A year before his departure, Arnold Petrovic PEC came to Petrozavodsk, we talked a lot about the German settlement in Arkhangelsk, about our close and distant relatives and their different destinies. Remembered the war. Arnold Petrovic, as well as my father Pyotr Fedorovich, spent at the front from the 1st to the last day, both picked up and war with Japan as a part of 1 far East front. Remembered and relatives who were at war on other party.
My great-grandfather Ingvard PEC lived his childhood and youth in Germany, 7 years served in the troops of Kaiser Wilhelm I, but did not fight with Russia, because until 1914 these countries were in friendly relations. Others our relatives actively "mark" the troops of the Wehrmacht. Vladimir von Essen, son of Anna PEC and Nikolai Mikhailovich von Essen, died in 1944 in the Balkans in his 22nd year in command of the German army reconnaissance. Famous historian Heinrich Meyer von Altz spent the war in the Department of Admiral Canaris (abver, analytical group), and Professor of the University of Marburg Eric Amburger with the beginning of the war was on the Eastern front of the Ober-corporal in the construction battalion. In may 1945, he was in Prague in Soviet captivity, from which, after checking in special camps NKVD in Romania in September was released.
Of course, we were interested in, who was sentenced to death by the Nuremberg court, Oswald Ludwig Pohl. He was born in 1892 in the city of Duisburg (*North Rhine-Westphalia), the son of master steel mill Hermann Otto Emil Paul and his wife Auguste Pohl (ur. Seifert.) Oswald was the fifth of eight children. With six years study in elementary school where he showed great ability in mathematics. After graduating from high school in 1912, he joined the Imperial Navy, studied at the Treasurer, then served in this position on torpedo boats and destroyers, on the cruiser "Condor" and in the mine division "Flanders", as well as in the volunteer brigade von Levenfeld. After graduating from the naval Academy, Oswald settled in Kiel, where he became senior Treasurer in the Finance Department of the General staff of the Navy. For participation in the First world war Oswald was awarded several medals, including Iron cross 2nd class. After the war, Paul began to study the theory of state and law at Christian Albrecht University in Kiel.
In the humiliating Treaty of Versailles, signed on 28 June 1919, Germany turned the hands — in addition to colonies, the country lost West Prussia, Memel and the Saar region, Poznan, Upper Silesia and Alsace-Lorraine. The great nation remained poor, divided into parts unable to defend itself, and five and a half million Germans suddenly found themselves citizens of Poland, France, Denmark, Belgium and Czechoslovakia. Even little Lithuania got their share — the old German city of Memel, which was hastily renamed to Klaipeda. The blame for the beginning of the war was laid on Germany, which was to reimburse the allies for the costs – two hundred seventy billion gold marks, i.e. about one hundred thousand tons of gold. Then, the amount was reviewed many times, but finally paid by the Germans only in October 2010.
National humiliation, shameful loss, cursed Jewish oligarchs, according to the inhabitants organized the revolution and plundered the unfortunate German people before and after the war — life in the Weimar Republic is a daily struggle for survival. Crisis, inflation, when the bowl of soup becomes more expensive with food. Paul Oswald soon left the University, joined the Volunteer corps and in March 1920 of taking part in "Kapowski" putsch, a failed coup to overthrow the government of the Weimar Republic and establish a military dictatorship. Then the Berliners "enjoyed" the spectacle of artillery shelling of the Parliament building. But in Germany, a General strike began, in which 12 million people participated, which disrupted the plans of the putsch, who counted on the support of the population. The regular army also did not support the putsch, which was eliminated within 5 days.
Under the slogan of the return of generals in power reichspresident became Paul von Hindenburg (*field Marshal, commander of the German army in 1916-1917), elected head of state in the national elections. In the same year, Oswald, like many other military involved in the coup, were employed now in the new Navy of the Weimar Republic (Reichsmarine) in the position of stabsleiter (stubstance).
A huge amount of reparations, recovered from Germany, led to the impoverishment of large masses of the population. But most importantly, the Germans are tired of repenting to all! To take away property, weapons, gold and warships – it was still possible to endure. But to destroy the honor and dignity – too much! The shame of the Treaty of Versailles did not leave the hearts of the Germans! The humiliated nation demanded revenge and was ready to go after any politician who will return to the country former greatness, will bring prosperity to German families. And such a person was found.
No one thought then that leader will become the leader of the storm troopers marching through the streets of German cities and not grusauskas to earn the dispersal of rallies and demonstrations. No one then believed that the Fuhrer will fulfill all his promises. In difficult circumstances, when The German Republic broke under the weight of depression 1929-34 years, when Germany had 7 million unemployed, against the backdrop of mass bankruptcy enterprises Hitler became Chancellor of the third Reich at the invitation of President Hindenburg and begins to turn the country length and length.
And although a decree of 28 February 1933, signed by the President and Chancellor, abolished the provisions of the Weimar Constitution, which guaranteed the inviolability of person, freedom of speech and freedom of the press, right of Assembly and privacy of correspondence, and secret state police (Gestapo) were given almost unlimited power over the people, in three years Hitler had prayed almost the entire German people (*Although well-known banker, Hjalmar Schacht, initially supported the Nazi party and became a propagandist of the Nazi party among the leading German Industrialists, subsequently, rejecting ideas brown, said, what is it- " ... heterogeneous gathering of state managers." Mines did not hide his rejection of fascism quite strongly, not afraid to say, for example, in 1942 the führer that Germany would lose the war started).
Work and a piece of bread was given each and parasitism punished with imprisonment, as a way of life, unworthy of a German. Even forcibly occupied by the Germans did not complain: in public works they were paid ten times more unemployment benefits. On the walls the wind flapped the banner of the swastika. Military bands rattled, and thousands crowds of inhabitants of the cities roared: "Sieg Heil, Sieg Heil, Sieg Heil..." the English newspaper, "daily mail" on October 10, 1933 wrote: "... Germany was lucky to find the leader capable to unite forces of all country for work for the common good".
According to the American magazine "Time" for January 2, 1939 "Man of the year-1938" was Adolf Hitler "for the spread of democracy around the world"!
The Fuhrer received the impoverished country and endangered the unemployed, is trying to improve the situation of the German people. It was people, and why it has become wildly popular. And the democratic civilized West graciously appreciated it, as evidenced by her nomination in 1939 Hitler for the Nobel prize for peace in Europe. But on 1 September 1939 did not "Polish sabotage group" take over the radio station in Gleiwitz as "accidentally" happened around the German army began the war, and the führer became a Nobel laureate.
The Fuhrer took into account the mistakes of the past, but first he forced all hesitant to think only about Germany, worthy again to become a great country equal to other powers. The so-called opposition parties were banned. Shut down printing, print dirty books, but books involving people "false ideas" publicly burned. Eliminated and Newspapers, poisonous sensational nonsense people. Goebbels explains Germany, that national socialism is socialism only for the Germans. In the Manifesto of the Nazi party stated: "... We demand a ruthless struggle against all who by their activities harm the common interest. Criminal loan shark and speculators shall be punished with death, regardless of religion and nationality."
The Fuhrer didn't nationalize, and put the hosts in the rigid framework of a single economic plan, most controlling, where is the profit. The credo of the Nazi party – the person belongs to the state, and the same applies to private enterprise. Some businesses were immediately confiscated, with the rest levied a tax on capital.
The Nazi government is a herd arbiter over labor relations. A firm working day, paid leave, old-age guarantees were introduced. Nothing to solve the old trade unions were dissolved — the country does not need rallies — broadcast propagandists of the Fuhrer, the country must prosperity and rightful place in the world. Now on large factories were dining room, sports Playground, and sometimes and Wilkes. All questions were decided by the "Troika": the new Union boss, the representative of the party and the entrepreneur. Exports were put under control, and the owners were forbidden to keep money abroad. Income from Commerce was invested in production. No one was complaining, but the money was more. The government guaranteed the order and buy the products.
The Germans sighed with relief, finding the social world and believing in the greatness of Germany. No one was on strike, starving or afraid to stay on the street. Factories and fields needed more workers. For the poor, state apartments were built, which could be bought in installments. Under the cheerful music the demolition of the barracks in the slums. The German was forbidden to live in poverty. At the wedding ceremony, each married couple was given "main Kampf". The more children were born in the family, the more the state helped. The worker could have a rest for a third of the price, being attached to cultural values once available only to aristocrats. The rest was paid extra by the new Union. 1500 miles of magnificent highways, projects of cheap cars and privileges for simple workers, grandiose plans for reconstruction of the German cities were constructed – all this forced Germans to be proud!
What the Nazi party did in Germany in less than six years, was made under a storm of applause of the majority of Germans and plunged the world into shock. The Nazi party raised the nation's post-war decadence, and Germany United under the banner of the swastika. What Adolf Hitler & Co. did to the Germans at the time, plunged the world into shock.
The Nazi party required a fanatically loyal and faithful people, media, ideas of national socialism, "physically healthy, with a strong character, determined and energetic." Using a wide variety of social and nationalist ideologies, the Nazis sought to attract young people by using their political inexperience. Already in 1922, Hess, Hitler's Secretary personally organized in Munich from students of the youth battalion of SA — "Hitler youth" as a youth division assault troops. In Hitler youth, topics such as racial theory, population policy, German history and political studies were given the highest priority. In the foreground were the "Dominant race" and politics towards Jews, in history — Hitler's biography, the history of the NSDAP, political studies, and the greatest attention was paid to the countries of fascism. But much more important than the mental education was physical education. For boys built huge sports complexes-culture of a body is a priority of the true German. The basis for sports development was put competitions, including the firing of firearms. Boys growing up in pious awe in front of tanks, planes, bazookas, they pronounced the names of Hitler, Goebbels, Goering, how to pronounce the names of saints. Every summer, teenagers spent in free camps. The instructors of "Hitler Youth" made of them close-knit squads of future Wehrmacht soldiers marching under the red banner with a black swastika and a fierce battle of drums. "Hitler youth" participated everywhere in the election campaign. They distributed leaflets and brochures, pasted posters and wrote slogans on the walls. Solemn processions, propaganda marches and parades, military games, sports competitions, tourist trips, youth gatherings, international meetings with members of youth fascist associations of Italy and other countries were organized. Joint life made "Hitler youth" very attractive for young people. At the end of the war of the "volunteers "Hitler youth" 14-16 years of age formed the groups "Werwolf" (werewolf). They had to fight to the last breath, covering departure of parts of Wehrmacht, to make diversionary acts in the back of troops of the anti-Hitler coalition. Even after the surrender of Germany, some "werewolves continued to carry out their combat missions, because they did not receive an order to cancel them. In 1943 he was even formed armored division of the Waffen-SS "Hitler youth" (*12. SS-Panzer-Division "Hitlerjugend"), consisting mainly of members" Hitler youth " and used on the Western and Eastern fronts. The remnants of the division surrendered to the troops of the U.S. 7th army only may 8, 1945.
Women have tried to be removed from physical work by law. It was necessary to give birth and raise children. A special law even forbade to build apartments of less than three rooms – children need a place to play.
National socialism called to put the common good above the personal, to think about the nation, to be honest, decent and faithful. However, honest, decent and faithful had to be only to members of his race. The new system was intended exclusively for Germans. Meanwhile, Germany turned into a country of standard people, walking goose pace under the tune of Hitler, where ten-year-old boys learned to throw hand grenades, and women were seen as tools for reproduction.
Paul Oswald remembered the reason for the defeat of Germany, the stab in the back. Ready to continue to fight the army of Kaiser Wilhelm II stood on the threshold of Paris. Another decisive blow... But reprobate in the rear of the false red propaganda and deceived by corrupt liberals, the Germans themselves have destroyed their great Empire. So, without much thought in 1925, Oswald joined the SA (Sturmabteilung) storm troopers, created on the basis of "Volunteer corps" and then in the Nazi party (ticket No. 30 842).
In 1924 he was transferred to Swinemünde, where he was named ortsgruppenleiter — head of the cell of the NSDAP and commander of units SA. In 1932, Oswald Paul made in obersturmführer SA (*by the way, the Nuremberg trial did not recognize the members of the SA as a criminal group) and he received the title of chief Treasurer of the Navy. Oswald settled in Kiel and was there since 1933 a member of the city Council.
In 1934, the SS was formed and its leader, Heinrich Himmler, wanted to Supplement the leadership of the SS staff of competent, hardworking and loyal professionals. Especially acutely he needed in good financier. At the traditional Maritime festival in Kiel, Reichsleiter Himmler met Oswald Paul and, knowing that he was distinguished by organizational talent, incredible energy and ambition, asked him to think about the position of the head of the financial Department in the administrative Department of the SS. At first, Paul rejected the proposal, as he had already made a good career in the Navy, having more than 500 people, mostly women. Paul didn't want to go into the SS but Himmler pressed, assuring them that they will have to deal mainly with finances.
Paul Oswald wrote later: "Himmler was very persistent and wrote me another letter, with a request to take over the leadership of the administrative organization of the SS... He invited me to Berlin and Munich and showed me the whole administrative apparatus, which had to lead ..." SS was then a relatively small organization, and Oswald eventually agreed: "... I saw that this job fits me, and finally accepted his proposal..." In February, 1934 Paul, attaining the rank of major, becoming the head of administrative Department of the SS, that was one of the many, is not the main units.
".... I started by setting up administrative teams in various key cities, and selecting the staff that would be right for the job. I opened schools that taught these administrative officials for weeks before they could head my branches across Germany. I have reached the proper management, streamlining accounting and financial matters..." Oswald and he learns — he goes to the Imperial command school, after which, was recommended by the head of school to the position of brigade commander.
The English writer Adrian weale, the author of the book "the SS: a New history" writes: "Before January 1933, much of the funding for SS came from membership dues, with occasional subsidies from the headquarters of the party for special projects, but when the SS began to take the functions of the state, then more and more began to receive state funding. Here Oswald Paul really left his mark. In spite of the supposedly revolutionary nature of the National socialist government, the expenditure had to be justified, formulated budgets and fiscal integrity is maintained in accordance with the requirements. With experience, both in the civil service and in the party, Paul, drawing on his many years of experience in the Maritime administration, managed to achieve all this."
In June 1935, after the reorganization of the governing bodies of the SS, Oswald Pohl was appointed Imperial Treasurer, and head of the administrative Directorate in the chief Directorate of the SS. 20 APR 1939, Himmler expanded the duties of Oswald — his office was a separate main administrative Department- WVHA (Wirtschafts-und VerwaltungsHauptAmt). Paul was in fact a key figure in the economy of the third Reich, as in his hands were concentrated the huge Finance SS. In June 1939, Oswald was appointed Minister of internal Affairs (ministerialdirektor) of the Ministry of internal Affairs and became responsible for all administrative and economic matters of the SS. April 20, 1942, Oswald Pohl received the rank of obergruppenführer. In March 1943 Himmler ordered the Field to take part in the administrative work of the concentration camps, bringing them to the Inspectorate from the authority of the chief of staff of the units of the Totenkopf SS. The orders of Himmler, which read: "..the responsibility for monitoring the economic issues related to the concentration camps and for using them for work lies with obergruppenführer SS Polja".
Who in Germany could oppose the party, who worked in the German land of Paradise. Pathetic bunch of dissidents along with the dregs of society he served his sentence in concentration camps. Even honest Communists realized that they, first of all, Germans! They resolutely tore with their functionaries without the hindrance of swelling the ranks of the party, leading the country to total national happiness. Many members of the "red front" often joined the whole troops in SA. Berlin wit called them steaks-brown on the outside and red on the inside
Treasurer and financial Director of the "black order" Oswald Paul believed that the main function of the Main economic management is to find additional financial resources for the needs of the SS. Colleagues jokingly referred to the Field of "Il Duce". He really was outwardly similar to Mussolini, however, and part of the vanity and ambition is hardly inferior to the Italian dictator.
From left to right — gruppenfuhrer Richard Glyuks, Obergruppenfuhrer August Franz, obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl, gruppenführer Georg Lerner, Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kammler
The structure of the Chief administrative office (WVHA):
DEPARTMENT a: command and control (head – SS-obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen SS and police August Frank). Management "a I": economic. Management "And" II: questions of remuneration. Management "And III": the legal. Office "a IV": audit. Management "a V": frames.
DEPARTMENT: military economy (head of the SS gruppenführer and Lieutenant General of the Waffen SS Hans Lerner). Management "I": the supply of food. Management "in II": ware allowance. Management "b III": apartment-operational. Management of "IV" as a source of fuel.
The DEPARTMENT of the construction (head – SS-obergruppenführer and Waffen SS General Hans Kammler, a qualified engineer). Governance "With I": common questions. The management of "II": specific tasks (construction of special structures). Management "C III": technical (construction of engineering structures). Management "C IV": architectural. Management "C V": Central construction inspection. Control "VI": Economics and security-building. Hans Kammler was building with the same zeal the gas chambers in Auschwitz and pad for rockets "FAU 1 and 2»
DEPARTMENT "D": the concentration camp (head – Obergruppenfuhrer, Waffen SS General Theodor Eicke, then SS-gruppenführer and Lieutenant General of the SS Richard Glyuks). Office "D I": Central (chief – Rudolf Hess). He was engaged in issues of detention and their protection. Managers "D II": labor use of prisoners (head – Gerhard Maurer). Office "D III": health (chief-Enno Lolling). It solved the issues of medical support. Control "D IV": the management of concentration camps (the chief – Carl Burger). He was entrusted with matters of financial activities, procurement and legal.
DEPARTMENT "W": (head – oberfuhrer SS Hans Bayer) — concern" German economic and industrial enterprises "Management" W I": stone mining on the territory of the Reich. Management "W II": extraction of stone in the East. Management "W III": the production of food. Management "W IV": the woodworking industry. Management "W V": agriculture and forestry. Management "W VI": textile and leather production. Management "W, VII": the book-publishing business. Management "W VIII": a special task (*here Paul Oswald founded the "society for the preservation and strengthening of German cultural monuments"), the Fund of the Externsteine, the Foundation for the memory of king Henry, and resorts (*Oswald Pohl was the Chairman of the Board of the German red cross).
As head of facilities management Paul Oswald exercised control over the organization, consisting of 5 divisions and 28 sections and personnel, which at the maximum the number exceeded 1,700 employees. The energetic financier took the whole branches of economy of the country to hands, heading at the same time and all enormous industrial Empire which he created in system of Department "W".
As a result of military failures suffered by the Wehrmacht on the Eastern front, especially in the battles of winter 1941 and 1942, the role of WVHA in the German economy has increased dramatically. Heavy material losses led Hitler to decide to increase the production of weapons. It was announced about the change of policy of the Reich, resulting in the concentration camps of the places where just the prisoners were held, was turned into a place where free use of work and energy for the benefit of the military plans of the Reich.
Reloaded with his basic duties, Paul naively believed that concentration camps, among others, perform the task of re-education by work. It is only necessary to make available in the camp crafts items cost-effective, and in modern conditions, when the German economy is experiencing labour shortages, they may be an additional labor provided by owners of various enterprises. The mutual benefit is obvious, since the labor of prisoners practically does not affect the cost of production.
Neither Paul nor the main administrative and economic management had nothing to do with the room of inmates to concentration camps nor their liberation, with the exception of cases when prisoners were liberated by death. Neither Paul nor any of the other members of the General administration had the right to order the execution of prisoners in concentration camps. There is also no evidence that Paul or other staff members of the office have attempted to exercise such a prerogative. The order to carry out executions came either from the secret state police or from Himmler personally. The greatest part of the task of increasing the number of prisoners fell on the security police and on the SD, although it is clear that a lot of assistance in this regard was provided by the SS and the Wehrmacht.
Paul in his testimony claimed that the inclusion in the main administrative-economic Department, "D", which dealt exclusively with the issues of concentration camps, was a more formal than actual obedience. He also claimed that this division, which was led by Glyuks, continued to function more or less independently and the main part of the received orders directly from Himmler. This is true because the heads of Department "D" unfriendly perceived the fact of its subordination to the Field and continued to look at Himmler, as for instance, directly giving them orders.
At the trial at Nuremberg Colonel Kurt Schmidt-Klevenow, associate Management and Administration, gave a written statement that Oswald Pohl was made of strict discipline from the administration and protection of the concentration camps and had the full support of Konrad Morgen from the Department of criminal police, whose duties included the investigation of violations in the concentration camps. And when the commandant of Buchenwald, Koch, indicted by the Tribunal in a criminal violation of service norms, was sentenced to death, Paul spoke in support of the verdict, for which Karl Koch was executed on 5 April 1945.
Always ready to increase the influence of the SS, Himmler received permission from the Fuhrer to begin construction of military factories in the pow camps. He personally ordered Richard Glücks to provide thousands of prisoners for new weapons projects. (* Until his death 26 February 1943, chief inspector of the concentration camps were Theodor Eicke, the first commander of the 3rd Panzer division SS "Dead head" ("Totenkopf"), one of the creators of the concentration camp system in Germany, one of the organizers of "Night of the long knives" and personally killed starfarer stormtroopers Ernst Rohm. But the actual head Of the inspection of concentration camps since 1939 was his Deputy Richard Glux).
Wishing to stop the ill-treatment of prisoners, Oswald Paul tried to take control of the concentration camp administration and collided with Theodor Eike. Renowned British historian Andrew Mollo wrote in 1982: "Pohl insisted on better treatment in the camp, the SS men were forbidden to strike, kick or even touch a prisoner. Prisoners had to be better placed and fed, and show interest in their work..." the Researcher argues that Paul's policy prevented the deaths of thousands of prisoners concentration camps.
Antifascist Henry Hepker said no trial in Nuremberg that during his visit to Oswald Field, he saw the prisoners of the nearby concentration camp, who worked the territory. He said they were working without haste, without any prodding from the guards. Another Hopker argued that in the Field there was no hostility to the Jews, and he did not mind that his wife had contacts with his Jewish friend Anne-Marie and Jacques would have taken her in their home.
Paul Oswald was organized in the camps professional courses and introduced incentives for the best workers. The order given to them stated that particularly hard-working prisoners should be given additional portions of food and tobacco and should be allowed a permanent visit to the camp brothel. Paul also defined fees for this last type of service and established a system of income-sharing among female prisoners, the female head and the General administration.
Oswald complains to Himmler: "Reich Minister Speer does not seem to know that at present we are constantly fighting epidemics and high mortality due to non-compliance with sanitary norms..." but Himmler in one of the letters to Richard Glücks "approves" the delivery of food packages, allowing all prisoners to take unlimited food packages.
Even the Nuremberg Tribunal concluded that " ... the food experiments to which Oswald Paul had shown great interest were not related to the use of poisons, but merely legitimate experiments to establish the nutritional value of food. Of course, there was no element of crime in such experiments." Of course not, but had a superficial knowledge of the Field of camp life!
Because of the heavy bombardment of factories in the camps and the damage to products, Himmler suggested that the Field build factories to produce military materials in natural caves, underground tunnels and quarries, assuming that by the summer of 1944 it is necessary to have as many as possible such bomb shelters in the workplace . Paul Oswald wrote: "...brigadeführer Kammler succeeded in creating underground workshops and living quarters cave system in the Harz mountains in Central Germany ..." was Created by Hans Kammler "special headquarters" gradually came under the jurisdiction of Himmler and Kammler began to call themselves "asboolean reichsführer SS".
It is known that Hans Kammler, the author of the project of the five-year program on the organization of the SS concentration camps in the occupied territories of the USSR and Norway, was also the curator of the mass of the most important scientific, industrial and military projects of the III Reich. He was also responsible for the classified project of the Reich missile program — "weapons of retribution", which neither the head of Luftwaffe Goering, nor the Minister of arms Speer, nor even Oswald Paul. Kammler directly accountable only to Himmler and Hitler, who in the last months of the war as a straw clutched at secret military development "specstab Hans Kammler". Already on 6 February 1944 Hitler with the wording "life" of the Kammler was appointed as the curator of the production of all aircraft weapons of Germany.
Kammler's factories produced me 262 jet fighters, anti-aircraft lasers and submarines the Midgard Serpent. Also, Kammler supervised the work on the" solar gun", which was a mirror-reflector with a diameter of 200 meters, concentrating solar energy. If such weapons are still made, it would be possible to burn for just a moment the whole city (*the Fuehrer has abandoned this project as too costly). Since Himmler was appointed commander of the reserve army after the assassination attempt on Hitler (July 20, 1944), he subordinated the missile units of the North and South groups to Kammler. As a result, by December 31, 1944 in London and Antwerp in 1560 was issued missiles "FAU 2". In early 1945, 5 anti-aircraft division with rockets "FAU 1" was also subordinated to the Kammler, and he began to obey Hitler personally. The success of the main Department of Reich security main administrative and economic management allowed Himmler to hope that the day is near when the SS stand at the head of the state.
Albert Speer in his memoirs, "the Third Reich from the inside" (Chapter "Errors, secret weapons and SS") about the technological developments wrote: "the Jet was not the only effective type of new weapons launched by us in mass production in 1944 (*but Hitler chose to use this aircraft as a bomber, and not as superior to any allied aircraft, fighter). We had a rocket with remote control, which has an even greater speed than jet aircraft – the rocket-projectile, homing on the target by thermal radiation of the engines of enemy aircraft. And a torpedo that reacts to noise and can chase an enemy ship along a zigzag path. Also, the development of the earth-to-air missile was completed, and Lippish designed the flying wing aircraft, far ahead of its time. We literally choked with the abundance of new projects, and if we focused only on a few models, we would certainly have started their production much earlier."
The German scientists really managed to develop many advanced types of the arms which did not have analogs in the world for that time, but to apply them in full in military operations them and it wasn't succeeded. The Germans were able to build an atomic bomb, but it never happened. And in the course of the war has changed not in favor of Germany, and after the defeat of almost all scientific ideas or discoveries were immediately being pulled by the Victor countries, which subsequently did not prevent them not to burn with shame as someone else's thoughts as their own.
Aggression against the USSR, with its vast spaces, turned into a catastrophe for Germany, after its armed forces suffered heavy losses on the Eastern front. Why Paul Oswald not allowed to take advantage of "evacuation team", created in 1944 parteigenosse Bormann, who at the beginning of may 1945 mysteriously disappeared from the besieged Berlin? Paul first hid in Bavaria, then near Bremen, and in may 1946 was discovered on a farm where he was with other people's documents under the guise of a worker.
After Oswald Paul was captured, he was taken to Nenndorf, where British soldiers tied him to a chair and beat him to a feeling of insanity. At the subsequent repeated beatings feet and a whip he lost two teeth. The fields were kept in absolutely inhumane conditions, tortured, deprived of sleep, abused, for example, face smeared with filth, until he signed what was required of him. He was then transported to Nuremberg, where American military investigators (most of whom were Jews) intensively treated Oswald Paul for six months during hours of interrogation, as he put it, "of its kind, much more severe mental torture." All such interrogations was about 70. Throughout this period, he had no access to a lawyer or any other assistance. Oswald Paul was tried to blame Endlösung-the final solution to the Jewish question, the murder of 30 million people and the doom to death of 10 million people. But Paul stated that the investigators knew perfectly well that all these accusations were false, and had only the purpose of breaking his resistance. "Since I am not emotionally fat, this diabolical intimidation was not unsuccessful, and investigators achieved what they wanted: not the truth, but the statements that served their needs," he wrote. Paul was forced to sign false written statements written for him by investigators, which were later used against him in court. As he recalled: "Whenever genuine documents did not correspond to what the prosecution wanted or were insufficient for a conviction, then used these "written affidavits".
American officials also used false witnesses. When these works (affidavits) did not yield the results necessary for prosecutors of charge, they brought the so-called "main witnesses", or rather, paid witnesses. A whole series of these dubious, despicable characters played their heinous role in Nuremberg. They included high-level government officials, generals and intellectuals, as well as prisoners, mentally deficient and outspoken recidivist criminals. During the trial over the Field as the "main witness" appeared a Otto (Otto) from a mental hospital. His previous way of life was typical for any hardened criminal. The same is true in relation to prosecution witness Cruziana (Krusial) presented in court under oath some of the most impressive fairy-tale narration, which, of course, believed.
Famous American Senator Joseph McCarthy (Joseph McCarthy) told the press: "I have heard and even seen documentary evidence that prisoners were abused, beaten and tortured in ways that can only come up with perverts. Prisoners were subjected to such measures as impromptu sentences and executions, which were abolished at the last moment. They were told that their family members would be withdrawn cards for food or even give them to the Soviet zone. All this was conducted with the approval of the Prosecutor in order to provide a psychological atmosphere designed to knock out the "recognition". As Senator McCarthy pointed out, "... and Oswald Paul signed some denouncing" confessions "under torture, but he had the courage to deny these"confessions" in the courtroom.
(*The tradition of torture to obtain incriminating statements was certainly not limited to post-war Germany. This practice has been systematically used by Americans in many countries. During the Korean war, the torture of Americans had no equal in human imagination. According to numerous eyewitnesses, U.S. soldiers were doused with gasoline and burned people alive, buried alive in the ground, cut off ears and noses, gouged out his eyes, skinned... In Vietnam, said Lieutenant Kelly: "...for young children we had the blue pills, intended for heating briquettes with meals. They look like candy. If they ignite, the flame no, but they heat up to very high temperatures. So, we lit them and threw them to children. Picking them up, they burned hands ... If on the street I met the old man or the old woman, I surely searched them and beat an butt or ordered to follow further, or demanded to show documents, and those who had no documents, but had them many, shot". Thousands of old men, women and children were shot, thrown in bunkers with hand grenades, raped , and then killed, burned in their own huts, maimed, and from their ears and fingers made trophy necklaces (such criminals were called "double veterans").
The same thing happened in Afghanistan and Iraq and at the us base at Guantanamo. According to Amnesty international and other human rights defenders, as well as the testimonies of former prisoners themselves, detainees in guantánamo Bay are still subjected to regular beatings, sexual harassment, threats of rape, hours of kneeling, dog harassment and government-and President-sanctioned torture, including, in the form of imitation of drowning, sleep deprivation, exposure to loud music, etc. It is also considered possible to execute prisoners who have given confessions under torture. And the Pentagon says that this attitude can not be considered inhuman. Who's next? Byelorussia? Iran? Syria?.. Who's next for next?)
The indictment in the WVHA case contains:
Section one-participation from January 1933 to April 1945 in a General plan or conspiracy to commit war crimes and crimes against humanity;
Sections two and three-war crimes and crimes against humanity from September 1939 to April 1945
Section four - membership in the SS recently declared a criminal organization by the international military Tribunal.
An intense drama was happening around the trial on the case of Oswald Field. The main absurd accusation is participation in the implementation of the "final solution of the Jewish question" — a personal guide to the destruction of the Warsaw ghetto. But everyone knew that a secret order of Himmler to destroy the Warsaw ghetto arrived in Warsaw SS-gruppenführer jürgen Stroop, who led the security service in Lviv, Kirovohrad, and Kherson. On April 19, 1943, when German units and the SS Ukrainian-Latvian battalion broke into the ghetto to send Jews to concentration camps, there was a revolt. The prisoners of the ghetto fought desperately, bombs and Molotov cocktails the insurgent opposed by armored vehicles and artillery. "The action-reported jürgen Stroop to Berlin-was completed only on may 16 by the explosion of the Warsaw synagogue." Killed in battle seven thousand of the defenders of the ghetto, and six thousand were burned alive in houses set on fire. The surviving inhabitants of the ghetto were sent to Auschwitz and other camps. Then Himmler gave the order to Oswald to Paul: "the former ghetto, located in the center of the city, you need to completely bulldoze and fill every cellar and every canal. After the work is completed, the area should be covered with land and planted a large Park."
Paul entered into contracts with four private firms that committed themselves to demolishing buildings and transporting 4,500 cubic metres of destroyed buildings on a daily basis. Paul Oswald in any case is not responsible for the death of defenders of the ghetto — on the orders of Himmler, he was responsible only for the removal of debris from the destroyed ghetto. Well-known lawyer, doctor of law Alfred Seidl (Dr. Alfred Seidl), who was the chief lawyer for the defendants at the Nuremberg trials, put a lot of effort to achieve the justification of the Field. Zaidl knew Paul for many years and was convinced of his innocence about the accusations of participation in the genocide of Jews, and he did not change his mind even after the indictment of the Tribunal. He stated that"the prosecution has provided no evidence against Paul".
However, Oswald Paul received the death penalty for the legend, for what, according to the judges " ... under the rubble of buildings had to be the survivors." Any lawyer should say,"it's just incredible." The pinnacle of duplicity Tribunal at Nuremberg was the statement by Prosecutor Paul that "if Germany expelled the Jews from its territory, would take their German citizenship, exclude them from government or took other similar measures, no one would have had nothing against." But in fact, Germany was hit by a flood of insults and economic sanctions just for these same actions, and the measures taken against the Jews were one of the main reasons why Germany was declared war.
And how, for example, Oswald Paul could be accused of plotting to commit war crimes and crimes against humanity, if Paul was only a financier with party number 30842 and never was part of "aufbau", that is, the backbone of the NSDPA, which has long and safely formed without him.
Oswald Paul insisted on his innocence until his death, claiming that he, overloaded with administrative work, was "just a functionary and an expert in management." "As a result of the brutal treatment of me in Nenndorf and the cruel treatment in Nuremberg, psychologically I was a broken man," he wrote. "I was 54 years old. 33 I honestly served his country and was not aware of any crimes." Oswald told his old friend: "As one of the high-ranking officials in the SS, I did not expect to be left alone. However, I also did not expect the death penalty. This is a sentence of retribution." In his last petition to the Nuremberg court, Oswald Paul expressed confidence that some blind hysteria would give way to a just understanding.
Today, there is a clear understanding that all evidence against Oswald Paul is indirect or extracted from it by torture, and that Nuremberg was the first to use a trick where people were accused of crimes under the laws that were created after the Commission of those "crimes". It was formally stated that" the Tribunal shall not be bound by the rules of acceptance of exhibits, but may admit any evidence that will assist in the conduct of the proceedings", i.e., the proof of the accused's guilt. This approach led to the fact that even rumors were admitted by the court as evidence and documents that the normal court would have rejected, but suppressed and blocked testimony that refuted the charges. And the fact that the defence counsel of the accused was not allowed to cross-examine the prosecution witnesses is a flagrant violation of the rules of jurisprudence. In our time this happened in the so-called international Tribunal in the Hague... the Way this Tribunal, U.S. officials threatened and Vladimir Putin... Remember as Iraq, Libya... To turn Syria ?
To death sentenced: Oswald Pohl, Georg Lerner, Carl Sommer, Franz Arensman. Following appeals, the death sentence was approved only by Paul. Lerner's execution was replaced by life imprisonment, in 1951 the sentence was reduced to 15 years. Sommer sentence commuted to 10 years imprisonment, Aresmall — 9 years.
To life imprisonment: August Frank, Max Kiefer, Carl Mummenthey (all but Frank released in 1951, Frank — 1954).
By age 25: Carl Heinz Fanslau (released 1955).
To 15 years: Hans Bobermin (released in 1951).
To 10 years: Johannes Bayer, Hans Lerner, Herman Pook, George Sentner, Leo Volk, Hans Hochberg (released in 1951).
Acquitted: Horst Klein, Joseph Vogt, Rudolf Schade.
Gruppenfuhrer Richard Glücks, who was directly responsible for the order in the KC camps, was arrested by the British in may forty-fifth and committed suicide by biting an ampoule with potassium cyanide, although some historians believe that he disappeared.
Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kammler was one of the most wanted participants of the Second world war, he was sought by the Russians, he was chased by all intelligence, because he knew more about the weapons program. But the name of Kammler was not even mentioned in the Nuremberg trial — an incredible fact, given what an important role played by this man in the circles close to Hitler. Moreover, there is no indication that he even tried to look, like other war criminals.
Kammler first drew Hitler's attention to a neat, hand-painted model of the" modernized " Auschwitz concentration camp (Auschwitz), which was established in may 1940, 60 kilometers West of Krakow, and which as a huge, continuously functioning death factory earned just since the end of 1941. It Kammler belong to the calculations made at the end of 1941, required for the needs of industry in Germany the number of prisoners of the concentration camps: 4 million (three months later, he increased this number to 14 million!). And for some reason, such a person was not convicted, albeit in absentia, although personally responsible for the construction work in the concentration camps and the supply of labor from them, directly led missile attacks against England and the Netherlands.
Dossiers on Kammler, stored in the state archive of the United States, remains classified to this day. According to the latest information, Kammler were transported to the United States for two years was in the hands of us intelligence, who squeezed it all information about "vundervaffe. Then he allegedly committed suicide in his cell. There is also an assumption that at the end of the war Obergruppenfuhrer took the side of the Americans, who transported him to Argentina in exchange for the fact that he gave them his secret development. But who now can say how it really is?
In the five years of the finding of Oswald Field in prison awaiting the death sentence, there were several petitions from members of the Bundestag (President of the Bundestag Hermann Ehlers (CDU) Peter Altmaier (CDU, Minister President of Rhineland-Palatinate), Karl Schmid (SPD) and Walter Strauss (CDU, State Secretary of the Federal Ministry of justice) pardon Field, but after a long series of appeals, after a long process of revision, the sentence was upheld. Oswald said, "I can answer for my orders, but I can't be held responsible for the acts of Himmler. If I had known 34 year, what will face him, I would have stayed in the Navy…»
Oswald Paul never left the Catholic Church, a year before his death, he wrote the book "Credo. My way to God", which was published with the permission of the Church. In the prison of Landsberg to 1932 led the service of the Reverend Monsignor Carl Marginais. He was accompanied by his congregation and on his last walk to the gallows. Before the execution of Oswald Pohl confessed all to the father. Later spiritual mentor Paul recalled: "Oswald Paul-employee from top to toe, very brave, a man of high heart and humanitarian education. He spoke directly, I never was cruel to people and never was the cause of death nor Jew, nor any other person. I rarely met a man who had so much energy, so much willpower as Paul... he said as a prayer: "I thank God for faith...God will help my family."
Oswald was hanged in Landsberg prison on June 7, 1951, claiming his innocence to the end. The last words of Oswald Paul were: "Germany, beware of friends! I'll never forget!"
Pope Pius XII took him under his protection and sent him to the sins. In the Pope's letter it was written: "the Holy father, driven by fatherly love, sends Oswald Paul the requested Apostolic blessing as a sign of heavenly consolation!"
And the charm of Nazism has not disappeared. The ideas that brought the German Nazis to power were not born with them and did not die with them. Nobody in the forty-fifth year did not anticipate that Hitler would be worshiped by a certain part of youth to Western countries, including in Russia. And it's not just that figure in black uniform, marching to a drum roll, fascinate immature imagination. Seven decades after the collapse of the third Reich and the Fuhrer's suicide, fascism seems to cease to be the personification of evil — for the Germans and, most surprisingly, for the Russians. In certain circles of Russian society, views are felt today: after all, the Nazis did not touch a strong owner, they destroyed only Jews and Communists, which may not be so unreasonable.
Some of our fellow citizens can't accept the fact that Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were identical in structure to societies. They are not confused by the fact that the Nazi party was socialist and Nazi ideology — national socialism, and that all the basic principles inherent in the state structure of the third Reich and the USSR are very similar. First of all, it is a rigid social structure, which is absent in individualistic societies. This nomenklatura in the Soviet Union and the party leadership (parteigenosse) in Germany. It is cruelty of a totalitarian regime, and special organs exercising the terror of the NKVD, USSR and the Gestapo in the third Reich. One party, headed by the permanent leader — Stalin and Hitler, the Communist Bolshevik party in the USSR and the NSDAP in the Reich. Shameless voter fraud to discredit and physical destruction of the opposition, rampant corruption and mutual responsibility, nepotism, and cronyism in government, the merging of power and oligarchy, and unbridled social demagoguery.
This is the only true ideology — Marxism-Leninism in the Soviet Union and national socialism in Germany. Monopoly on the media. Dogmatism and centrally managed economy. The hierarchy of society and absolute obedience to the leader of the cult of the state when unbridled "leaderism". The persecution of dissidents and their destruction, inadequate penalties for any manifestation of free thought and the pursuit of justice. Manic search of enemies and" scapegoats", introduction of" snitching", control of society and personal life of people, introduction in consciousness of the people of admissibility of legal arbitrariness, permissiveness for power structures and the power.
These are absolutely identical movements based on shared ideas, and had each their own Bible, "Mein Kampf" in Germany and "a Short course of VKPB" in the USSR. And the way of life of such societies meant sacrificing themselves for a great purpose and the prohibition of any associations not controlled by the regime. And even the philosopher was the forerunner of their one — Hegelianism. The German people supported Hitler and the Soviet people demanded "enemies of the people" dog of death, although these people ("enemies of the people"), nothing was your fault. History shows that the government, if it wants to, turns the people exactly where it needs it.
... Today, in Western countries, the number of favorites of election campaigns are clear followers of the Fuhrer. The presidents of the former Soviet republics, the most affected by the Nazi invasion during the war, give rave reviews about the Fuhrer of the third Reich and confidently apply its methods in their political activities. Yes, many of us, utterly tired of the endless flashing on the screen all sorts of oligarchs, bro, "blue", drug addicts and maniacs, quite differently perceive Germany during Hitler's reign.
A lot of his ideas got into the programs of current Western and Russian politicians who call themselves Democrats. Deportations of illegal migrants and construction of autobahns, physical education of young people and the fight against drug addiction, policing and euthanasia... The heritage of Dr. Goebbels has found itself a rich practical application in modern technologies of mass advertising. Once in the third Reich, the media has molded "perfect Aryan", and now the media in unison with timeless Goebbels principles of "simplicity, repetition, imagery" mold around "ideal customers". Only terms change.
Colleague Eric Amburger, philosopher and Professor of new history at the University of Marburg Ernst Nolte writes: "...those who talk about national socialism do not know and do not want to know that all the actions of the Nazis (not including the technology of destruction in the gas chambers) only repeated the crimes of the Bolsheviks." Nolte considers national socialism to be a direct reaction to the danger of the Communist Bolshevik revolution. Anti-Semitism, from his point of view, became possible when the Bolsheviks moved the implementation of the postulate of the destruction of the bourgeois class and showed the world that may be reprisals of such a gigantic scale. "The national socialists, who were democratically elected by the Germans, had the right to pursue the German Communists, who wanted to establish the Stalinist system in Germany with all its horrors," E. Nolte said.
By the time Ernst Telman was killed in Buchenwald in the summer of 1944, his comrades in the Politburo of the German Communist party Flig, Neumann, Schubbert and Schulte had long been destroyed. But not in the dungeons of the Gestapo and NKVD camps. Their crimes the Germans had committed mostly during the war, when the morality of any people falls sharply.
But "By Auschwitz't we go, says the writer, Nobel prize laureate günter grass. - We should not, as us nor pulling, even try to to commit such a violent an act of, for Auschwitz inseparable from us, is perpetual the birthmark of our history and — this good! — I made it possible to draw one conclusion, which can be formulated as follows: now, at last, we know ourselves."
Ernst Nolte. The European civil war (1917-1945). National socialism and Bolshevism. Moscow: Logos, 2003.
Günter Grass. On the way from Germany to Germany / Unterwegsvon English country. Diary 1990
K. Moczarski. Conversations with the executioner. Warsaw.1972 Kazimierz Moczarski: Conversation with the executioner — the Living SS General Jürgen Stroop. Aufgezeichnetim Mokotów-Gefängniszu. Warsaw.
Walter Niesner (Walter naasner) "Agriculture and the control of the SS" ("SS-WirtschaftundSS management"), düsseldorf, 1998
Albert Nemchinov. The oligarchs in black uniforms. Publisher: Yauza. 2005: year
Peter-Ferdinand Koch: the Grey cardinal of Himmler. Oswald Paul and chief economic and administrative officer of the SS. FACTA Oblita, Hamburg 1988,
Oswald Pohl: Credo – My way to God. edited by Karl in the morning welding. Alois Verlag Girnth, Landshut 1950.
Light memory of Evgeny Petrovich Bozhko, historian-researcher