Leitzinger, J. I. — the photographer and the mayor
As long as we remember — the person lives
September 2 in Arkhangelsk celebrated the centenary of the death of Yakov Ivanovich Leuzinger. To ensure the cemetery in the presence of the descendants opened and consecrated the monument to this extraordinary man, who led the capital of Pomerania from 1903 to 1914.
Priests of the Cathedral with the blessing of Metropolitan Daniel of Arkhangelsk and Kholmogory made a funeral litiya, and hieromonk Ambrose in his sermon noted that the renovation of the monument coincided with the construction of the Michael the Archangel Cathedral: "it is Gratifying that the memory of the mayor we are reviving at a time when the Cathedral is revived in the name of the Archangel Michael. It is known that James I. was the head of the Archangel Michael Church. The Lord makes all the providential and remarkable. People who worked hard for the glory of God and for the good of the people, is never forgotten. Not only will human memory preserve his good deeds, but his memory will also be alive by divine Providence, " said the priest. - The Lord reminds each of us that we, keeping this memory, learned how it is necessary to serve the Patronymic, neighbors and to work selflessly. The memory of such people is necessary for human life to come closer to heavenly life, so that we know about our spiritual roots and spiritual Fatherland, learn to love each other and to the place where the Lord decided to live."
Today in Russia many would like to live in the West: England, France, Italy or Switzerland. And before us there was driving. As, for example, the grandfather of Jacob Ivanovich Leutzinger, who was discharged in 1832 Cherepovets landowner Lev Golsky, who wished to establish a production of cheese like Swiss.
James Leuzinger was born 18 (30) March 1855 in the village of Spasskoye, Vologda. Vologda lips. His father, Johann Jakob, according to family tradition, they named the boy his name, just rearrange the first name and patronymic. It turned out Jacob-Johann, that in Russian will be just Yakov Ivanovich. He soon left without parents and taking care of it took on the family Golskij. They gave him to study at the Vologda gymnasium, where Yakov received his first photographic experience. Fascinated by photography, he decided to associate with her, left the gymnasium and entered the Vologda apprentice in a photo Studio. In 1875 James I. he was drafted into the army as a clerk in the Sergeant's rank he served until 1877 in the Caspian shelf, which stood near St. Petersburg. After serving military service, he returned to Vologda and opened his own photo. The certificate of the Vologda city police Department issued to Yakov Ivanovich Leuzinger, according to the request for the right to carry photographic works, it says that "... it during your stay in Vologda, in any reprehensible actions were not observed, under the court and consequence was not and now is not, and he approving of the behavior".
In 1880 James I., he moved to Arkhangelsk, where in may, 1882, filed in the name of the Governor of the Arkhangelsk Poltoratsky request about the opening of the photographic business.
Soon after he opened a photo Studio in his own wooden house on Pskov Avenue. Now this street chumbarova-Luchinskogo is a reserved street of Arkhangelsk. Despite the tough competition, his works took off, apparently because this man had not only the talent of the photographer, but also excellent organizational skills. Soon he had assistants, technicians, which helped to speed up the process of working on photographs, and photo Studio was to use northerners very popular.
Almost every wealthy Arkhangelsk was kept in the family album of photos taken in salon J. I. Lazinger. There were representatives of the most different layers of local society: workers, merchants, officials, priests, servants, visiting people.
Group portraits on fun gatherings, photos for family albums, glorifying family ties; couples who wished to perpetuate their love or secret relationship; grandparents, boys and girls, barely crossed the threshold of childhood.
Having received in 1884 exclusive rights to shootings in the city and on all province (in those years it was required special permission), Yakov Ivanovich began to come out with the camera to streets and to shoot usual life of the port city.
It is through his photographs we know what was the old Archangel, with great people at the fish markets, fairs, various festivals and city festivities, piles of firewood on the background of houses with intricate architraves.
These pictures are still of great interest and are unique documents of pre-revolutionary life of the city. They become collectible, and then is diverged by the thousands in the form of cards, Mat and gift albums. Through the eyes of Jacob Lazinger we see today Russian North in the late XIX-early XX century.
In 1895, when James I. was not yet mayor, Governor Alexander Platonovich Engelhardt invited him on a trip to remote districts of the Arkhangelsk province.
In the center Ya. Leuzinger, his wife Alexandra Asikritov, Lydia, sheep (her husband's), Igor, Olga, Eugene, Anna, Arkady, Nina, Vadim, Marina, Ivan, Elena, Vyacheslav, Alexander.
The Arkhangelsk mayor has left five sons and eight daughters. Three daughters of James I. inherited his father's work until his last days he worked portrait retouchers. And the interior of Leuzinger long served the Archangelsk, the Photo was very popular in Soviet times.
Vadim Yakovlevich, Leuzinger studied in Arkhangelsk mechanical school. Peter I. With his wife and daughters, Renate and Eleonora lived in Leningrad, where he worked for a shipbuilding plant. He died during the siege in 1942.
Lawyer Vyacheslav Yakovlevich, Leuzinger on trumped-up "case Viklund" was arrested on 22 November 1937 on charges under article 58-6 of the RSFSR criminal code. 13.03.38 he "died" during the investigation in the Arkhangelsk prison after being perfectly healthy. Rehabilitated on 2 January 1957.
Igor Yakovlevich, Leitzinger was educated in the Archangel mechanics mechanical school. Peter I. in 1914, Igor was drafted into the army, where he served as a mechanic for motors, but had a great desire to fly, and when the opportunity arose, he asked for Gatchina school. In Kolchak's army, he mastered flight case, along with the army went to the far East, but in 1919 joined the Red Army. In 1922 Igor Leutzinger served in the Caucasus. People's Commissar Voroshilov confided in this young pilot that was allowed to raise in the air his son. Igor Leutzinger was awarded the first order of the red banner for the struggle against basmachs in 1922. Member of the operation at the CER, he commanded the 26-th Separate air squadron and was awarded a second order of the red banner. Later Igor Yakovlevich served as the chief of flight training of Kachinsky school of pilots in the Crimea. Twice a decorated was arrested by the NKVD in 1938, and in 1939 released, and in 1943 he died of a heart attack.
Arkady Yakovlevich, Leisinger served in "Selhozprodukti". In the "case Viklund" was arrested on February 23, 1938 on charges under article 58-6, part 1 of the RSFSR criminal code and sentenced by a Troika of the NKVD in the Northern region to capital punishment. Shot on November 31, 1938. Rehabilitated on 28 may 1956.
Today, the descendants of one of the most famous Arkhangelsk photographers live in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kharkov and Arkhangelsk-a city that, thanks to its photos, rediscovered for its residents Yakov Ivanovich Leutzinger. The name of the mayor and the talented photographer has this year Arkhangelsk school # 14. But when in this city we will see the street named after Jacob Leutzinger. In honor of executioners-security officers Uritsky, Volodarsky and Kedrov streets in Arkhangelsk is, and the best mayor forgotten. This is weird.
Members of the expedition proceeded along and across the Kola Peninsula, passed the coast of the White sea, rose to the upper Pechora, Mezen, Pinega, made a difficult journey to the New Land.
Jacob Leutzinger captured the life of the inhabitants of these places — fishermen, peasants, reindeer herders, removed Pomors and native inhabitants of the North — Nenets, Saami and many others.
Some of the many photographs were included in a book published soon of Engelhart "Russian North. Travel notes" (St. Petersburg)., 1897).
It was a species on the Murmansk coast and crafts, encampments and settlements of Pechenga and Trifonov - Pechenga monastery, Kandalaksha, Umba, or Prince's Lips, Cola etc.
Part of the images Yakov Ivanovich subsequently published in Moscow in the form of postcards. They were sold out so quickly that some foreign firms also took up the publication of postcards with photos of the Archangel master.
Another Archangel Governor Ivan Sosnovsky repeatedly invited Yakov Ivanovich with him on trips, the result of which again were photos of the vast expanses of Karelia, cut off from the indigenous Russia by lakes and swamps, the Saami Pogost of the Pechersk region and its river, Ukhta with its oil deposits, people living in these parts: Russians, who have long inhabited these remote places, Nenets, who were then called "Samoyed", lopari and Komi hunters, fishermen, farmers.
The postcards made the negatives Yakov Ivanovich, they were portrayed with reindeer and dog teams, hunting and fishing, near the tents on the tundra and on the Islands of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. It is possible to imagine how many difficulties and deprivations Yakov Ivanovich who worked in marching conditions with the equipment bulky and imperfect at that time tested
We should also mention a number of visits by the photographer to Solovki. Thanks to him, we can see what the monastery looked like at that time, see the rooms that have not yet been destroyed, the library, other interiors of the Northern monastery, completely destroyed under Soviet rule, we can see the life of monks and workers – voluntary and unpaid workers who performed all the main works in the monastery.
Of all the trips he brought a lot of pictures, sent them to many magazines in the North without taking fees, which is difficult to imagine today. His best works were published in the illustrated album of Arkhangelsk province "North edge". Numerous postcards were also published.
Yakov Ivanovich fascinated by his example of others, and the occupation of photography in the Arkhangelsk North became a mass character. Cameras took in hands doctors, teachers and even peasants. In may 1909, the lovers were United in the large Arkhangelsk photographic society. James Leitzinger was among the founders of this Association. Yakov Ivanovich participated in many exhibitions and for his art was awarded medals Daguerre (founder photos) and Russian geographical society.
On his pictures and today you can see what lived Arkhangelsk, which was a major port, engaged in fishing, built ships, harvested and exported wood, hence the polar expedition. Free and enterprising people lived here from time immemorial, merchant ships from abroad came here, and foreign language was often heard on the streets of the city. Many pictures of Jacob Leutzinger-documentary illustrations for this figurative description: fish piers, fairs, trade in fresh fish, all sorts of festivals and genre scenes and, of course, the events – joyful, unusual and even dramatic.
Yakov Ivanovich actively engaged in social activities. In 1894 he became the head of the free fire company, which helped the city fire brigade to fight the fires that devastate wooden Arkhangelsk.
Thanks to its activity, the work of the fire truck has improved, a fire alarm system has been created. Yakov Ivanovich was awarded a silver medal on the ribbon of the order of St. Anne and an honorary fire helmet for his great services in the "fire-fighting field".
What's interesting about this man is his modesty. As the great-granddaughter Natalya tselikova told him,"Yakov Ivanovich, being seriously ill, refused a half of the sum allocated by the city Duma for its treatment, having returned them to the budget". It is difficult to imagine today the modern mayor who would refuse money.
Left Yakov Ivanovich of life September 2, 1914 at the age of 59 years. "Arkhangelsk photographic society with deep sorrow announces the passing of their honorary member and founder of Yakov Ivanovich Leitzinger" ("Arkhangelsk" ["Arkhangelsk city news"?], 1914, 4 Sep, No. 198, p. 1). "Arkhangelsk city news" 1914, №11-12, p. 66: "the minutes of the meeting of the City Duma on October 28. Reported: the Protocol of the Finance Committee on the question of issuing payment to the family of J. I. Lazinger; the Commission, taking into account the merits of Ya. I. extended them for 10 years service to the city, as well as material the failure to provide for his numerous family, the Commission found it possible to assign the family of the deceased, assistance from the city in the amount of 1000 rubles a year, spending nessacery [?] credit for the cost estimates of the city including unnecessary expenditures. Resolved: the city Council by closed balloting, on the majority of votes (26, against 4), the conclusion of the financial Commission to approve".
In 1897 photographer-firefighter elected Member (Deputy) of the Arkhangelsk city Duma. In its composition it is involved in many committees to improve the municipal economy. In 1898, J. I. Leutzinger became a member of the Board of Trustees of the Arkhangelsk city public Museum, and from 1902 he took the place of the head of the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael. Active Deputy activity was noticed by colleagues. In 1903, the councillors elect Yakov Ivanovich on a post of the mayor (mayor) of Arkhangelsk. He was the first mayor chosen from middle-class. Before it, the capital of the North was mainly headed by merchants, as well as commercial and state advisers.
Arkhangelsk mayor J. I., Leitzinger remained until his death on 2 September 1914, four times elected to the post (*except for him 4 times he was the mayor of Arkhangelsk and lumberman William wilghelmovich, Hoevelaken). During his eleven-year service in this position, James I. was able to 2-fold increase in urban incomes. If it were carried out extensive work on the landscaping, laid water pipes, built a few schools, two foster peace and dispensary. It was Jacob Leutzinger who initiated the construction of the city power plant and the tram line. For conscientious execution of the duties in 1908 Yakov Ivanovich was awarded with a rank of the personal honourable citizen, and in 1912 to it the silver medal "for diligence" for carrying on a neck on the Vladimir tape, in 1909-m he became the owner of a light bronze medal on the Andreevsky tape for carrying on a breast was granted. Was also marked by sign in memory of the 300th anniversary of the reign of the house of Romanov and gilded sign Department institutions of the Empress.
During the service on city Affairs it never took vacations, but, being deeply believing, only briefly left for visit of monasteries Solovetsky, verkolsky, antoniyevo-Siysky... and always the camera was his inseparable companion.
These pictures are not only a unique visual material, telling about the long-gone life, but also a stunning documentary help to restorers, step by step trying to restore the former appearance of this unique place. It Solovki cycle even appeared in the collection of the Romanov dynasty (located in the library of Emperor Nicholas II), and in the book "Russia in the past and present", published to mark the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, Yakov Leitsinger dedicated to one of the articles.
Chronicles of the ancient genus PEC (Paetz), little-known pages of history from the XIV century to the present day
Light memory of Evgeny Petrovich Bozhko, historian-researcher