the Baltic Germans, they were required to leave the old Homeland in Estonia, Latvia, and taking on new challenges, to move into the occupied Polish lands, so as to expand the boundaries of the German state. The basis of this resettlement lay a secret agreement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, in the framework of the so-called "non-aggression Pact between the USSR and Germany", better known as "Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact", was signed in Moscow 23 August 1939, which at that time were not known to the General public.
My grandmother Krause in Fellina first delayed to leave Estonia. Her son Berend was out of reach in Riga at the time. Most likely, he was already evicted from there. The remaining children in Fellina, Irmgard, Dietrich and Walter finally managed to convince the mother of the need for resettlement. She left Estonia on the 20th of October 1939 with their children, Irmgard and Walter. They came out of Pernau on the ship "Orotava" in Gotenhafen (Gotenhafen). My father arrived there later on the ship" EMS " with all his Luggage. All of them, still Estonian citizens, were evicted in Gotenhafen on October 30, 1939, they were given a new place of residence and jobs in the Polish area just annexed by Germany. My grandmother and her daughter, Irmgard arrived in Svetz on Waikele. My father was sent to Neustättin. Shortly before he moved, he officially announced an engagement with my mother, back in Estonia.
When he was on the Christmas of 1939, Neustettin came to Hamburg, in the family circle, my parents once again celebrated their official engagement. While in Hamburg, the father received a telegram with the news that he was transferred to Lodz, Warthegau (Reichsgau Wartheland) and it must arrive there. At that time Lodz was a center of textile industry in Poland, and my father was an engineer for the textile industry.
As he had to live in Lodz in the first days of his stay, my mom could only tell individual excerpts. At all, the first days were awful, as mentioned my father mother. They had to go, or rather, to break in, confiscated the apartments, which are on the table, sometimes still standing dishes of half-eaten food, as the Polish residents had to leave their apartments in a hurry. After a while my father got a job at Loeser und Reimann textile factory in Lodz. Having settled down, the father sent his mother a telegram to Hamburg and asked her to leave the hospital and come to Lodz. My grandfather was against it, but my mother quit, no matter what, but it led to a serious quarrel with him. First of all, before the wedding, she shouldn't have lived with my father, by no means. In this regard, my grandfather was an exceptionally scrupulous and pedantic person. When my mother finally got permission to enter Wartegau and arrived in Lodz, which after the German invasion of 1939 was renamed Litzmannstadt, she first lived in a hotel. A few days after her arrival, on may 4, 1940 my parents were married while my father had some nasty trouble with it improperly executed documents from Neustettin. As can be seen from the letters of my grandfather, my parents told my grandma Krause in Svetz about your wedding rather late. The reason for this late message can only be guessed. This may have been a consequence of her hostility towards my mother when she commented on her son's engagement by saying, "Now I've lost a second son."
After the wedding, my parents got the first small one-bedroom apartment, but then moved to a large apartment on Emberstrike. Was near a lovely Park, where my mother often walked with us small children. A little North-East of the Park at a short distance passed the border Lodz ghetto for Jews in Poland, it was the second largest after Warsaw. After some discussion on the Jewish question in Warthegau old North part of the city of łódź was announced in February 1940 a ghetto. This area was joined two more, granchise extensive urban areas. April 30, 1940, just at the time when the mother came to Lodz, the ghetto was completely closed off from other parts of the city. People, if they were not Jews, were forbidden to appear in the ghetto; the Jews who tried to leave the ghetto, risked their lives, been shot by the guards. In General, the Lodz ghetto was considered the most closed. Although the tramway passed through the middle of the ghetto along two wide main streets, which were not part of the ghetto, the tram there passed without stopping. Jews who wanted to get from one part to another, the fenced part of the city, had to cross streets on specially constructed wooden foot bridges. These constantly used wooden bridges and a strictly guarded boardwalk fence with a wire fence around the ghetto was the only thing that the non-Jewish population of the city could see. About specific conditions of life in the ghetto my mother, as she spoke, had no idea. Like all others, she knew that there were terrible conditions, but like others, she did not seek to learn about this life. You could learn more if you wanted to, she said later with remorse. Could an individual do anything-it is a different question. In the four and a half years that she lived in Lodz, she said she was extremely busy with her difficult and sometimes difficult family problems. Her husband was at war, two small children, serious illness of the daughter, the mother, arrived from bombed-out Hamburg in her apartment, which was so crowded, unclear fate of the brothers and so on. Basically, she said she never felt at home in Lodz. But the fate of many others who lived at that time. In some respects, the situation in Lodz for a long time was much better than in the Reich: there was a blackout, but there were no air raids.
In the summer of 1940, my parents made a memorable wedding trip to Posen (Reichsgau Wartheland), where they met my father's cousins Dorrit and Trudy, as well as my father's "former love", Britta von Auer. Then from there went to the family in Wandsbek, Hamburg and Wandsbek little short trip to Niendorf on the Baltic sea (Germany).
After their return to Lodz, they took for a while a ten-year-old boy from Berlin who had been evacuated there. My sister Ortrud was born in Lodz on 12 July 1941. As already mentioned, on April 11, 1940, Lodz was renamed the German occupation authority Litzmannstadt in honor of the General of the First world war, and later a high-ranking Nazi official Karl Litzmann. In our personal documents place of our birth is the city of Litzmannstadt. Later in the sixties of the twentieth century we had to change in our documents the place of birth to G. Lodz, otherwise our trip to Poland or the GDR would have been impossible.
Eight months after my sister's birth, in February 1942, my father, who had served for some time in the so — called Estonian "operetta army", was drafted into the Wehrmacht and left for bad Reichengall (Upper Bavaria, Germany). So my mother was left alone with her little daughter in Lodz, where she felt very lonely. Soon she received word that her cousin (cousin), Freddy (Ferdinand) Lyurs 7февраля 1942 died in Russia, which further upset her. But there was good news in April 1942, she was allowed to visit her husband in bade — Reichenhall. During these days, little Ortrud was taken care of by Edith Twers, my father's cousin. It was my mom's only friend in Lodz.
Two months later, mother went a second time in bad Reichenhall, but with a small daughter. From there she traveled across Germany to her parents, my grandfather and grandmother, Hamburg. There they celebrated the first anniversary of the granddaughter's birth, and for the joy of grandparents Ortrud made her first steps here.
My grandfather tried to persuade my mother to stay with them in Hamburg and not to return to Lodz. But due to the constant air raids on Hamburg, she wanted to quickly return to Lodz, where in this regard she could feel calmer.
How she got confirmed in a few weeks. In the night from the 26th to the 27th of July 1942, during another bombing of Hamburg, one of the bombs fell in her parent's house on the wilhelmstraße and completely destroyed it. My grandfather, Mrs. Werle and her mother, they lived on the top floor of the house, died on the spot. Mr. verlet and 19-year-old Tudi, the younger sister of my mother, remained unharmed. My grandmother survived, but she was seriously injured. Three survivors were rescued after six hours, which they spent in a heavily destroyed basement. All who were at home looking for sanctuary. Mrs. Verla and her mother, who died during the RAID, were sitting in the places where my mother and her little daughter had just sat, she was constantly sitting in this place. That this quick recovery of three survivors of such severe damage after a major air RAID was a happy event, which often occurs in our lives. My mother's sister Elsa, whom everyone called only "a's moppy" or "Mapgen", was mobilized for the air defense of the city and that night, when reporting about the bombing on wilhelmstraße itself mobilized emergency aid to the victims of the RAID. Such quick relief and saved her family.
In the air RAID of 26 to 27 July 1942года killed my beloved husband, our good father and brother, Alexander Edward Lyurs in возрасте65лет, with deep sorrow Alma Lurs, nee Meyer; Herbert; Alex; Erich; Otto, currently, in the East; Renata; Magda; Elsa; Gertrude.
Ndsb – Wandsbek (probably of a Church, or administration), wilhelmstraße, 46 – Requiem, 04.08. 14-30. Tondorf cemetery.
My mother at the funeral of his father in Hamburg did not go. Her mother, knowing that she was pregnant again, rebuked from such a trip. Besides, my mother had no one to leave Ortrud with in Lodz.
So, at my grandfather's funeral at The tonndorf cemetery on August 4, out of eight children, only three of my mother's sisters were present, four of the brothers were in military service, they were not informed of the death of their father or could not come. Otto's youngest son was sentenced to 14 weeks ' imprisonment in a military prison on the grounds of insubordination during guard service. Using party ties older sister Renata, and later managed to arrange his trip to Hamburg. Herbert and Erich also received short-term vacations to travel to Hamburg.
A letter Back to the fourth brother, Alex, in which she had told him all the details about night bombing, it was returned to her unopened. She wrote to him on August 12. It was the day Alex died in a military hospital in Russia.
My grandmother after several weeks of stay in the hospital lived for some time at always ready to come to the aid of aunt Hansi Atmosphere. And in the fall of 1942, her daughter Renata moved her to Lodz to visit my mom, where she lived for the next two years. Renata at the time worked in the Lodz or near Lodz probably PE navodchica. Mom didn't know for sure.
Her younger sister Elsa, who was called "Mappi", and her life partner Wilhelm Jensh, but everyone called him for some reason only" Hare " (der Hase), who had previously worked together in the company Reichardt in Hamburg, now they worked in the civil administration in Warsaw, and occasionally visited mom and her family in Lodz. Mappi was in Lodz when I was born. She's the one who brought my mom to the hospital. The delivery was 30 January 1943, quickly and without problems. When Mappi returned from the hospital, my grandmother had just received a farewell letter from her eldest son Herbert of Stalingrad, in which he reported the desperate situation in Stalingrad and informed that he would never surrender to the Russian captive alive. When my grandmother visited my mother in the hospital after that, she did not mention this letter to Herbert in one word, so as not to worry and not to disturb her mother. Only a few days after my birth, my mother found out about the capitulation at Stalingrad and Herbert's farewell letter.
From the hospital she was brought Hazen (Bunny) as she recalled, was very proud when passers-by and passengers in the tram took him for a happy father of a little boy. Aunt Mappi and her" Hare", whom she later married, had no children.
In mid-1943, a few months after my birth, my sister became ill with cerebral palsy. First, the doctor made the wrong diagnosis – the flu, and accordingly prescribed the wrong treatment. When, finally, disease was correctly defined, my sister was already almost fully paralyzed. In subsequent months, the paralysis in his hands completely away, the right leg is also partially paralysis passed. The left leg, despite numerous operations, forever has remained paralyzed.
In the autumn of 1943, when I was six months old, my father and his brother Walter came to Lodz from Russia for a short break, and then for the second time shortly before Christmas. From this visit, probably the last photo was preserved, where you can see my parents together. Three months later, my father died in Italy in captivity with the Americans. On his death my mother found out only a few years.
Also Erich and Otto, my mother's brothers, came to Lodz at the same time for a short break, first of all, to see their mother, who since the fall of 1942 lived with my mother in Lodz.
In the following year 1944 began with the attack on Lodz. This city has not yet been bombed. In the autumn, when the front approached the East, the first trains with refugees from East Prussia appeared in Lodz. My mother's future brother-in-law Wilhelm Jensch, called the "hare", who until that time still worked In the civil administration in Warsaw, advised my mother to leave Lodz as soon as possible. Otto, the younger brother of my mother, in September 1944 took his mother from Lodz to Barntrup, Lippe district, where during the war a repetition of the magnitude Of b-20 (the meaning of this phrase – the war forced a second time to come to Barntrup).
After a while, my mother and I left Lodz with our children and went by train to Schwetz (Weichsel), where her mother-in-law lived and her son-in-law, Irmgard's husband, after the resettlement. Only Renata and Tudi, my mom's sisters, stayed in Lodz.
Son-in-law Brand, grandmother and daughter-in-law Irmgard Krause with my mother and children in Schwetz (Weichsel). October 1944.
Later my mother learned that it was madness to come now to Schwetz where vessels with refugees from East Prussia continuously came. But the mother-in-law did not want to leave, Svetz. She was, as previously reported, a brave, strict and often quite harsh woman. This behavior insulted my mother. Mother-in-law celebrated Christmas in advance, even before mother and children. She also gave the mother to feel that she is guilty, caught in an extremely difficult situation, and was unhappy that the mother smoked.
Out of fear of the approaching front, my mother wanted to leave Schwetz. She did it and dared to escape, one with two young children. As the train was no longer going, she went into town and found that there just is post. At her urgent request she went to meet him, and offered to come back later and quietly to this post. How was our escape, until finally we got to Demize on Elba, and stayed her friend Doris Brandenburg, my mother wrote to my grandmother in Hamburg.
Here is the letter:
"Of dömitz 9.2.1945 year. My favorite mommy! Hope You got my telegram, and my children from the surrounding area Neustettin, and not worried more about us. You're my sweetheart! I've been here with Doris for two days. 15 days I was on the road and everything that happened to me during this time was unreal and like in a dream! I'd love to see You and tell you everything, but will have to wait. You can to imagine, that trip with children was very difficult and very burdensome, has I its have Doris, arriving to it on the evening.
Thursday afternoon I left at your own risk from Svetta, there was incredible turmoil, all sought to flee the city, someone in the car who is on a horse-drawn cart as the railway communication stopped. The postal truck took me with the children and a small Luggage to Konitsa, the next day the Wehrmacht bus drove me and the children through Schlochau to Ratzeburg, but the constant breakdowns and lack of gasoline slowed our movement. On the road met a completely deserted area. In Switzerland I could accidentally fall on passing vehicles with women and children who managed to get us into Asherie in the village, 12km from Neustettin. If I couldn't get on this transport, I'm hardly able to get out as the bus could not continue to follow, ran out of gas. In Estrie I was accepted to wait very hospitable peasants. But when, soon Neustettin ran women with children, and the front was approaching, no institutions that could help us to move on, was not. Then I, along with another woman with 4 children decided to move on. We managed to get to Belgard, then to colberg in an incredibly crowded train for refugees, from there the next morning to Stettin. What was going on in the train and on the platforms, it is impossible to imagine; I stole a baby carriage, my suitcase I left for storage at the peasants in Eschenrige, as it was not possible to take it with you! In Szczecin after hours of waiting outside on the platform managed to get on a train for the refugees in the direction of Mecklenburg, dark, dirty carriage for the transportation of livestock, the children could not even sit at night, especially cried Wolf, suffering from crowding, and crowding. Tired and shocked by the pressure, the kids were clinging to me, and when they were both asking for me, I thought I couldn't bear it. But all people around were busy only with their own Affairs, some had the opportunity to unite, only I was all alone. Despite all the difficulties, we finally reached a small cozy apartment Doris, she made us so touching, actively assisted us. However, the room in which she now lives, quite cramped for 2 adults and 4 children. She's trying to find us an apartment. Gradually get better like a normal life! Managed to save their belongings: for children a couple of warm clothes for each set of bed linen, a little silver and two quilts and a little downy feather. When I can get my suitcase, then I have bed linen, towels, summer clothes, some material, but even if it does not work, and it's nothing. The main thing that children were healthy to overcome all the terrible. But things are moving very chaotically. Well, my mother dear, write to me everything, how's it going all of You? I'm so glad our Otto moved you in a timely manner. Where to find Renata, Mos and Tudi? Do Erich and Otto write? When will I hear anything about Dietrich? And see him? Left whether, Irmgard and mother Krause from Svetta, I don't know. Where could they be? What they learned about the Berenda and Walter? It is completely unknown how this will happen? Me in the last time reality, what is happening with us, seems normal! Say Hello to my family. Write also, please, Hansi on our behalf. Maybe she heard something about the people of Schwetz?
Did Renata hear anything about Buddha? I gave him Your address, was he supposed to stay with Volksturm? The people's tower in Schwetz! So, write immediately! Doris sends his regards, she's so touching! Heartily kiss on behalf of Your Dula and your little children who would like to return to Amalia in Barntrup.
The Buddha sends kind regards Renate".
My mother gave me some additional details when she talked about her experiences during her flight. She reported that when she left Schwetz on 23 January 1945, there was a terrible frost before — 23 degrees Celsius. In Konitsa, the first intermediate station on the westward flight, she had to leave us children at night in the market square under the protection of German soldiers, while she was looking for somewhere to stay until she got a place in the commandant's office in a temporary refugee camp. In Estrie, where we stopped at the good and the good of the peasants for a couple of days, I noted on 30 January its second year of birth, and the woman in the peasant houses made in honor of my birthday pancakes. The preliminary purpose of our flight was Demnitz on the Elbe, where he lived for Doris Brandenburg with their children. This is my mom's friend from the time when they worked together at the hospital in Wandsbek. In Demnitz she was evacuated from bombed-out Hamburg. From there, she invited my mother to come to her in Damnit if Sveta a whiff of "burnt". This invitation, the mother was forced to take, and the sixth or seventh of February, after a 15-day journey we arrived in Dömitz.
Immediately upon arrival in Demnitz I became seriously ill, it was so hard that my mother was afraid of pneumonia. Fortunately it didn't confirm, and I recovered. However this disease for my mothers was large test of, she was exhausted too hasty flight, nights spent could not sleep, so as from high temperature I was very restless.
Soon mother, with the support of his girlfriend Doris got a new home in Delnice, which consisted of two furnished rooms, a very nice woman with two children. There was even Central heating, and the woman made mom coffee three times a day. But there was a flaw, this is a new housing was outside the city limits, and she didn't want to get into the city with us two children to go shopping or go to the administration, as Ortrud with her paralyzed leg could barely walk so far. The pram was stolen from us during the flight, and there was no way to get a new one. My mother could not, as she wrote in another letter, to leave us in the care of a fine woman, because we were scared during the flight, and clung to it "as the burs". To top it off, my sister and I got measles, which made my mom's life even more difficult. Moreover, frequently declared air alarm, when the allied bombers flew in the direction of Berlin. In Delnice directly bombing was not. The Russian Army was approaching, and my mother planned to run further West, if possible, to Barntrup (Lippe County), where my grandmother lived for five months. But on April 23 the American bombers destroyed the bridges over the Elbe, thus further way to the West over the Elbe river was cut off. Later, when American troops entered Damnit, the population breathed a sigh of relief. Soon, however, American troops left the city of Demnitz, which was located on the East Bank of the Elbe, and the city was given to the Russians.
Which then followed, my mom was able to call it one word - " terrible!". Looting and terrible harassment began. First of all, she is grateful to two circumstances, the fact that she had to go through it easier than many of the other inhabitants of Damnica. First, she spoke Russian and could communicate with Russians, both soldiers and officers. Found understanding of in this rubbing shoulders, that was invaluable in this situation. Second, she had small children, that gave her added protection, as most of the Russian in this extraordinary, special atmosphere loved children, they were treated in a condescending, spoiled and sometimes take it with him to bestow upon sweets and then again to deliver us safely home. Some of them behaved like little children and play with us, for example, while my mom kept saying "Man, don't be mad!» (with enthusiasm.) Mother very often remembered very handsome young officer, who once knocked at our door. He was the adjutant of the commander of a special cavalry regiment, he asked his mother to be an intermediary at the invitation of German girls to participate in the Colonel's holiday. It is his desire my mother could not perform, because being a refugee she practically knew nobody in Delnice, except the landlady and her friend Doris. This young man was very kind to us children, often came to us and looked after sometimes for us when my mother had to go to the city. One day my mother was invited to the Russian festival, where she had to dance. Mom told me that all behaved impeccably there; only gradually when that feast was a lot tipsy, she quickly got out of there.
In General, the situation in Delnice my mother perceived, first of all as an inevitable exceptional situation, which she wanted as soon as possible to change. Her biggest wish was to go West to join her whole family. She gave one refugee, who went to Hamburg, a letter to cousin Ingrid, in the family it was called only "Gita" or "Gitul", as the mail at this time has not yet functioned. But this attempt to establish contact with relatives from Hamburg at first did not yield any results.
Tudi, my mother's younger sister, settled in Barntrup with my grandmother. She after departure of my mother from Lodz walk out of the city and they managed to get to Sochi. From there, secretly crossed the border to Demnitz to bring my mother and us children to Barntrup. About the details of this five-day trip by rail with all the scrapes mom just could not remember. Finally, my mother, with the help of Tudi, was able to get to the scheduled rail transport, which went West through the small town of Oebisfelde (Germany, Ebisfelde, in the Berde district of Saxony-Anhalt). There they got off the train, and at your own risk and went on in Hamburg, where they were with us kids in November 1945. On 14 November 1945, my mother registered us as newly arrived refugees at the Barntrup police station.
My mother's life in Barntrup (1945-1989).)
When my mother came to Barntrup in 1945, she was 31 years old. Her life path proceeded very violently: from Russia to Holland, from Holland to Hamburg, from Hamburg to Lodz, from Lodz to Schwetz-Weichsel, from Schwetz to Demnitz on Elbe, and from there, finally, brought her to Barntrup. The remaining 44 years of her life, from here we see her life as more peaceful that she spent with my sister Ortrud in Barntrup. I myself left in 1962 from Barntrup after passing the exams for the certificate of maturity and enrolled to study in Hamburg. Since then, he has only been a frequent and regular guest in Barntrup. Whether my mother liked living in Barntrup all the time and felt at home here, or whether she wanted to move somewhere closer to the rest of the family, who mostly lived in Hamburg, is hard to say.
The circumstances specific to this time, and decisions directly relating to her little one's own family, made it difficult for her to make a fairly accurate decision to leave Sochi.
Barntrup, located in the Eastern part of Lippe County between Liego and Hameln, was a small town with a rustic lifestyle, as agriculture played a big role in the country at the time. In addition to the finally closed in 1956 cigarette factory and several small furniture companies there was no industry. Overall, Barntrup was a rather poor community in economically underdeveloped Lipperland. Existence for a long time of the Union of masons, which in contemporary urban culture played a role, reminding about the fact that many men from this area in previous years earned waste craft on large, often very remote brick factories, and therefore spent months away from home. Maybe that's why people coming here are struck by the fact that in many old families Barntrup leading were often women who set the tone in the family, as they say, run all the Affairs.
Anyway, at that time and now too, it is difficult to find a job in the specialty in Barntrup. Perhaps this was the reason that, compared to other communities in the Lippe area, the influence of the Nazi party (NSDAP) was very strong, given their promises to the residents of Barntrup. Throughout the land of Lippe in connection with the difficult economic situation should also explain why the national socialists won the elections of the Landtag (Zemstvo Parliament) from 15.01.1933, the victory is very important on the way to "seizure of power". In 1932, they lost their votes and found themselves in a serious crisis.
Residents of Barntrup, with whom we talked in the early years, lived in very cramped conditions, even if they had their own house. For example, in the house in which we rented an apartment in the early years, even for homeowners, all the amenities were in a small barn attached to the house, in which the goat watched with interest what we were doing there. Daily need products many residents of Sochi were decided in the first place, due to its carefully crafted garden plots, which were immediately behind the house. And grass for the goat they were harvested on carefully manicured street gutters in front of house.
Against this background, it becomes clear that many of the evacuees, the refugees, housed in the last war years in Moscow in rooms and small apartments, was greeted by the inhabitants of the inhospitable. It survived and my mom, when she's been with us young children, aged two and four years in November 1945 he arrived in Sochi.
We first stayed a few days in a small apartment of my grandmother on the street Alverdissen until the housing authority didn't allocate our own private room in the neighboring house, but without water and sewer. The local hosts met us without much joy. When we got there, the room was completely empty, even the only light bulb on the ceiling of the room was quickly turned out. It was probably a helpless protest against the forced and unwanted entry into this house. The most necessary pieces of furniture, which today would be considered discarded garbage, they also were not. My mother was forced to ask for any kind of furniture those residents of Sochi who were willing to come to the rescue.
What still surprises me and delights me is that my mother has never been vindictive and has never kept grudges against the owners of the house for a long time for their simply cruel treatment of the refugee woman. With no means, with two young children, a boy of two and a girl of four, who also could not walk. Mother at first very much worried, but always explained to us children that these people poor, and we refugees are forcibly settled to them. Later she, when we moved away from them for a long time, even visited them on occasion, and sent us children to them. True friendship, of course, could not occur, and the circumstances of life and life experiences were too different.
As a simple example, for my mom was her own, at that time already 70-year-old mother, who lived nearby on the second floor of the neighboring house, no toilet and no amenities. She grew up in a very wealthy family in Russia, never studied any profession, and even in the early years of living in Hamburg had a staff that freed her from most of the female chores on the farm. The more amazing was the admirable ability to adapt to disasters, when, during the Second world war and in the subsequent post-war years, it proved that it had to bear all the blows of fate as a poor refugee with some of its family members. Nobody in the family could remember to say at least one word of displeasure, a word that requires compassion and assistance. Without expressing discontent, she was walking several miles on a rural road, and it was in the early postwar years to the neighboring town to exchange a silver spoon for bread from a Baker. Only a few records in her personal diary showed that she had suffered greatly in such depressing living conditions and that she had to cope with them. The only little luxury that she was allowed was if nobody saw her, with a stick, quickly go around the corner to a little café where she could spend half an hour without interference over a Cup of coffee, and at this point, she could once in a while to relieve stress.
Her life did not become easier by the fact that her eldest daughter Renata settled in Hamburg and lived with her in her small one bedroom apartment. This extravagant and impulsive sister of my mother arrived in Barntrup from Lodz at the end of January 1945. Some residents of Sochi, which she had in a manner peculiar to her arrogance more or less often, because she never owes nothing pulled, complained in the case of my mother on her sister, which was very frustrating for my mom. But in General, aunt Renata, who was my godmother, was always ready to come to the aid of their friends and often even with a sense of humor. When my mom arrived with us in Barntrup, aunt Renate was on the third or 4th month of pregnancy. The father of the child, who was born on 26 April 1946 in Barntrup and was baptized with the name Irena (we still call her Kika), was a repeatedly married Baron von Budberg (in our family he was always called only Buddha). He appeared for some time in Sochi and disappeared again in the direction of the town of Detmold (100km from Hanover), where he remarried. My aunt, who met him during the war, was "happy", as she herself later said that she had not married him.
Kika grew up with us children until 1954, and to some extent we were Bankcrupt like brother and sister, and today it remains the closest relative.
All the problems and difficulties that my mother faced after her arrival in Barntrup, receded into the background, as all this time she was tormented by the question of the fate of my father. She saw him for the last time during his Christmas holiday in December 1943 in Lodz. She also learned that he was in the spring of 1944 was in Italy, near Naples, and was captured by American troops, and possibly sent to the United States. But what really happened to my father, she didn't know. There was no message from him, there was also no social notice of him. What details in the beginning she tried to know about his fate, we don't know for sure. Anyway 17 February 1947, she wrote, is still extant, the letter to the Red Cross of the city of Naples with a request to tell her if they know anything about staying there with her husband. On March 27, 1947, she received, it was probably independent of her request to the Naples Red Cross, a message from the military Department in Washington that her husband Dietrich Krause first April 1945 (sic!) died of leukemia in captivity. Two months later, with a date of may 8, 1947, came, this time in response to her request to Naples, a message from the red cross in Geneva that Dietrich Krause died on April 1, 1944 in a hospital in Italy from " Blutzersetzung "(decomposition in blood?). Today just installed the year of death "1944". Later it turned out that the notice of the death of my father sent to my mother in April 1946, but at her former address in Lodz. In connection with her escape from the news it was not received. And her new address in Hamburg at that time were not yet known and probably has not been reported.
When she received word of her husband's death, we saw for the first time, and perhaps for the last time, how desperately she was crying. We tried to comfort our mother as a child, as she later recalled:" don't cry, when I grow up, I will marry You", — so I said in solace. Whether this promise helped, I can't tell. Anyway, from that day on it became clear that my mother and we, the children, should now live alone without a father. About the new marriage, as far as we know, she thought, although she was only 33года.
How could my mother maintain our livelihood for the first time after the war, I can not say for sure. We did not have any property or savings. In addition to state support, her closest relatives helped us from time to time with money, but they also did not have sufficient funds in the first post-war years. From 1949 to 1952, my mother, with the support of the Union of war victims and military personnel, invalids and social pensioners in Germany, waged a long struggle with the Land the insurance company of Westphalia for the recognition of pension, as the widow, and the orphan's pension from pension insurance of the employees of my father in Lodz. Which, after several inquiries, testimonies (certificates) and testimony, finally ended successfully, my mother and we were guaranteed a rather modest but constant source of income (income).
Another great concern of my mother was my sister's disease. As already mentioned, she became ill with cerebral palsy at the age of two. Since the paralysis of the left foot and right foot did not pass, it remained with a violation of the ability to move, and therefore could not move much and was limited in everything that is taken by children at her age. Starting at the age of six, she underwent seven operations on her feet and her left foot, while in hospital for a long time, although her health was slightly stabilized, but there was no significant improvement. It on all life remained with impaired ability to move. Because of the numerous operations she had for weeks or even months to learn in school, and could not, as I after the fourth grade of elementary school to go to school. Then we went to the same sixth class at the gymnasium in Barntrup.
During our own studies, my mother lived exclusively for us children, but she was never bothersome and she never took care of or restricted us. Her rhythm of life was focused on our needs and interests, in which she took a live part, delving into, and sometimes restraining. If we could not solve difficult problems in mathematics, she never quarreled, but could in the evening, when we were asleep, for hours to sit on the solution of these problems, and in the morning proudly reported that she found a solution to the problem. She listened attentively to our classmates and classmates who liked to come to our house. With the release of our newspaper for school in Sochi, which were mainly created in our home, she helped us with enthusiasm. And when we used to say in the evenings when we got older, we said goodbye to her, going to home balls or class parties and birthdays, she used to tell us, "don't Come too late." And if we still came home too late, she never reproached us, but, on the contrary, friendly and with interest asked: "well, everything was fine?".
The problem is, what will my sister do after school and what profession to master her with her disability, depressed my mom all these years, and forced her to seek a way out of this situation. A social profession, such as a nurse or social worker, has itself disappeared because of its disability. Thus, after finishing school, she first enrolled in the then one-year trade school (school) in Lemgo Leugo. Then I registered on a training place of service of average qualification in regional administration in Leugo which she received after the termination of the training and to the pension she remained the employee at regional administration. However, this profession is not particularly answering her desires and inclinations. Despite this, it is quite well worked there. My sister remained unmarried and, along with her professional activities, she devoted her entire life to Church work with young people.
A significant change in my mother's life in Barntrup, and perhaps for this reason, close contact with us children, occurred when her beloved mother, with whom she had throughout her life cordial relations, in 1950 left Barntrup because of old age and ill health. Besides, she never felt at home here. She moved to Hamburg, where two of her sons lived and numerous relatives from their close family circle.
She was then 73 years old. After a nearly four-week hospital stay in Hamburg Mariinsky hospital she lived in the next three years in various apartments Hamburg, for a short time a visit from his old friend Arkhangelsk Martha Hansen. Both of her sons, Erich and Otto, as well as other relatives close to her, could not take her to themselves because of the then living conditions; besides, Erich and Otto after a relatively short stay in captivity were still working and could not take care of her.
But they took care of her, often visited her and provided other assistance. First of all, her youngest son Otto, who was a bachelor, as clearly seen from the records of her pocket calendars, was particularly close to her.
After a long stay at the hospital, my grandmother died on 26 March 1953 in Hamburg immediately after being discharged from the hospital. She was buried in the family vault of the family Lussow on Tandartsen cemetery beside her husband who died in the bombing of Hamburg in 1942. She did not wait for the return of his eldest son Herbert, as he returned home from Russian captivity in 1955.
In the spring of 1951, a year after leaving my grandmother's state of health in Hamburg, we got an apartment bigger on Obernstrasse in Sochi. But even there the conditions were very cramped from a modern point of view. Now we had a more cozy room, a small kitchen and a very small attic room with a sloping wall. We lived there with an old childless couple. They owned a house destroyed during the war. Now we lived with them on the same corridor, and the toilet was also joint. All this close proximity of families with very different life habits and interests was, first of all, for my mother a significant inconvenience. But she, like her own mother, showed great ability to adapt, the ability to adapt. The irresponsibility and complaints of the imperious and the old lady, in the first years of living together, my mother endured patiently, even helped her neighbors in the autumn in harvesting potatoes, which they grew on a small plot of land, and always tried to ensure that we children were not a burden to neighbors. For many years, first of all, since my mother and my sister moved into a large and separate apartment on the second floor of this house in 1964, my mother has always maintained, though at a distance, a predominantly friendly and even relationship. Calm and good-natured elderly gentleman, the lady's husband, a former worker of the tobacco factory, later even received permission from his wife, who could no longer walk, walk with my mother down the street.
When aunt Renata with her daughter Irene in 1954 left Hamburg in Hamburg, my mother has not left relatives in this city. Her brothers and sisters and her Hamburg cousin, as well as her dead husband's brothers and sisters, lived far away from her. Few friends in Hamburg, as well as her friends with whom she wrote and sometimes visited them, also lived far away from her. At that time there was no telephone connection, and in Barntrup there is no and on-today.
In Barntrup, my mother had very few close friends and girlfriends. In the first place, it was two women her own age, who, as she arrived in Sochi as a war widow and refugee women with children. As I recall, these both Ms. Kreuzer and Mrs. Kuehne were the only people with whom my mother in the first years of his stay in Voronezh had befriended and trusted them. Later she has emerged the good girlfriend Annie Redeker, mother of our school-comrade, to the same not a native of Barntrup. When she got married, she came to Barntrup from the black forest. These three women, as I recall, were the only ones my mother was in close contact with. She knew a lot of other people, willingly and talked a lot with them, but the world arrived refugees and the world of native-born residents of Sochi in their views were quite different.
But that doesn't mean that my mom was a hard-core individualist in Barntrup. Since 1951 she was a member of the Advisory Committee of the town of Sochi before this Committee in 1958 had not been abolished.
In 1959, in the local press, it was reported that she was unanimously elected to the Board of Trustees of the people's high schools in Sochi, which took an active part in the program of the higher school. Since the early 1960s, she has looked after the little daughter of Kerstin, a neighbor, almost every day , who worked with her husband all day at a grocery store and was therefore grateful to my mother for being a reliable nurse for her little daughter. Later, my mother took care of younger brother Krestin, as well as the young son of a neighbor, but not so regularly.
In 1969/1970, she participated in a seminar organized by the Union for the care of women at Church, and a few months later participated in a seminar on home care for the sick, infants and the elderly. The knowledge gained there could hardly then be used.
In the last years of her life, she regularly helped organize weekly coffee-making as part of charity, and sometimes visited elderly people, providing them with services. All of this activity today is worthy of respect is indicated by the word "public work", but this term is more reflective of all of this is voluntary and unpaid activities and assistance in the neighborhood, does not exist so far.
The most difficult time for my mother who lived in Sochi, were the years from 1965 to 1968 in which she suffered severe depression, repeated in her years of wandering. My sister, who lived with her, was unable to leave her at home in that position.
In the opinion of the attending physician, my mother was a professional help and hospital treatment. Therefore, in these years, she was placed three times for a period of 8 to 10 weeks in hospital. Just in this difficult time between my mother's two hospital stays, in October 1966 my sister was in a car accident, while in the car with a colleague at work, was seriously injured in the face and eyes.
Fortunately, most of the worst effects was resolved after a four-week stay in various hospitals. At that time I was in England as part of my learning of English Philology and teacher (receiving the post of teacher in secondary school) during the semester of study abroad, and therefore unable immediately to come to Sochi. But I turned out to be, and should not have come, as reported to me by my mother on the phone a cheerful voice. In addition, the mother was discharged home after her second hospital stay in Bethel for four weeks before the accident, so this accident with my sister she seems to have handled these difficult times.
Two years later, she had to be in the third, and fortunately last time, again to lie down for treatment for two months in the hospital in Bethel. At the end of 1968, she finally finally overcame this difficult period in her life, the state of depression was no longer returning, from that time she led a rather calm, and seemed to be quite a satisfactory way of life, although she showed the consequences of "her real illness" — it was a pouch of gallstones removed after surgery.
In September 1970, she and my sister participated in a trip to Italy organized by the military burial Union, where they visited my father's grave at the Monte Cassino cemetery.
Several times she has made a wonderful Wellness journey with my sister, with their old Hamburg friend Carl Heidenreich or its Hamburg cousin Sigi Lindes and her friends. On special occasions, especially during her birthday celebrations, she loved to visit her brothers and sisters, as well as her cousin in Hamburg, where most of the family members were still living. She also maintained close contact with her deceased husband's brothers and sisters, who now live in Regda and Krefeld.
After my marriage, to Dagmar Geldien she visited us in Bremen, where we lived, pretty regularly, especially happy after the birth of our daughter Frederica in 1980, the birth of which she was very happy as a newly "baked grandma." But in the following years, when Frederick got older, she invited her to Barntrup without us parents. But this was already not so often, so as by the time she has become quickly tired and needed in alone. In his last years it has slowly moved and walked not quite steadily.
On February 4, 1989, when crossing the street at the local exit from Barntrup, where she visited a familiar family, she was hit by a car in the dark and died on the spot. The question of whether she was guilty or it was the fault of the driver when driving fast, was not discussed, and we are not children doing this. The most important for us and a great comfort was that she no longer felt suffering and thus escaped a long stay in the hospital, if not worse.
At the funeral mass in the chapel at the cemetery in Barntrup, except for all her relatives, there were many residents of Barntrup, which showed us how she was loved and respected. After cremation, the urn and its ashes were buried in a family grave in Hamburg at The tonndorf cemetery, where it now rests with its parents and five of its seven brothers and sisters. Her younger, young sister Tudi, who died early, was buried next to her husband Philip Kraus in Bremen, where she lived. Her brother Alex, after whom I received my second name, rests at the soldier's cemetery in his former Homeland in Russia.
a) Pedigrees of the families of lyurs and Meyer. Preliminary observation.
The simplified lineage of Lucy Meyer's families on the next two pages is intended primarily as a supporting material for those readers who are somewhat unfamiliar with the history of these families. They will help them to understand the family ties mentioned in the text of people. And so in these pedigrees, with few exceptions in family Lyurs, set exclusively only those personality, which meet on transcript.
The sources and text documents at my disposal are, first of all, relative to the first generations, sometimes with different data on individual dates of birth and death. As far as possible I decided to insert a more probable date when comparing sources and texts. Where such an opportunity was doubtful for me or where there were no documentary dates, there I put the question open.
b) an Indication of the sources used.
The chronicle of my mother's family, as reflected here in chapters IUB — UI, is based, as already mentioned in the Preface, on the oral, recorded by me messages of my mother from the last years before her death, supplemented by information from letters and other personal documents, from her personal archive, as well as their supplemented memories of her brothers and sisters and close relatives, especially my sister Ortrud Krause. Chapters on the chronicle of the family before her flight from Russia (Chapter I-IUA) are based mostly on documents GAAO (Archangelsk archive of the Arkhangelsk region), copies of which are made by my Archangelsk relative Sergei guernet, who died in 2012. Some additional messages are also based on materials GAAO I got from my friend by correspondence from Arkhangelsk Jeanne Parseval, who now lives in St. Petersburg.
Based on my modest knowledge of the Russian language, I never tried myself to find and decipher hand-written documents, which even the Russians are often hard to read. And so I also refused to play sent to me by Sergey Gernet and Joan Parseval discovered passages of individual documents, as they need to be read and checked only in GAAO.
Some English papers on the third generation of the Luers family, as well as some photographs printed in this text, I received from my cousin cleave Luers of England.
General partially quite detailed information on geography, history, economy and social background family Chronicles have been found by relevant keywords and Links (?) on the Internet, primarily in the German, Russian and English versions of Wikipedia.
The necessary historical information on the background of events accurately found in Lexicon (Lexicon). Torke, Hans-Joachim (Torke, Hans - Joachim) is a publisher and lexicon of Russian history. From the birth to the October revolution, (Beck) Munich, 1985.
For calendar dates family Lyurs used:
Shumilov N.. Arkhangelsk rodoslovets (genealogy of the most famous nobility, merchants, petty-bourgeois and peasant Arkhangelsk birth of the earth). Genealogical reference book. Arkhangelsk.2009.
Gernet, S. M. "Race Lussow in Arkhangelsk", in the book "Genealogy in the Russian North: interaction with the social Sciences. Collection of materials of the International scientific conference dedicated to the 10th anniversary of the Arkhangelsk regional public organization. "Northern historical and genealogical society". (Arkhangelsk, 10-11 September 2008), Arkhangelsk, 2009. (There are some bugs in both collections).
For calendar dates and chronicle of the family Meyer used in addition to the collection Shumilova N. A. first of all, the selection of material in the form of typing, from my distant relative Henry Manfred Meyer background Eliza, deceased 01.04.2006 year: a Chronicle Bartold Jacob Benjamin Meyer (1781-1868), augmented and continued by grandson Henry Robin Meyer, Manfred von Altsom, Hamburg. 1968 (with numerous later additions and corrections).
For the head: Arkhangelsk
The amburger, Dr. Eric – "van Briney and their kin in Archangel, from the life of the colony." Berlin", 1936.
Bodnaruk, Dr. Elena," History of Russian Germans in Arkhangelsk";"Research of German culture: literature, local history, mass media". Documents of the regional seminar in Arkhangelsk from 16-18fevralya 2005 (Arkhangelsk state Pomeranian University.M. V. Lomonosova) in the Arkhangelsk, 2005. page 17-22.
The role of Knoop in the Russian industry (industrialization) and the textile industry:
Schulze — Gaevernitz, Dr. von Gerhardt. National economic survey of Russia (Dunker and Hablot). Leipzig, 1899.Chapter 1U.With.86-106.
Wolde, Adele, Ludwig Knoop, Memoirs of his life collected from his descendants, signed by his daughter Adela Volda, (Hauschild) Bremen. 1998.
Information and statistics on the forest industry in Arkhangelsk and on individual firms: "Bjoerklund, Joergen>"Exploiting the Kast Phase of the North European Timber Frontier for the Enternational Market 1890-1914: an Economic Historical Approach", in: Forest History: international Studies on socioeconomic and forest ecjsystem change. Report number 2 of the EUFKO TASK Force on Environmentel Change, ed/by M. Agnoletti and S. Anderson, CAB International 2000, pp. 171-184/.
To the head Barntrup
Hulls, Hans, "Hamburg 1776-1976. the Image of the settlement and socio-economic structure of a small town in the Lippe district, in terms of the present"; "600let the city of Sochi. 1376-1976 of the year" (city of Minsk) Minsk, 1976.C. 156-218.
Half a century ago: Exiles, refugees and residents of Barntrup in the postwar years, published by the Regional society, a registered society." Barntrup. 1997. "The History Of Heinola". Volume 5.
Haarlem, in the Russian texts purely transliterated as HAARLEM, a Dutch city in the West of the Netherlands, is situated 17 km from Amsterdam.
Sint-Bavo and Peat-market On the square Grote Markt, the town Hall of Haarlem
In the photo at the end of the NINETEENTH century.
The coat of ARMS of the city of Harlem.
Harlem's motto is "Vicit vim Virtas" - "Virtue conquers violence"!
On the same square, the Grote Markt (otherwise the Grotto-Kerch a Large Church.Bavo (in Dutch Sint-Bravo, since the reformation – Protestant)).
Bridge Catherine R. the guy near the mill at the end of the 1 century.
Lyurs family in Arkhangelsk
Carl Lurz (about 1765-1807гг.) First Lyurs in Arkhangelsk and his family
Peter Lurz (1806 – 1879гг.), great-grandfather of my mother
Alexander William Luers (1846-1884), Emma Lyurs, nee Scholz (1850 – 1921) grandparents my mom and her family (grandparents)
Bartold Jacob Benjamin Meyer( 1781-1868gg), the first Meyer in Arkhangelsk and his family
William Henry Meyer (1817 – 1848гг) great-grandfather on my mom and his family
Wilhelm Johann Meyer (1846-1911) and Jenny Meyer, nee guernet (1853 1921)
My mom's grandparents
Alexander Edward Lyurs (1877 – 1942гг) and Emma Louise Lurz, nee Meyer (1876 -1953gg) – roditelya
a)Her life and her family to escape from Russia
it comes) Family in Holland and Hamburg before the end of schools my mom (1919 – 1933gg.)Life my mothers since the end of the schools until the end of world war II (1933 – 1945gg.)
My mother's life in Barntrup (1945-04.02.1989).)
a) Pedigrees of the families of lyurs and Meyer
b) the Pointers to the used sources