Dimitry conservatives and the Samoyeds of the tundra
Mirror Shine prison plank
26 Oct 1954, my uncle, Konstantin Y. Koshev returned to Petrozavodsk from the conclusion of the rehabilitation, leaving the "owner" 4 neotrigonia. Thin, unshaven, with yellow eyes. His terrible stories about prisons, services and camps, about stabbing in the barracks and morning of blood on the snow, the OUN and Vlasov, about informers and "masterseek", about the escape and rolled out comrades crashed into my children's memory tightly. In a few months he died at our hands – the bile spilled all over the body, the doctor of polyclinic № 1, Lugansk and didn't think to help ex-con: "...a lot of you here, malingerers, goes". At his funeral, I first saw my grandfather Jacob Dmitrievich, with whom went to the forest for fir branches. He was silent, about anything I haven't asked and he hasn't said anything.
After the funeral, grandpa stayed with us, worked in the city accountant, the summer loved Rybalov, took me with him often not because of employment in sport. Our family was teetotal, but my grandfather put sometimes in the dark the cavern of Braganca for rare postebis.
Came his brother Vasily with his son Alex, a few employees of his grandfather at work; after a couple, the other straskov sang softly an ancient song that my grandfather loved "Evening bells," and "don walks...". I was surprised by his powerful baritone, although Jacob D. was of middle height. Seeing my confusion, mom whispered to me once that my grandfather was a priest, and therefore the voice is, but to tell no one. And yet, he also passed the prisons and camps, but remember this is not love. Gradually, the grandfather began to tell about the lives of campers in 30-x — 40-x years: about the mass executions and foot steps, when the guards were targeting anyone leaving column "... step aside — considered escape..."; that sometimes you want to be alone, and people constantly day and night around you, and nowhere to hide from them, even in the toilet, and sheer swearing at every step; that the camp embitters and cripples the soul; that the sun is shining, and you can't see it, and ahead — full nepriglyadnoy.
After a few years working in the system MOOP familiar security officers gave me a tour and in prison in Petrozavodsk and in the camp of Nadvoitsy and of Medvezhyegorsk, through which passed uncle Kostya – "enemy of the people" and grandpa Yakov Dmitrievich – "the English spy". The biggest impression left by nearly a mirror Shine in some places preserved from the white sea, a wooden plank, polished sides prisoners. How many people must have passed through the GULAG, so these bunks to Polish? And to break the connection with our past, so that we do not know and remember our ancestors. The Soviet years with the persecution, repression, executions, prisons and concentration camps, where survival of the fittest, the deliberate murder of tens of millions of our citizens and led to the appearance of people mankurts – Ivanov, not remembering kinship and their roots, do not observe the fifth commandment: "honor thy father and thy mother, and run for thy days on earth," people who have power removed the hearts and brains, leaving only the stomach. Historical memory, respect for the memory of ancestors for mankurts empty words — man is turned into a servant, the executor of another's will.
In those years, I'm not very interested in the history of my family, otherwise I would not have to collect the crumbs in archives, registry offices and the Internet all the possible details. And how many could tell grandma about your German kind of PEC and German settlement (she was told, not everything stayed in memory), and the grandfather of his father Dmitri Koshiv and his priesthood old believers and travel to the tundra for the treatment of Samoyeds in Orthodoxy, and much more. Later on I started to search for a forgotten past, to answer the question: "Who am I? And who was before me?»
A Letter To The Patriarch.
His Holiness The Patriarch Of Moscow
and all Russia Kirill.
My great-grandfather Dmitry Koshev in the late 1890s he headed Televisiony Samoyed the arrival of the Arkhangelsk and Kholmogory Diocese. According to the book Okladnikova N..and Matafanov N. N."The thorny path to Orthodoxy" in the summer of 1898 he was sent for missionary work at the request of the Nenets in the Orthodox faith on Yugorsky Shar. In his report to the Archangelsk spiritual Consistory about the trip, father Dmitry spoke very disapprovingly about a certain artist AA Borisov during his stay on the Ugra Globe, about the unacceptable attitude of Borisov to Orthodoxy and to Samoyed in particular. Father Dmitry Koshev wrote: "... Borisov I could not understand what religion he is. Any morning or before dinner and and evening, never had any Borisov sign of the cross, not to mention the prayer at dinner and tea constantly swore and when going Russian, then told all the bad jokes about bishops and priests with their additions, and often, after my advice the Samoyed wants to get married, dissuaded them, saying: "So you live better." No religious feelings, I did not notice it; at the table when I read morning and evening prayers, he will certainly start with any of the hares laughter..." (*p. 159-162).
Much has been written about this in the book, and I will not repeat myself, for I know that You, your Holiness, have read this book and have surely noticed The decree of his Imperial Majesty of 22 September 1898, according to which the priest Dmitry Koshev was refused "clergy". The reason was that during his stay at the Outpost Khabarovo on the Ugra Ball he allegedly dabbled in the wine trade. But even from a small fragment of the book it is clear who made Dmitry Koshev, and who was included in those times in circles close to the Royal Court. In Archangelsk Spiritual Consistory did not understand the investigation into the trade of wine father Dmitry Koshev, and the decree of the Consistory followed after the decree of his Imperial Majesty almost a year later. And 12 Aug 1899 father Dimitry was determined psalomshchika place in Personalanalysis parish.
We don't have to deal with each other. Who was in Arkhangelsk in 1899, is such a "found in 1898 in the soldering Samoyed" and baptized by a priest with a tarnished reputation? Strangely?
According to family legend, my ancestors, the don Cossacks Koshevoy, for participating in the "Bulavin rebellion" came in 1709 to prison in Pustozersk, and in 1780 – to Mezen and shenkursky district. Father Dimitri died of pneumonia quite young, leaving his wife with five small children. But I can't find his "track Record" nor in Archangel archive, nor in the Arkhangelsk and Kholmogory Diocese, where he addressed on this occasion.
I kindly ask you, your Holiness, to help restore the bright name of my great-grandfather Dmitry Koshev to his "track Record".
In conclusion, I would like to Express my gratitude to father Alexy (Zharov), priest of the Mezen Epiphany Cathedral. He did not dismiss my request to find in Mezen our relatives Koshev, connection with which was lost for many decades after the conviction of my grandfather James Unknown by article 58. And now we're back together.
Baptized in Orthodoxy, recognize the Symbol of Faith. The Servant Of God, Eugene".
Soon I received a reply from the Moscow Patriarchate.
Father Dmitry was a Baptist tundra
While studying genealogy, I often thought: why do we know so little about the ancestors of our grandfather Jacob, a former Orthodox priest. About who they were, and where originates from the Cat race, my mother told me. But what can be more valuable than communicating with relatives and recreating the portrait of the ancestor and customs of those times. On the Internet I saw the site of the rector of the Epiphany Church of the city of meseni priest Alexy Zharov and asked him to help in the search.
And then came a letter from Naryan-Mar:
"HELLO, EUGENE AND ALL OF OUR RELATIVES!!
I was very touched by Your story about our family history. Tears fled from my eyes involuntarily, so all tragically. Your mom Hello and a bow from us, we would like to see her and to meet you all.As for the photos, one I am very familiar with is Yakov (young). In my childhood I saw them in there, I don't know, does it remain to the present day. In Mezen's only living family Koshev, we – my mother Nina, sister Natalia A. with his son Edward, 11, and brother Andrew, 45 years, lives in Surgut. We three are children of Arkady Stepanovich Koshev, who died in 1993. Our father well remembered his grandmother, Tatyana Yegorovna, and talked a lot about her. Dad said that we came into new York with don. Now after your letter, I can still recall some of my dad's stories, for example, about Natalia Dmitrievna Kosheva, that she was very beautiful and she was stolen by the Gypsies. I don't know if that's true, but he told one Mezen grandfather. As a child I heard that uncle Bob and uncle James fled abroad, and here the Pope all the time waited, and when they finally show up, he was raised by his grandmother, Tatiana, and it is clear she told him to wait for them. That's what the revolution has done-scattered people around the world, leaving no trace.
Yevgeny, you write that your grandfather Jacob was a priest in the village of Kovda, and where it is, did not write, I would also like to know where, approximately, is der. Semenovskaya. And that father Dmitry was in Telviska, I'll try to get something out.
I'm so happy that we found you. Lived, knowing nothing about you, nor about D. Jacob, D. VAS and it was our hole now, Thank God, things are clearer, and joyful heart. Of course, you really want to see You, but Your holiday and mine are not the same, so come in Mezen (preferably in September), there will be my sister and maybe brother, too — everyone will welcome You. And your letter to us was given by the employee of the Museum, her letter was brought by priest Alexey Zharov.
I sent your letter to Mezen, and they will send it to my brother in Surgut, I know that for them, as well as for me, it will be very interesting to read and comprehend what has been read. Irina Unknown".
Irina lives with his family in the city of Naryan-Mar, 20 km from the village Telviska; I asked her to find the Church and be photographed on its background. Here in the 1890s was led by our great-grandfather Dmitry Koshev.
...The Russian Orthodox Church in the XVI century tried to convert the Nenets who roam the Archangel tundra, and in 1825 began their mass Christianization, there was a need to build churches for converts.
The peasants of the villages Televisionas, Makarov and Akushinsky in his petition of may 17, 1856, sent to Arkhangelsk Consistory requested to permit them to build in Televisionas the village Church "by its Costa and to appoint her a separate cemetery". Justifying the need for the construction of the Church in the village Televisionas, they wrote: "In our Televisionon the village, especially in winter, is considerable Congress Samoyed all Samoyed who travel from their lands in Pustozersk for the payment of the tribute, visit our Televisionon the village, because this village is located on the middle between the top and bottom, the so-called pustozersky villages, and trading in our region of certinty leave we procured stocks of grain and other supplies for free sale in the winter. In addition, a considerable number of Samoyeds, a man of about 50 reside in our Televisionon the village, moreover currently Televisiona village has the advantage over the Pustozersk, near its government elected place for construction of plant for cutting state-owned forest."
The Church was built from a pine forest, its building, erected together with a bell tower above the porch, looked like an oblong quadrangle with two semicircles protruding from the East. Televisiony Samoyed the parish was opened in 1862. It consisted of Samoyeds, who lived in the absence of deer in different villages of the Pechora region and even beyond the Urals, Bolshezemelskaya wandering in the tundra, on the island Kolguev and the Urals, as well as state peasants, who lived in the village Televisiona and in two villages — Makarov and Akushinsky.
In Telviska, next to the Church stood a two-storey clergy house and a house for the Sexton, and in the refectory of the Church was opened a parish school for Nenets kids where father Dimitri taught them reading and writing, writing and singing. With him there were family: wife Tatiana Egorovna and children, Alexander, Natalie, Jacob and Basil, which he was accustomed to Church life…
In the minds of old residents of the village Telviska still alive the memory of the beauty of the Church of the Epiphany: "...the White, the gold-plated dome, in the bell tower three bells, one large and two medium. And what sounds! Sunday and holiday prayers! ... Long ceased their sounds, can not hear the solemn bells or crystal ringing or tragic alarm bell...". From 1920-ies in the building of the Church was a country club, then house of culture, and it was decorated accordingly: cheerful colors in shades of green with white veins, pictures hung either girls dance, or just abstract patterns — demonic obsession.
Until now, to the great regret of believers, the Holy place remains in desolation. Now the existence of the house of God is reminded by a memorial plaque, which brought to us the name of the last rector of the Epiphany Church of father Herman Igumnov. The priest was convicted for the faith of Christ and shot in 1938 by the decision of the Troika of the UNKVD of the Arkhangelsk region together with the nine accused. Among them was 67 – year-old Andriyanov Petr Mikhailovich Pustozersky the Sexton of the Church, who together with Dmitry Kosh in 1898 Samoyed Outpost in Khabarovo. On 2 October 1958, all persons involved in the case were fully rehabilitated, most posthumously.
Ascribed also Ugra St. Nicholas Church, located in the Outpost Khabarovo, opposite the island of Vaygach was built in 1886, at the expense of the Siberian industrialist Alexander Mikhailovich Sibiryakov: "the building of the temple is built out of thick planks, the roof is of iron and her octagonal lantern, is arranged in the head, ending a six-pointed wooden cross, the temple walls outside painted with yellow paint, and the roof and the head green. The Church looks like an eight-pointed star on the outer side, a four-carbon altar on the East side, and a blind porch on the West side. The size of the temple is very accurate, and it can hardly fit up to 40 people praying..." Then the Church began regular services. She was assigned to Televisiona the arrival of the Pechora district, the clergy of which carried out missionary activity among the Nenets people of Ugra Bowl and Vaygach island.
In 1891году on the banks of the Ugra Bowl opened assumption Artemyevsky monastic skete. He was supposed to be permanent, and his monks will conduct service in St. Nicholas Church. But, of the eight clergy who came here in February 1891 in the winter of 1892, seven were killed by cold and disease. And then the administration of the Arkhangelsk eparchy began to send priests to St. Nicholas Church only for the period of crafts, when there came the Nenets-Russian hunters and merchants-Industrialists. The priests left Pustozersk, located in the lower reaches of the Pechora river, on reindeer sledges with caravans of pustozersky merchants and then followed along the tundra along the coast of the Arctic ocean. The journey lasted up to one and a half months.
In the tundra there was famine in the worst sense of the word. People are not lazy could provide for a family fish, meat, summer — berries and mushrooms. Not enough bread, sugar, tea... and vodka Samoyeds are very respected. Outpost Khabarovo (Nikol'skoye) was the main rallying point surrounding and bolshezemelsky Nenets, which every spring gather in these places on a summer pasture for their reindeer, and were brought to Nikolskoe that was produced during the long polar winter, and that could sell or mortgage to coming here pustozersky merchants: the skins of polar bears, walruses, sea hares, seals, walrus tusks, the fat of marine animals, fish, feathers, skins of foxes and foxes and other products of their crafts. Nenets changed all that flour, rolls, salt, butter, leather shoes, colored cloth, powder, lead, guns, utensils, and other Essentials. While pustozersky buyers inflated the price of their goods. They have brought a few barrels of alcohol and soldering the Nenets, acquired a commercial production for a song: "...the Samoyed is waiting to get into the wonderful and exciting Khabarovo, and probitsa clean and, if possible, to stay for a long time in debt to the merchants. Samoyed wives do not stop their husbands and do not prevent them from drinking the latter. On the contrary, if a husband can not get vodka, then they say that he is a bad Samoyed, and are ready, it seems, to lay or sell all their children, just to get half a bottle of precious drink…»
In the summer, especially in July to Ilyin day (July 20, old style) in St. Nicholas going up to 500 of the Nenets, who wanted to exchange commercial production on imported pustozersky merchants goods. 6 APR 1898 with reindeer train pustozersky merchants, loaded with flour, meat, biscuits, tea, sugar and, most importantly, vodka for barter with the Samoyeds, the artist A. A. Borisov went from Pustozersk in the direction of a working camp of Khabarovo. His patron, Minister of Finance S. Witte, gave the artist the opportunity to make a trip to the North.
Of travel essays by A. A. Borisova"From Samoyed. From Pinega to the Kara sea": "...if you travel forty days from Pustozersk to the Ugra Bowl with deer hares convoy, which carried miscellaneous provisions, I, already how draw deer, have learned, whether in one or another barrel of vodka or alcohol. Rusaki carry vodka usually very tricky. Put a barrel buckets in seven, eight, into the barrel, the so-called "igescu", (a barrel that holds fish omul pounds 18) and obeidat it tightly with flour so it does not move in igembe. Igescu outside smear and label the flour — "flour 10 pounds.". But, as the title, and the smearing with flour, made only for the blind Samoyed workers accompanying a convoy, lest they try in vain to eat the precious drink, which promises to give the hare a rich livelihood for the whole year, and also from the prying eyes of a stranger. I paprimur, at first was surprised, when in one convoy saw that each of the existing two egemak with great force drove three reindeer. Looked: labeled — "flour, 8 pounds.", but it seemed to me that there are not eight pounds, but at least thirteen, fifteen. After, when, at the bus stop, lowered deer and all gone to the tent, I went to these barrels and began to inspect them carefully, but was just surprised and nothing more. But when I started pushing the barrel, something jumped in there and it didn't look like flour at all. Then I put my ear to the barrel and again began to push it and finally made sure that here, without any doubt, instead of flour was vodka, and in another barrel the same. Another way is that the merchants put a barrel of wine in igescu with crackers, such as rye and predivno label "crackers". Of course, they try to pour the barrel as much as possible, so that the liquid does not make any movements when shaking. But no matter how full the keg is poured, the vodka part is evaporated, and the barrel formed a small treacherous void, which issues the presence of vodka who wants to know about it. Returning to the Treasury the sale of wine, say, that hare, if you want to get the vodka from the same Treasury bench on generally accepted rules. We assume that they will take every day on the bottle. And then to resell Samoyed at a high price, but such resale in comparison with present trade will be only a drop in the sea…»
Next A. A. Borisov continues: "the Village of Khabarovo are uninhabited and in winter only the summer is a busy shopping item Bolshezemelskaya tundra and Vaygach island... In 1898 in the summer on the Ugra Ball, there were about 15 Russians, counting the priest and the acolyte…»
Names of priest Koshev and Psalmist Andrianova artist for some reason did not find it necessary to name, although he lived with them for several months under the same roof.
Believing, apparently, that this house belongs not only to the Diocese, A. A. Borisov settled in it, without waiting for the arrival of the priest, well, in fact, not in the tent to the Samoyed, he was to go, although he could back in Pustozersk Samoyed foreman has given the artist an open order: "the Bearer is hudojestvenny, that is the master, and therefore strictly enjoin all my subordinate Samoyeds to provide him with any assistance. In the event of disobedience, you will be held strictly to the law." Instead of a signature was the mark of the Samoyed and print Pustozersk township Board of the Samoyed.
... Dmitry V. Koshev left Televisi in Outpost Khabarovo on 8 may. He bought postopera 6 deer and ran them personally, from the Luggage – just the Essentials, as told by his former parishioners of the old believers: "In the road and a sewing needle heavy!"In the tundra deer the main way of movement. With them is harder than with horses, they are Jumpy, skittish, unable to escape from the herd, look them in the tundra (the great-grandfather of two deer ran off, and broke them wolves). The deer need a special approach, otherwise they won't move. And in the harness not every deer can walk to choose the sled-flair is required and, most importantly, respect for the deer. I think that Dimitry has learned in Ust ' -TSIL'ma, being a priest in the old rite Church of St. Nicholas only reindeer you can get to the remote villages of his parish. And Samoyeds, Zyrians respected "clemow". When at last came a Church, the Nenets and the Izhma reindeer herders sacrificed a deer, arriving on the days of fairs — summer and winter Nikola because Saint Nicholas has long enjoyed a special reverence. "Honor the great Nicholas and fulfill the vow, which gave the servant of God Nicola" - was Samoyed (Nenets) has long been a common rule.
Sometimes the priest had to wait out a Blizzard in the snow or with the Nenets people in the tents. Here Dmitry Vasilyevich in passing conducted divine services and sent Trebs, preached the Christian way of life and refusal of bringing of victims to idols. Before the adoption of Christianity, Samoyeds believed in the Supreme being (Num), the devil (AA), spirits (cadencies) and household gods (gegov). The Supreme spirit who created and dominates the world is the Num, which is in space and sends thunder, lightning, rain, snow, and storm. Samoyeds personified it in the sun, the stars, in the sea and in all the phenomena of nature. Code moral rules Samoyed, contained in itself a long concordant and with Christianity. Theft, insults, murder, pride, excess considered reprehensible and strictly instructed to honor the gods, parents and elders, to take care of your family, help the needy, etc.
Father Dimitri arrived at Yugorsky Shar 21 may at 10 PM, after spending the journey in only 14 days!! What was the surprise of the priest, when he found that the printing of a rectory removed, break loose, stockpiled in the pantry of the foods eaten, the wood melted and the best single room is occupied by some artist who to give it to the rightful owners refused, forcing him to huddle in the hallway of his father Dimitri with the Psalmist Andrianov. After a heated dialogue with A. Borisov (but the fellow was only 70 miles separated their villages of origin), remained nothing how to live with an unexpected lodger in crowded conditions.
Soon after the arrival of Dimitrij Vasilievich was personally involved in renovation of a rectory: whitewashed ceilings, papered walls Wallpaper, moved the furnace to the boiler in the kitchen and adjusted the Russian oven, how much they smoked, and they could drown. (*Setter needs to know how each brick in the stove ulevaade hot gas. Too hot-bad, wood warm atmosphere. Not hot-too bad in the pipe deposited resin and soot, which can cause a fire. The stove should not smoke, not to give heat, to keep warm, do not depend on the wind not to throw out from the chimney a shower of sparks). The son of a peasant, could father Dimitry to do any farm work, and, going in his youth in "seasonal work", and learned how the construction works. After graduating from the parish village school Boretsk, Dmitry Vasilievich stretched to Church life, visiting the big cities, be sure to visit the temples, admired the famous Russian icons.
When father Dimitri opened the St. Nicholas Church to serve there a thanksgiving moleben on the occasion of a successful arrival, he found that there is very raw, smell of rot and everything is covered with mold.
Here is how he described Dmitry V. iconostasis of St. Nicholas Church: "In the iconostasis above the Royal doors in the circle the image of the last supper; on the right side of the gates in the iconostasis icons: the Savior, the Holy Hierarch and Wonderworker Nicholas and the monks Zosima and Savvatii of Solovetsk, on the left — the Kazan icon of the Mother of God depicted on the arms of the Angel; and the door with the image SV. Alexander Nevsky and the icon of St. innocent of Irkutsk; all the icons good work, write on the canvases, and each surrounded by a wooden gilded frame."
Reporting about the amenities arranged in the skete for the use of fresh water, he writes: "Fresh water under the window. So close proximity to all living here are obliged to the brothers who lived here before verkolsky monastery, who lowered the water here from the two lakes located in versts, where previously had to carry water on themselves. Water passes from the lake dug for this purpose a ditch, and accumulates in the tank arranged in front of the house from boards from where again flows a ditch and accumulates in other tank at the bathhouse arranged for need of the last; excess water passes into the river a ditch Nikolskaya".
...To Ilyin day at the Ugra ball there were a lot of Nenets and Russian Industrialists, but for the morning on this day in St. Nicholas Church of the Nenets gathered only 20 people. Russian Industrialists to the morning Church did not come, so was busy with their commercial Affairs with the Nenets, do not come to Church. By the Liturgy Nenets gathered in the Church more," but they were all tipsy, treated Russian", and these latter also came to the Liturgy, and they joined the artist AA Borisov. After the Liturgy, father Dimitri served in the Church moleben prophet Ilya and at the request of the Nenets served four custom-made prayer in the chapel. In the Church this day, they were wedded three couples Nenets.
"That day, — Dmitry Vasilyevich wrote in the report in the Arkhangelsk Consistory, — Samoyed and Samoyed celebrated well: by evening all were drunk and even fought to blood. And in the Church that day, donations were not enough, from the sale of candles proceeds only 6 rubles. In the chapel was donated by 6 bulls, deer and other things 100 rubles. On my request to donate something to the Church, the Samoyed replied: "We sacrifice only to their Mikola". That's what they call an icon of St. Nicholas, brought from Pustozersky of the Church and placed in the chapel, a highly respected Samoyeds. Without the chapel, wrote the father Demetrius, the Church would enjoy a good income, as well as the clergy, and the merchants themselves and their subordinal the Samoyeds suggest to put the candles and lay down in the Treasury in their chapel, saying, "Here is your old Mikola". Samoyeds are influenced by their so doing, and traders-hares are not uniformly Orthodox in view of the fact that they do not understand the meaning, or the obstinacy, during the Liturgy, coming alongside the Church in the chapel where no one commits to service, and maybe because by putting a candle in the chapel, those who wish to generate income in your Pustozersky Church. Candles and icons are brought from their Pustozersk parish. The chapel contains a very sloppy: the floor in her swept out, the ceiling, walls and Windows were covered thick with dust and no one even cares to be swept away from it, and the icons in the chapel, all in silver frames, gilded, but with them never wiping the dust is not that it is not good; besides, here are some old rotten network that have been previously caught the white whale, in the chapel of a smell disgusting."
How well Samoyeds are celebrating the day of Elijah, told the famous Norwegian polar Explorer Fridtjof Nansen. In July 1893, he on his ship "FRAM" went to Yugorsky Shar and visited the village of Khabarovsk to take on Board the Siberian paws. Here Nansen watched the Nenets celebrate Ilyin's day. Here is how he describes it: "since early morning there were women in the best dresses. Bright colors, skirts with many tucks and assemblies, braids of hair coming down low on the back and ending with a big colored bow. Before the procession is of old German and a young slender girl brought a skinny deer, who was supposed to sacrifice at the old Church (chapel)... Today, both churches had a great holiday. All Nenets visited briefly in the new Church (St. Nicholas), to immediately go to the old one. They don't have a priest; but today, they have been proposed to the priests of the new Church father Eugene (** Ponomarev Evgeny Kallinikovich) two roubles that he did service in the old Church. That, after Mature deliberation, agreed and in full priestly garb crossed the threshold of the old chapel. Here was before the air, that I could not stand for more than two minutes and returned to the ship.
After lunch, there was noise and DIN, which increased over time. Obviously, it was that now came the serious part of the celebration. A few of the Nenets roamed the deer across the plain, like crazy. They could not sit on the sled, and lay, or dragged behind the sled, incessantly bawling. Some of my comrades were on the shore, and their stories about what was happening there were far from edifying. Without exception, both men and women, drunk and staggering through the village, writing legs pretzel. Especially made a lasting impression on one young German. He sat down in sleds, whipped deer and rushed headlong between the plague, pressing hard-tied dogs, Arctic foxes and all that he came across on the way; then fell out of the sled and, caught on to the reins, dragged on the sand and clay. St. Elijah must have thought himself highly flattered by such a tribute. By morning, the noise everywhere gradually subsided, the whole village fell asleep drunk. The next day it was impossible to find a single person that can help to reload coal. Most after a night of drinking remained the whole day in deep sleep. We had to do it on our own. To night managed not managed, and I was anxious to hit the road…»
More than one generation of priests fought against this negative phenomenon in the tundra of the Arkhangelsk region, but almost all their efforts were in vain.
... From the yugorskiy Shara Dmitry V. deer often traveled to the nearest camp of Nenets, where he performed prayers and performed the necessary rites. He reported that many Nenets of the Bolshezemelskaya tundra live married couples and are reluctant to marry, and some of them have two wives. So, being in a plague of Vasily Akimov Ledkova nicknamed Nurse, who had two wives, the priest advised him to marry. It Ledkov, having taken his father Demetrius hostile look, replied angrily: "Crowned bad, you cannot change your wife, but now I'm fine, don't like it, take another". The exhortation of the priest so to live in sin, Ledkov said, "we Have our Gods, they will forgive you."
July 29, Dmitry V. on the boat out of Ugra Bowl in the village Televisional to visit my family (*helped wife Tatiana Egorovna at the birth of her youngest daughter, Lubava) and 19 August we returned on the boat back to Khabarovo, and 21 August on the same ship with all belongings left back home.
In his report on the trip, he wrote that the artist Borisov rode a verst boat for ten along the Strait and brought out two small wooden idols and sledges, on which the Nenets of these idols carry. It turned out that all this belongs to the Nenets Givande. Nenets came to Borisov and with tears besought him to return the idols, and the sledge, said to him: "Sin no demand to take strange Gods" and threatened to send to the Borisov complaint.
Complaining about the behavior of AA Borisov, Koshev writes that he traveled through the tundra from plague to plague on deer belonging to the Nenets, "as in the Moscow highway... took 14 bulls and paid only 6 kopecks per mile, and others were afraid to take money from him. In General Borisov very intimidated Samoyed as its commander a view of and threats to prosecute... was taken from the Samoyed women, and one of them was sent to a New Land; he gave himself for big boss, and Samoyed it is believed. They went to Borisov with different complaints and to me it caused extreme concern, in a type occupied by me on its mercy of a passable room. He, Borisov, not waiting for me, broke the seal off the house and pulled out the sample, took the best single room and despite my request to release the judges refused. In a word, he hosted in the house and in the storeroom, as he wanted... but the steamer came to my happiness, and I found it useful to visit my parish, to serve at least one divine Liturgy, calming myself. One satisfaction in the Ugra Ball of the clergy — a clergy house, and that's what the Psalmist was deprived of, and enjoy all Borisov. Firewood, thanks to the sloppy furnace Borisov worker, in the future there was no log, and if I stayed until winter, would have to live in a strange house for lack of firewood."
Further authors of the book "Thorny way to Orthodoxy" note: "for the sake of Justice it should be noted that the priest Dmitry Koshev allowed unseemly acts. During his stay on the Ugra Ball, he was caught (*by whom?) in wine trade, for which the decree of his Imperial Majesty of September 22, 1898 he was refused "clergyman."
"Thunder in the clear sky" was the Decree of Nicholas II. In a very short time we had some false accusation to get to St. Petersburg on the table of the Autocrat, and he had to make a decision on it. The extraordinary speed of the Decree is surprising. In my opinion, even in our time so quickly such a question is not solved. Who had the chance, and who in Khabarovo did not seem to the priest Koshev. We can only assume about it today.
A. A. Borisov wrote in his book, "From Samoyed. From Pinega to the Kara sea", without mentioning again the names: "... in the summer season, the priest Televisionas Samoyed Church performs religious rites Samoyeds. He baptizes children, sometimes 10 years old and more, releases the dead and crowns the wedding ... well, When he wants to marry, takes a half-liter of vodka and goes to the plague of his betrothed, where he has to give water to a feeling and "the object of his passion" and her relatives, and only after this treat he dares to talk about the purpose of his arrival, otherwise he will be There are disputes about the ransom and looking at the richness of the Samoyed, give the bride a well-known number of deer, and the happy groom, all watered two or three times, takes the bride, the wedding is ready... sober Samoyeds are usually highly cute, kind, in a drunken disgusting... Merchants is extremely beneficial to buy all Samoyed is not for money, but for the product, and even cheaper vodka. This tool is amazingly in Vogue. Traders do not pay for the right to trade vodka and at the same time sell it. They all know that if someone reports to them, they will report to him..."
Father John (**Mikhailov Ivan), a year before D. V. Kosheva former in Khabarovo in the season of 1897, wrote in the report: "Drunkenness among the Samoyed developed extremely, drink men, drink, women and drink until, until you can get hold of a wine and yet find something to drink. Pustozersky Industrialists annually brought to the Ugra Bowl a few sorokovik (barrels, containing forty buckets) of wine... Soldering postoperati Samoyed when trading with them and being shamelessly. Watch it here no one, because his superiors on the Ugra Ball no no, and no. A foreign voice against alcoholism is just annoying Samoyed and arming against the pastor and pustogarov".
Almost a year after the decree of Tsar Dmitry V. led Televisionin Samoyed parish. Neither sleep nor spirit did not know about his "faults", and the Bishop of Arkhangelsk and Kholmogory Ioannikii did not know how to be, because the consequence of Arkhangelsk Consistory on the "Case FR" is not carried out, any news from "well-wishers" in his behavior in Outpost Khabarovo the Consistory also received the denunciation immediately laid on the table of the king. (**And, for example, in 1900 the Arkhangelsk spiritual Consistory investigated case on charge of Psalmist Andrianov in the use of alcoholic drinks. The Consistory imposed to it punishment with collecting money for legal costs and Commission of 300 bows on Sunday in the middle of the temple. That was the rule – the first consequence, then the prosecution). Here was the sudden Decree of the Emperor and nothing more. Pulled, rowed, but above the Imperial Decree in Russia was nothing. Finally, the Archangel Diocesan Gazette June 30, No. 15 for 1899, reported to the public (including for the "well-wishers") that from August 4 this year, the priest of the Telvisochny parish of Pechora County Dimitry Koshev was removed from his seat. And already on 30 August 1899 in the Diocesan Gazette No. 16 says: "... defined on psalomshchika place – the priest Dmitry Koshev in Personalanalysis parish on August 12".
I believe that this was a promotion, although downgrading. I flipped through the Arkhangelsk Diocesan Gazette for 1899 – vacancies of Psalm-readers, there's been plenty in any County of the Arkhangelsk province, and Dmitry Vasilyevich were invited to Arkhangelsk, by showing everyone that he is punished, but the Consistory understands who it is and why they have defiled the priest in the eyes of the sovereign. In Khabarovo to get alcohol for resale anywhere in the world, as vodka was only pustozersky traders and those have changed Samoyed just for the furs and other products of their crafts. "Postopera" waiting for a visit Khabarova for a year, and this year had lived on these acquisitions.
Through the office of the Emperor took place in the year to 100 thousand different documents, and some put his signature in the form of facsimile. And who then in Khabarovsk was known at the Tsar's court and personally to Nikolay II ?
Borisov of expedition returned celebrity. The glory of the first artist of the Arctic fled ahead of him, patron Tretyakov bought more than half of all works for a very large sum at the time – 8000 rubles, the Emperor bought a large picture of Borisov, and the artist received new funds to make a second trip to the North. Works of the artist, exhibited at the spring exhibitions of St. Petersburg in 1900-1905, attracted the attention of art lovers not only in Russia but also abroad, Paris, Prague, Hamburg, Cologne, Munich, London – an endless series of vernissages, receptions. The French devote Borisov in knights of the Legion of honour, the British awarded him the order of the Bath, Fridtjof Nansen, was handed to the artist on behalf of the governments of Sweden and Norway the order of St. Olaf, and the President of the American States, Theodore Roosevelt happy in his honor a reception at the White house. Currently, Borisov's works are kept in the Russian Museum, the Tretyakov gallery, the Arkhangelsk regional Museum, the Nenets district Museum and other museums in Russia.
The artist met with Lenin, was caressed by the Soviet government: the name of AA Borisov named streets in Arkhangelsk, Krasnoborsk and Veliky Ustyug and 1973 Peninsula on Novaya Zemlya, Arkhangelsk, at the address: Pomorskaya str., 3, opened the Museum of artistic development of the Arctic. Borisova, and in 1974 in Krasnoborsk was installed bust of the artist.
And we still don't even know where in 1902 died our great-grandfather Dmitry V. Koshev.
Land Mezen known since the days of rogue Vikings. Mezen is the name of the beautiful river, the eponymous city at its mouth and the historical area in its basin. Fur-bearing animals, rare species of fish, sea foods from the 11th century were attracted to these places of Novgorod pirates and the Moscow princes.Behind the squads were monks, landless ploughs, every people hiding from Tatar violence or from Novgorod landlords.
In 1780, Catherine II issued a decree Mezen received the official name of the city which became the center of the largest region in European Russia — the land of his stretched of Doral, including the Islands of the Arctic ocean. Then from Pustozersk to Mezen the Voivodeship office, the military garrison and many its inhabitants are transferred.
Mezen has always been a place of exile, the exile was considered the most difficult in European Russia. At various times it has been the writer A. Serafimovich, revolutionary Petr Moiseenko and Vasiliy Shelgunov, a henchman of Stalin, Klim Voroshilov, Lenin's lover Inessa Armand, who in 1908 ran from Mezen with a forged passport.
...Today, the Mezen is a border zone, the entrance here is only permitted with a pass or travel certificates. A pass received in Arkhangelsk, my second cousin Andrew Koshev, who came with his wife Amina at the crossover Nissan from Surgut to see us in Petrozavodsk.
Here we all took a picture, visited the Kivach waterfall and drank healing water in the first Russian resort "Marcial waters". For several decades our families have been apart of the reasons I can only guess.
From Petrozavodsk, we went with Andrew and Amina for a thousand miles straight to the Mezen. In Karelia, the roads were more or less normal. In Vologda and Arkhangelsk regions there were also asphalted areas, but mostly quagmire, sometimes you can not call them bad – one word terrible. Potholes in half a wheel, a rubble from under the wheels of trucks shoots, as a buckling on the glass behind the running transport. In Kholmogorsky district of the asphalt at all ends: a road more similar to a washing Board or slate. So its break timber. And in some places it would be better for the tank to go. Where does billions of dollars in road budgets? Our roads were built in 60-70 years, the load was designed for "ZIL" — is 6 tons. Today on roads there are huge trucks. But the roads in Germany that were built during the reign of Adolf Hitler are still! The main thing for builders in Russia is not to build a quality road, but to MASTER the allocated funds! Almost appropriated. But the pace of construction — 450 kilometers per year across Russia. And thousands of years will not pass as Russia will be entangled by a dense network of beautiful roads!
In Arkhangelsk we got to the well-known "Margaritinskaya fair", went on trade numbers and bought something. Photographed at the monument to Peter I, "PUR-Navolok", "Zero mile" and the Church, there is now a concert hall and the service is very rare. We succeeded with Andrew to visit a reputable Natalya Lvovna, Leuzinger and consult her on some matters Arkhangelsk German settlement.
Two days we stayed at Stepan Koshev's granddaughter-Ekaterina Taranina, she lives with Anna's daughter and angelina Pavlovna's granddaughter. Good, hospitable people who came to Arkhangelsk from Mezen a few years ago. Then Andrey went on, but Amina remained in Arkhangelsk for Teaninich.
Until the early 2000s on the Mezen could only fly. Then a winter road was built — that is, a road equipped with rammed and covered snow. Finally, in 2008, the Mezen tract was opened, which was built in the aggregate for more than 300 years.
Difficult 8-hour way from Arkhangelsk to Mezen on the dirt road in the forest. Old Russian villages, not exhausted by tourists, wooden churches, chapels, worship crosses. The places here are extremely beautiful-endless sand spit on the Northern Dvina, rocks on the Pinega with karst caves-a unique natural phenomenon: underground karst caves and systems, the largest and most numerous in the European part of Russia, numerous streams and small rivers.
The Mezen itself is quite small, stretched along a huge river, steep banks of which are composed of red dolomite-clay marl. Parallel to the shore of the town pierces Soviet (former Epiphany, then Vladimirsky) Avenue, which is paved with concrete slabs. "Nissan" Andrew did not disappoint, going all hard route without a single criticism, although all the preparation of the car was limited to the replacement of the engine oil in my garage in Petrozavodsk. In Mezen, I saw a lot of cross-country cars — it's all kinds of" Fields"," UAZ "of all stripes," loaves "and SUVs," Chevrolet"," Renault "and"Passats".
Today, the "bear's corner" here there is not the slightest hint. The streets are very crowded, there is a considerable number of grocery and manufactured goods stores. There is a mobile connection (Megaphone). The private sector prevails, the city lives contrary to harsh climate, territorial remoteness, financial crisis and other misfortunes. And there is no sense of abandonment and hopelessness in its appearance, which is very common in other small towns.
In Mezen there was virtually no large landowners, did not know it nor princely possessions, or the Tatar-Mongol invasion or serfdom. Here reigned relative harmony in life, rooted experience of survival, mutual assistance, partnership and respect for the man-worker. Communicating with relatives, with other people of Mezen, you are amazed at the richness of their inner world and spirituality. Some unusual to us, residents of big cities, confidence in their abilities and amazing harmony with nature.
Today, as everywhere else in Russia, many production facilities are destroyed, timber processing plant went bankrupt, residents were unemployed, only state employees and officials survive.The main concern of local residents is the subsidiary farm. The city has a secondary school, district television, a district hospital with an ambulance station, a house of culture and a Museum of local lore, where I had to go. Among the exhibits — archival documents and photographs, archaeological finds, a collection of samovars and household items, ethnographic collection. Very interesting is the settlement of the region Slavs and the formation of settlements, the participation of the Mezen Pomors in the development of Siberia and the Arctic. In the Museum you can learn a lot about the individual buildings of the city. And there is also a good Department of local history literature and Souvenirs. An employee of the Museum Lyudmila V. Ryzhkov, and helped to find my family when the priest Cathedral of the Epiphany father Alex came to the Museum with my letter.
Here me and was lucky – she studied in Mezen school with my second cousin Natalia Arkadyevna kosheva. Now Ludmila is helping me in all the Affairs of the Mezen, and I am forever grateful to her.
I testified to my reverence and father Alexy. Over tea, he said that the Holy Epiphany Cathedral-the only of the four temples in the city, partially preserved. It was built in 1859 by local residents. In Soviet times, the Cathedral was closed, crosses and domes were removed. Later in the temple was located club and cinema, said father Alexei. After the return of the Church of the Church began its restoration, this initiative was previously made by local parishioners, it was supported by local authorities, who believe that the ancient temple should become a symbol of the city. But there is no money to return the original appearance to the Epiphany Cathedral. Presently, the temple is only one floor, covered with a gable roof. Therefore, all services are held in a small Annex.
In 2007, father Alex on a regular motor boat made a missionary trip to the remote villages of the Mezen district: Bychye, Moseyevo, Safonovo, Yezevets, Elkino. More than 40 coast-dwellers received the Sacrament of Baptism. In the most densely populated villages of Safonovo and Bychye it was decided to build chapels. Thank God, faith in the remote villages of Mezen has survived. Moreover, more and more people are willing to accept the Ordinances of Confession and Communion on a regular basis.
Father Alexei and his mother Olga adopted four children from the disbanded Mezen orphanage. Girls go to the circle of knitting and singing. Enjoy singing the prayers learned at Church services. A brief morning and evening rule adopted and reading chorus. Is not this a God-pleasing and worthy work of our spiritual shepherd?
The city breaks off on kaninsky Avenue No. 108-on this place there was a house of our great-grandfather Dmitry Koshev who was inherited by his younger daughter Lyubava. On the contrary — the house of Stepan Unknown, built in 30-ies. Then begins Kaninskaya marshy tundra: swampy soil and stlanik-right behind the house of my second cousin Nikolai Morozov, grandson of Lyubava Dmitrievna kosheva.
Cole managed to keep a few old photos I finally saw the faces of our great-grandmother Tatiana Yegorovna and great-grandfather, Dmitry Vasilyevich Koshevoy. Kolya is a successful entrepreneur, he achieved everything with his hands and head. He showed me his precinct, it's all right. In winter, Nenets come to the city on their sledges, sell fish, venison and moose meat. Buy vodka. Say, presence Nenets on the street one senses for a hundred meters on dog barking — after all their fur coats are soaked with the scent of dogs, fish and deer. Just 25 km from Mezen is located Kozminov forest (*it was called at the Nenets HEHE YA - the land of spirits) - one of the 5 main Nenets shrines located on the borders of their lands. The closest to the Mezen were always the reindeer herders of the Kanin tundra, through which the winter tract passed from time immemorial, which served as a kind of artery linking the Far North with other Russian territories. Over the long history of coexistence between coast-dwellers and herders are accustomed to each other: anyone with Mezen (*Nenets called them "peurto") was a guest in the tundra camp, he was always strong tea, watered and fed their fill. Every Nenets families were their "Vater" on the Mezen, where herders are always awaited and welcomed. Many Mezentsev had their own reindeer herds, which were grazed and guarded by the Nenets Kanin. Often by mutual agreement of the Mezen inhabitants bartered butter, milk, cheese and sour cream on vazhenki, and all of these products are specifically prepared and was going for the tundra. At the request of the Nenets, who roamed in the harsh polar tundra, the mezenets prepared birch bark for summer chums, boiled resin, sewed summer dresses and underwear shirts for children and adults. Equal partnerships have developed between the Mezen and Nenets populations for centuries. Nomadic Nenets and now live near swamps, herding thousands of reindeer herds, and in the city are selected rarely.
In 2008, the Arkhangelsk — Mezen year-round road was finally opened. The distance from Mezen to Arkhangelsk is 494 km.Access to the city was greatly facilitated, which, of course, is good for tourists, but it is unlikely for locals. Even the businessmen are unhappy, as now, the market offers visitors the merchants, which bring down prices. People here are not used to locking doors in houses, and not all guests not only with good intentions can easily get to Mezen.
Mezen region could be a good idea to develop at the international ecological tourism — to the West from here on a cruise ship by hand. In the area the way of life of Pomors remained, there are no industrial enterprises, but in the presence of hundreds of fish lakes and rivers, taiga and sea open spaces. Tourists will be interested to see the famous Mezen horses, and on the Kanin Peninsula the extraction of salmon by native Nenets. Such remoteness from civilization is a Paradise for vacationers and economic stability for the local population. But, it seems that the Mezen district will not be able to develop tourism and attract investments there because of the cosmodrome in Plesetsk. Western tourists are unlikely to go not only to Mezen, but in General to the Arkhangelsk region, where there is such a heptyl monster. In the coming years it is planned to transfer in General all space launches from the Russian cosmodrome in Arkhangelsk oblast. "The wreckage of the missiles will now not fall in Mezen, in the White sea", — "soothe" the power of the inhabitants of the region. "But the sea is our field," the Pomors say. So, fish and other marine traditional crafts, which for centuries were fed coast-dwellers, are going to collapse?
I don't know what will be the region in 5-10 years. What's left of its identity. But I believe that the Mezen region will remain beautiful and inimitable.
In 1913, my grandmother Lydia Nikolaevna PEC married an Orthodox priest Koshev Yakov Dmitrievich, a descendant of the don Cossacks, exiled according to legend in 1709 by Peter I for the "Bulavinsky revolt" to the far North.The old believers of Medveditsa and hopra, who had already risen in 1680 for the old faith and for Cossack liberties, constituted the main force of the ataman. Suppression of "Bulavin rebellion" Peter led the first in person. Burned villages, and on the don, floating rafts hung. Kondrati Bulavin was defeated by the tsarist troops and shot dead. Part of the Cossacks went to Kuban, and then moved to Turkey and formed an old believer settlement there. The other part of the Cossacks surrendered to the "Royal grace" and Peter ordered Prince Vasily Dolgoruky "not to increase the severity of the desperation of the rebels." And the surrendered Cossacks were" sent by a convoy " to the hidden place of Russia — Pustozersky Ostrog. (*By the decree 1680 was ordered thieves, according to previous decrees sentenced to amputation of hands, feet or two fingers, exile to Siberia, executions without, first then a place of exile in Russia — Arkhangelsk, Vladimir Kharkov, Simbirsk, Ufa and Pustozersk).
"In the place of willow and treeless" was erected "border sovereign fortress" — Pustozersk "set, as mentioned in the ancient Charter, for opacify the Moscow state commercial people who go from Moscow in Siberia torgovali..." — fabulous "zlatokray" Mangazeya. They went to Siberia via the Pechora mostly Passim dragged.
In Pustozersk were provincial house, exiting the house with a rich archive, custom, mug yard, an Inn, a castle, four churches, and merchants ' storehouses, houses of the townspeople and the special prison for political criminals.
When the "Bulavina" arrived at an Empty lake, already there since 1671, contained the participants of the peasant war of Stepan Razin, and on 14 APR 1682 in Good Friday a great writer and a Martyr Avvakum was burned at the stake along with his associates for the love of truth notes, distributed them throughout Russia from Pustozersky earthen prison.
For almost three centuries Pustozersk was the administrative center of Pechora region. The population was engaged in fishing, trade of a sea animal, hunting for fur animals, waterfowl and partridges, contained cows, sheep and horses. Merchant ships from Arkhangelsk entered the mouth of the Pechora and there have already been at the oars on sleeves Pechora went to the Ball and from there to gorodetskoe lake, formerly known as Empty. And Empty it was called because there was not found a salmon, and practices that the coast-dwellers of this fish, but the abundance was infested with pike, carp, bream and other fish.
There is only one detailed Town plan, Dating back to the XVII century. It is given in the book "North and East Tatars" published in Amsterdam in 1692 by friend Peter the Dutchman Nicholas Witzen. With the advent of the Russian fortifications on the Lower Pechora reached here, and free people. By the end of the XVI century in Pustozersk was already about 2 thousand people.
January 25, 1780 by decree of Empress Catherine II Pustozersky County was abolished and its territory was ceded to Mezensky uyezd. Posad fail: there were only 47 houses; but rose around 17 villages. To Mezen translates provincial office, military garrison and many civilians, including some Koshevoy, others, our ancestors moved in Shenkurskiy County family exiled from the don already under Anna Ivanovna. And after decades are not forgotten by don black and the smell of cut grass.
Artist AA Borisov, who visited Pustozersk in 1898, wrote: "Pustozersk makes a Heavy impression. This (along with the village of Kuya) last glimpses of life settled, although poor and heavy, but still hidden by the known measure. There is a Church quite big, but new. In the past there were a lot of them; some of them died, others burned down, and nothing more reminds of those times when in Pustozersk languished the famous exiles of the XVIII century".
Unsightly and dull the area around the Pustozersk: here is constantly prevailing North and West winds piled sand hills, and to the East stretches an endless desert-tundra.
In 1999, the Arkhangelsk region celebrated the 500th anniversary of Pustozersk. Anniversary proved a sad. What's left of the Northern Outpost? Pits in place of houses, thickets of nettle. Life has gone from here, and there is no reason for its revival. From 1954 to Pustozersk no one lives. Where began the history of development of the North, now sticking out from the coastline of the wreckage of the wooden frame, water-proof ancient tombs, and near the tower half buried in the sand, blackened by time crosses, a rare stunted bushes, and rusty moss. That's all that's left.
In memory of the Archpriest Habakkuk ringing in the wind, a lone bell. The ringing it heard far across the deserted expanse.
Pechora tract. Ust ' -TSIL'ma
The Pechora tract is a taiga road connecting the Mezen with Pechora through the Timan ridge. This way more than 1000 years! In IX-XIV century Novgorod ushkuyniki for Pessoa of a die, the most ancient of the Northern route that is actively traded with the Pechora and the Urals. It was not the most convenient way, but far from the possessions of the Volga Bulgarians, Tatar-Mongolian conquerors and Moscow.
In the XV century, the princes of Moscow on this way to organize a military expedition to Western Siberia. The chronicler writes: "Setsu Prince Peter with a Bucket of valoriani, dynany, Vazha Panagou, Cola (Coloum), Mezen, Pesa, Chelmow (TSIL'ma) on the Pechora river, to Empty, finish samoladas for the great Prince led".
In 1620, in order to avoid revenue leakage, the sea route to Mangazeya was banned. And then Putski portage officially became the only, and the value of the approach to it from the TSIL'ma increased even more. Ust-Tsilma settlement was officially approved by the customs point, where he recorded the movement to Siberia and from Siberia.
Through the impassable taiga, mountain ranges and swamps people went into uncharted lands. From their homes and places they went to "meeting the sun", by definition, Ioann Vostorgov, "the cross and the gospel". And rivers for old Russian trade were then more important bridges.
As a result of the split of the Russian Orthodox Church in the XVII century, when some of the zealots of the “ancient piety” refused to recognize the reforms of Patriarch Nikon, there was old believers. The old believers were subjected to cruel repressions by the government, which forced them to flee from persecution to the dense forests of Olonetsky and Kemsky Krai, the Mezen and Pechera.
The expulsion of the Archpriest Avvakum to Pustozersk caused an even greater flight of the old believers to the North closer to their leader. Ust-Tsilma became one of the strongholds of the pre-reform faith of the European part of Russia. Church services were conducted here are still in early printed books. Near the village was formed a few old believers ' hermitages. Creating skits, people built houses, plowed land, were engaged in hunting and fishing and thoroughly performed all the rites of the Church. In the monasteries he founded the first school here, "gramatica". They taught writing, reading, mathematics, singing, the Law of God, dialectics, rhetoric. At schools there was a special book printing workshop in which books were copied and restored. Most of the books then went to other obeidallah and settlements. In their libraries, in addition to the spiritual literature were also collected books on history, geography, philosophy, rhetoric, science. Of these old believers ' centers of education book, the wisdom was spread throughout the grass-roots Pechora. Practically in each village there were mentors in which houses there was a prayer room where services to fifty holidays took place. Memorial services in private homes have been and are still being carried out. The old believers had a positive moral impact on their neighbours through their adherence to the principles of Christian morality and strict observance of the norms of everyday life, in particular the prohibitions on Smoking and drinking strong drinks.
In 1891 Pechora district of the Arkhangelsk province with the center in Ust-Tsilma was formed; here County authorities and organizations (the district police officer, Treasury, magistrate, the field inspector, etc.) in 1886 in the village the hospital was founded.
Our great-grandfather Dmitry Koshev arrived in Ust-Tsilma Pechora tract in the summer of 1892. This way was not short, more than two hundred kilometers through the remote forests and swamps. Father Dimitry "from the Treasury was put 285's salary rubles, and takozh land use for the priest haying of 60 carts of hay, instead of arable, from society out of 55 rubles, the house was public".
In 1893 Arkhangelsk Governor A. P. Engelhardt alone overcomes the way to Ust-Tsilma: "In Ust-Tsylma I was expecting a steamer Cherdyn merchant Black. Black sails in the Pechora two ships; they are designed for towing barges, have a pretty strong car and sitting in shallow water up to five quarters. These steamers Black brings in the spring with Akshinskoe pier Perm province everything you need for the Pechora region of the products, mainly flour, wine, salt, sugar, etc. Incidentally, in Raskova cellar in Ust-Cilma we found a tolerable red wine, sherry is probably Perm the cooking — and even very good Seltzer water from the Graha from Kazan. It's not surprising at all. The peoples do drink a lot of vodka and wine, and the wealthy prefer more wine. So everything here is adjusted to the deer that the peoples and beverages consumed according to how much one deer; so, who has less than a thousand goals, he is satisfied vodka, who has more than a thousand, he was already drinking brandy cherdynskiy of cooking, and one, two thousand deer, he considers it his duty to drink the sherry. Of course, cognac and sherry of this kind, that without Seltzer water can be difficult. By the fall of barges loaded with local products: salmon and other fish, furs, seal fat, poultry and are towed up the Pechora Akshinskoe to the pier, where the steamers remain for the winter, and goods brought by land are carried on Kama".
It was through the efforts of Alexander Platonovich Engelhardt that the Mezen — Pechora — Ust-Tsilma – Pustozersk postal tract was equipped and Telegraph lines to Ust - Tsilma were laid through impassable Pechora forests
On this road, flour, salt, gunpowder and industrial products were brought to Pechora, and carts with game, fish, furs and reindeer skins stretched towards Arkhangelsk. Mail from Leshukonsky to Ust-Tsilma was delivered in six days. The construction of the road was an enormous effort and hardship that overcome people to link by land sea icy land of Ugra.
Tract Pechora Mezen — Ust ' -TSIL'ma was used for its intended purpose — to connect the basins of the Pechora and Northern Dvina up to the 1940-ies. Already in Soviet times the telephone line was laid on the pillars. The idea was unsuccessful-because of the old pillars, off-road and harsh climate to serve the line was too expensive. She worked almost a month in the year and in the late sixties was abandoned. Now it's a completely abandoned road. Bridges collapsed, embankment, drowned in the bogs, preserved by only a few dilapidated huts of the station.
On seven winds and seven hills there is Ust-Tsilma on the high Bank of Pechora, carrying its water into the Arctic ocean. The descendants who came from Novgorod, Mezen and Sheverdina in these harsh conditions formed the original community of "ustselemov", adopting the peoples of the Komi and Nenets all the wisdom of life in the far North. This did not penetrate the serfdom, and for almost five centuries in Ust-Tsilma remained virtually intact language, way of life, the old faith of the ancient Novgorod settlers and original culture, which is no longer in Novgorod itself, nor in any other Russian city.
From the Encyclopedic dictionary Brockhaus and Efron for 1907 we learn: "Ust-Tsilma is an ancient village, the control center of the Pechora district of the Arkhangelsk province, on the right Bank of the Pechora river, against the mouth of The Tsilma river. A shipping dock. Up to 300 houses, 2 churches (Orthodox and monastic). Two-year school, 2 parochial schools, hospital on 4 beds, post and Telegraph office, about ten shops; fair. Residents 2115. The villagers are engaged in fishing. 100 families put up to 150 boats; families caught up to 5,000 pounds. In addition, residents are engaged in the construction of river vessels, partly reindeer herding, hunting and transportation of goods to the fairs of Mezen and Pinega counties. Few people are engaged in agriculture and gardening. Several industrial and craft institutions - among the folk crafts wood carving, spinning hemp threads for nets, sewing suede gloves, knitting stockings, mittens and socks, making earrings and wedding belts".
Life is not spoiled Ust-clamav: the lean years, starvation, attacks bolshezemelsky and Uralic Nenets, as well as all sorts of thieves. Weak spirit of here not weathered. Nature is forced to endure unspeakable hardships that did not stop the courageous people.
Saint Nicholas the Saint Is the chief heavenly patron of Ust-Tsilma for both old believers and Orthodox Christians. In the middle of the village stood a large St. Nicholas Cathedral, and just a hundred meters away was the Church of St. Nicholas built in 1871. Our great-grandfather Dmitry V. Koshev, learn here to handle a deer, rode on them stands for an old rite parish, which consisted of residents of Ust-TSIL'ma and villages and settlements scattered over a vast area along the rivers Pechora Pizhma, TSIL'ma, etc.
Back in 1800 for the believers who are ready to enter into the subordination of the Russian Orthodox Church while maintaining the old liturgical ranks and ancient rites was introduced Edinoverie.
16 Sep 1890 in Ust-Tsilma opened a parochial school under the common faith of the Church, where there were children and old believers, and where his father Dimitri on duty, children were taught literacy and taught the law of God along with the Psalmist by Coprofam Ivan Ivanovich.
From "the registers of St I. II. III deaneries, Pechora uyezd in 1895," we learn that the priest of the village of Ust-Tsilma Dimitry V. Kocheva 36 years and studied it in Boretsky rural school Shenkurskiy County. Then it is said that upon emerging from the peasant class D. V. Koshev ordained to the deaconate on June 28, 1892, and 29 of June, his grace Alexander (**Andrew G. Zakka I Iwas-Sackis) ordained him to the priesthood to Astiticescoy common faith of the Church. From the family of O. Dimitri: wife Tatiana Egorovna 28 years; their children: Alexander – 10 years old, Natalia is 8 years old, Jacob is 5 years, Basil – 3 years. Dimitry Koshev has a diploma with a blessing for the donation of 100 rubles for decoration and repair (*so in the text) of the Church. The behavior of all the good and very good.
Then it is said that the priest Koshev: sings, reads, at times holding discussions with old believers, and under a consequence and court have not been, and kinship between the members of a parable is not.
Was Dmitry V. proud, quick-tempered, curious and hospitable man, to the light it looked and the local doctor Solntsev, and assistant Secretary Smets, and exiled settlers, one of which is "supervised" by Peter Smirnov, the father of Demetrius the samovar often keenly debated political issues, carried away and forgetting the time and place.
In 1897 the priest Ilyinsky Paul Matveevich, appointed in 1896 Ust-Tsilma by protivorazgonnoy a missionary, became head of the Ust-Tsilma common faith of the Church. It is known that two bears in one den do not get along and on January 13, 1898, Dmitry Vasilyevich became a priest Televizionnogo Samoyed ward, changing the harsh climate on the Arctic Komi Republic.
Before the revolution many of ustselemov began to attend Orthodox churches. This was facilitated by a great educational and missionary work of priests, their personal qualities. After all, to gain the respect of adherents of the old faith was not easy. At least the priest wasn't supposed to smoke. Used to have some of the old believers is a sin drinking tea, because present in it tonic substances, not to mention the drinking and the swearing. Though all Church holidays in Ust-Tsilma were accompanied by games, dances and songs, but nobody drank at the same time. Even weddings before the revolution were played "dry".
It was the old believers, in whose genes the frenzied spirit of the Archpriest Avvakum Petrov and the fury of the boyar Feodosia Morozova did not evaporate, immediately saw Satan in the power of the Bolsheviks, appealing to A. V. Kolchak: "may God help you on your chosen thorny path to carry the burden to the heart of Russia – Moscow and cleanse the Russian Shrine from Communist abomination." The old believer preceptors taught: "the Collective Antichrist of the nest, no one believes in them can not go, because thereby he will contribute to the further rampant and strengthening of the Antichrist. Whoever enters the collective farms will be cursed, for he gives his soul to the Antichrist." Believers were urged not to believe Communists because "they are known with the Antichrist". When the great Plague-collectivization began, old believers, refusing to join collective farms, or remained sole traders, or went to cities for work. In the first years of the Soviet power schools in old believer villages and villages were empty. Believers children were not allowed in the Soviet school and were not allowed to join the pioneers and the young Communist League, saying that children in school will not be allowed, unless it is taught the Law of God. The few old believers had a strong resistance to godless power, showing their activity in defence of the Christian faith and Christian lifestyle. Old believer monasteries-monasteries in the mountains and the remote taiga became a shelter for many participants of the White movement.
The Bolsheviks saw in the old believers their ideological enemy number one and began to consistently destroy them. "The fight against kulachestvo is at the same time the fight against old believers," wrote N. Krupskaya in one of his atheistic works.
Referring to the "autocratic commissioners," the conservatives wrote: "You call yourself the people's Commissars. But what the people elected you? Russian people you are not selected... Russian people you robbed, ravaged, killing millions of them and the whole country turned into a bloody hell... Remember that people's patience has dwindled, and the righteous anger of the people will not hesitate to legally punish you, as intruders, as robbers, villains. Go now while you still can, with your self-appointed and autocratic thrones!»
A trail of blood was left on the Pechora unit of the red Commissioner Maurice Mendelbaum. Among those arrested this detachment on September 27, Krestovozdvizhenie, was the Dean of St. Nicholas Cathedral Anfal O. Surovtsev, who, by the standards of the old believers, regarded by the villagers respect. Red fanatics were subjected to a priest was severely tortured, beaten with whips. First, cut off the nose, then the ears, gouged out his eyes and pulled the tongue. Three days lasted the brutal punishment. 30 Sep 1918 O. Anfal was shot on Board the ship near the village of Malaya, and his body thrown into the water. Shot him together with the white guard ensign Krasikov. White officer for a moment before a shot managed to fall into the waters of the Pechora. To outwit the executioners, he was saved and then spoke about a Martyr's path O. Anfal.
The Bolsheviks condemned the old believers ' leader, F. E. Melnikov to death, but he managed to emigrate to Romania, where he published books such as "the Soviet Paradise, the world is a pigsty", "Socialism – satanic opium", "Communism is satanic intoxication", "About atheism and developonline"and others. A. Kartashev at this time wrote: "the Antichrist walked, blinded, began to reign. It remains to samoderzhets or go to the grave awaiting final judgment. And lay down."
Famous Arkhangelsk newspaper "Northern morning", published since 1910, was announced on 30 April 1919 information about the red terror, mass executions of red army soldiers, Ismo-Pechora Soviet regiment of the civilian population of the Pechora district, clerics, prisoners of the whites, members of their families, including women and children. The newspaper wrote: "before liberation from Bolsheviks at the end of November last year Pechora region of our province experienced days of continuous horror. In the region, deystvovali red army gang. In late November, guerrillas from the village of Ust-vashka mezensk district took Ust-Tsilma. They were joined for the common struggle of the peasants of the villages with the river Tsilma. These actions of volunteers under the leadership of the heroes-officers brought untold joy to the poor residents of Ust-Tsilma: the doors of the prison were opened, 40 or more prisoners were released, who cried from the unexpected joy of liberation, for all of them were sentenced to death by the Bolsheviks. A large part of the party were elderly people. Many of these poor people were subjected to torture, humiliating for human dignity, before being imprisoned: the captured citizens were whipped, then their wounds were sent with salt, moistened with water, and flogged again. The eyewitness of these wounds, who told us about the atrocities of the Bolsheviks, says that he was horrified when he saw the spiked backs, representing one continuous, bloody wound... some were broken ribs, others were still in the body of the bullet... already leaving Ust-Tsilma, the Bolsheviks managed to drown two citizens in the hole." These newspaper data are confirmed also by archival materials from declassified funds of National archive of the Komi Republic (f.1316).
Religion in Soviet Russia was crossed out and ravaged wildly flowered wormwood evil. Discarded was the sacrament of marriage, people are surrounded by ignorance, it is delayed in the animal-sexual passion, in different kinds and forms of crimes.
"During the construction of socialism, favorable conditions were created to overcome the old believers," Soviet Newspapers wrote. In 1929-30 the years were closed Edinoverie churches in the villages of Ust '-TSIL'ma, Zamezhnaya, the old believers ' chapel in the village of Skete. In 1933-34 years closed all kriticheskie chapel, and by the beginning of 1940-ies criticalto on Adore, Letke and Pecora was liquidated by the authorities. According to statistics, 1973 Komi old believers was no more than 2.5 thousand people.
And in the Church of St. Nicholas, where from 1892 to 1898 served as our great-grandfather FR. Dimitry Koshev, after the revolution staged a Komsomol Committee. Then opened the House of pioneers, then the temple was cut and carried off, and removed the bells sent to the facility.
For the Soviets, the people lost faith in God – 70 years of the godless Soviet Communists have destroyed, burned and killed, as the Orthodox and old believers. The people went a great scarcity of faith. With the departure of the old believers disappears that living thread, which invisibly connected us for centuries with Ancient Rus and its culture.
Ust-Tsilma is one of the few places in Russia where old belief remains the dominant religion. The community of the village at the hearings endorsed the draft common faith of the Church, which allowed the old believers ' worship under the old (pre -) books. Today believers in Ust-Tsilma are not many and among them our relatives Shishlova and loopy. The old believers finish building their new stone Church in the village.
Meanwhile, most of the Ust-Tsilma peasants working in the local SPK and farms, the "real" money for years don't see. Illegal fishing red fish-for them the only opportunity to get hold of money.
But for the underground traders trade of salmon bonanza. Taken to the Big land, it is sold in bulk in batches of 200 rubles per kilogram. Retail price is even higher. From connoisseurs, this fish is prized much more than all other members of the salmon. Fish was even less poaching developed to the cosmic scales, economy pripechora withers eyes, and huge funds raised from the sale of the Pechora salmon feed state underground fish oligarchs.
At this point in the municipality of the rural settlement of "Ust-Tsilma" included: on the right Bank of the Pechora river – the village of Ust-Tsilma, d. Sergeevo-SELA and D. High Mountain, on the river Tsilma – p. Sinegorye and D. Bir.
In 1986, not far from Ust-Tsilma was opened an underground oil field. Three years later, a South-Lower oil field was discovered nearby, which managed to be put into commercial operation before its predecessor. In General, thanks to these two discoveries, more than 360,000 tons of "black gold"have been produced in the Ust-Tsilem district so far.
According to the results of the all-Russian census of 2002, about 130 nationalities and ethnic groups live in the Komi Republic, contributing to the economy of the Republic, preserving their original culture. Among them and Russian old-time group with self "octillery", formed on the name of the most ancient and large settlement – the village of Ust-tzilma, founded in the mid 16th century.
Only in Ust-Tsilma is a traditional holiday "Slide" that come to see many guests, including foreigners. It is famous for its particularly bright clothes, which are stored here by many, as a mandatory element in the house.
Christian love is manifested in the unity of the faithful. It is joyful that today, in the days of Apostasy, when there is a cooling of love and multiplication of iniquity, once divided by internal Church contradictions believers, with a single heart and lips praise God, in the bosom of a Single Holy Mother of the Church.
The search continues
In the 18th — 19th centuries in the towns and villages along the North Dvina river a considerable number of peasants still retained the ancient rites and customs. Beards are not shaved, did not go to Church and was baptized two fingers. In the village of Semenovskaya old believers have long lived, and our great-grandfather Dmitry Koshev from childhood knew their customs and customs.
The boy's parents were truly believing people, observed all the establishment of the Orthodox Church. Basil Koshev, Dmitry's father, a wealthy farmer, an expert on the Church books, refrained from the use of alcoholic beverages and tobacco, in the house in sight was always the Bible and the gospel, the book of hours and Psalter — a book of prayers for all occasions. Dmitry liked them to look through, from his childhood in the boy manifested the qualities of the Christian soul, which in its entirety was revealed in later years. The Lord gave him intelligence, diligence, and perseverance in achieving his goal. His mentors were grandparents, mother and father, and older brother Alex, and the villagers, and the parish priest, which he has comprehended the reading and writing, writing and reading. From an early age Dmitry was actively helping my parents and learning all sorts of farm work. The main fishing farmers – arable farming. In the photo the 1880s, we see (right to left) the head of the family of Basil the Unknown and his sons Dmitry (standing) and Alex. Vasily holds a loaf of bread in his hands, and Alexei holds a broken hump. Our great-grandfather, Dmitry Vasilyevich dressed in a business suit and mentally removed from everyday peasant concerns.
In 1861, the serfdom was abolished in Russia, which facilitated the access of peasant children to school. In 50 versts from the village of Semenovskaya and today there is an ancient village Borok (Borok), the birthplace of the famous ataman Ermak Timofeevich (*originally "z Dvina z Borku"), the conqueror of Siberia for the Russian state. Boretsk rural two-year school at the Church of the Meeting of the Lord and was for Dmitry higher school, where at the age of 10 with the blessing of his father, he went to learn literacy. Back in 1828, the main purpose of rural schools was defined — to prepare writers for orders and writers in the specific offices, as well as to give the necessary "for every Christian the concept of faith." Parents had to supply children with clothes of the precisely established form, orphans-pupils were dressed by society. There boys of good morality from families of the rich or mediocre condition studied. Compulsory subjects in College was the Law of God, sacred history, Church Slavonic reading and writing and Russian language with writing, and arithmetic with the use of accounts, geography, natural Sciences, Church singing, drawing, etc. Along with the clergy, the lessons were taught by secular teachers. The study days were determined by members of the clergy in the days of Orthodox holidays the lessons were canceled. Every school day started and ended with prayer.
Having good abilities, Dmitry mastered the Holy Scripture of The new and old Testament, Church Slavonic language, Church art and Church calendar, wrote fluently in old Slavonic. Willingly taking part in Church singing and reading, sometimes he waited at the altar with vestments to the surplice, and clearly well read Vespers and Matins kathisma, Histoplasma, watches and other Psalms, and an introduction to the traditional Orthodox rites: baptism, wedding, funeral, confession, repentance and participation in the prayers.
The school had a good student library. There were religious and secular books, such as "Instruction about the Orthodox Liturgy", "Kiev Pechersk Lavra", "the Russian Truth – a rural court in ancient times", "Work feeds, and laziness spoils", "M. V. Lomonosov"; the poems and tales of A. S. Pushkin; "Taras Bulba" by Gogol, "Old days in Russia", "Wedding Russian tsars" and other books for home reading and the journal "Russian idea", "field", "homeland".
The training was free. Students successfully having studied all 5 years, was issued a certificate of completion (*the giver, including benefits for military service) is a printing form with the printing application, signed by the Chairman of the Board of Trustees and its members.
Officially classes at school began on September 1 and came to an end on may 15, but actually academic year lasted from October 1 to April 15 as country children were compelled to take active part in field works. The education of children from the poorest families was limited to 1 to 3 years. Children lived in a boarding school. On the ground floor there were teachers ' apartments, workshops, gym, boarding school. On the second floor there are classrooms and a teacher's room. The school was in bath. The same rural school, graduated in his time, academician I. P. Bardeen, the famous poet Sergei Yesenin and other famous people in Russia.
After graduation, Dmitri returned to his native village, he christiansteven, got married and built a house, but he was closely under the roof of the native, I wanted someplace more life. Shenkursky district has a location for farming and ranching maloudobnye, arable land is scarce, even the horses were in every peasant household. Only one plow farming in these parts to feed, when the crop was harvested, fed the peasants in seasonal work in the far work. The departure of peasants "third party works" has been included obtaining permission from the community and local authorities in the form of passports or selling tickets. Mostly they were logging on, engaging not only for cutting but also for alloy roundwood, boards and beams. He also worked for a private courts, which were held with a variety of goods past the Dvina. Our great-grandfather most often was fed with building artels to Arkhangelsk, St. Petersburg, Vologda and V. Ustyug, visiting Holy places there.
Returning after travels in his native village, Dmitry was once again plunged into family care. Amid bleak scenery outside the window and the same gray and dull vegetating only in the Church has always reigned true beauty — the beauty of worship and the Liturgy and Holy icons, incense, Church singing and candles that a child was struck by Dmitry and drew him to the temple. Life around is not easy, and in the Church – always a holiday. Possessing a diploma and a good memory, knew and willingly helped Dmitry to serve in his native village Church, was sometimes replaced with a reader and is often sick priest. Hitting memory around he was told to be literate, that the old Semyonov and near to her villages tishinskiy, St. Andrew's, Isakovski trusted Yermolinsky and Dmitry to preach in the village Church. Spiritual communion with the Orthodox people, the knowledge of the commandments of God, a good understanding of the Bible, the meaning of the Liturgy and other divine services and sacraments of the Church made him a man.
Was that when Dmitry started to go to Church, it was only the service with prayer and nothing more. He rethought his spiritual life and felt a call to service. The parish priest, using the passage through the Northern Dvina of Archpastor Alexander, earnestly asks Dmitry to be a Minister of the Church of God. Please respect the Saint of God, was ordained a deacon Dmitry in what was then very rare, almost exceptional phenomenon, and after a long conversation, his grace Alexander on the next day (!) bless you and Dmitry was ordained to the priesthood to Astiticescoy common faith of the Church. In Ust-Tsilma and went Dmitry V. Pechora tract, on the way to visit relatives in Mezen. Wife Tatiana Egorovna left in Semyonov with his daughters Sasha and Natasha, and six months later was born and the long-awaited boy – my grandfather Jacob. They soon moved to Ust-Tsilma, there was born another boy Basil. About the further life of the family father Dimitri said earlier. After Ust-TSIL'ma and Televisi family 3 years lived in Solombala, where Dmitry Vasilievich served in St. Nicholas Church, an acolyte with Bogolepova Petr Andreevich. Personalanalysis the parish was separated from the 1st and 2nd parts of the city of Arkhangelsk river Kuznechikha, from 3rd — river Kura. Part of the parish included villages: 1st, 2nd and 3rd Solombala, Paracelsa, Tallinskaya, Aramiska, Rosenska and D. Goats. Inhabitants by January 1, 1894 there were 1249 people.
The daughter of father Dimitry, Natalia was adopted in Arkhangelsk Diocesan school, and sons Jacob and Vasily is in the theological Seminary of the full software. And here can be was to live.
But suddenly, grief struck the family-the Lord called upon father Dimitri from earthly labors in the Prime of his life. He was then forty-first year. Relatives were seriously worried about the loss, the breadwinner's wife, Tatiana Egorovna, received from the Diocese an annual salary of Dimitri Vasilyevich-49 rubles, she sold a house in the village of Semenovskaya and bought a small house in Mezen on Kaninsky prospect No. 86, where she lived until 1948, dying for 81 years of life. The youngest daughter Lyubava with his family lived here.
My older daughter, Alexandra Dmitrievna, with her husband Fyedor TYUKAVIN and son Yuri was a house on Quay street, near the mother.
Middle daughter Natalia Dmitrievna, not finish my studies in the Archangel Diocesan school, went to the tundra with the reindeer Sumarokov, Ivan (R. 1881), a resident of the village of Oksino center Pustozersk district, a representative of the famous in the North family of merchants and herders Sumarokova, which Nikita Timofeevich Ardea, the Nenets of Kolguev, shortly before his death in 1993, dictated to his son Philip Ardeeva on tape:"...all brought. Brought cloth, sugar, oil, food... At the mouth of Bugrino at the time was standing right in karbasi... Candy was brought in, nonasi, full barrels of <...> all brought — in addition to vodka. Vodka Sumarokov forbade...."Sumarokov owned large herds of deer, fishing vessels, fishing areas (Tony), forest and marine hunting grounds in the area of the Yugra Sphere, on the island of Kolguev and on the shore of the Barents sea.
In 1930, the head of Nenets district Department of OGPU Ya. Ya. Clover fabricated "Case Sumarokova" : "...Before the revolution engaged in trade with the Samoyeds and the Islands of the Arctic ocean" <...> V1918–1920s, actively fought with the Soviets..." In a ruling "Troika" of the OGPU of the Northern territory from 27.12.1930 about the shooting in Naryan-Mar in 64 hours after the verdict four Sumarokova and the expulsion of nine more Sumarokova and six Pavlov and two Kozhevina in the Northern Territory... Ivan A. Sumarokov, the husband of Natalia Dmitrievna Mishka, shortly before the arrest of the "rebels" were killed in the tundra all deer, and he had not experienced such grief.
Natalia Dmitrievna came to work in the orphanage of the castellan and together with the orphanage again came to Ust-Tsilma, where today her daughter Tamara Fedorovna Lukina, who in her 86 years is still cheerful and active, her son Alex is engaged in business, and her daughter Tatiana, economist, lives in Mytishchi in Moscow. The eldest daughter of Natalia Dmitrievna, teacher of Ust-Tsilma school Evgenia Shilova, unfortunately, is no longer with us. In Ust ' -TSIL'ma live her children Michael and Natalie, and grandchildren, one of them, Anton, I corresponded, he was a programmer, he also has a website.
And Yakov and Vasily Cosevi after graduating from theological College, he entered the Arkhangelsk Seminary, which is well and finished, and for many years was living almost next door. At the first opportunity on vacation they went to Mezen and helped the mother to keep the house and farm in good condition, collect mushrooms and berries in the forest and catch fish in the river.
...After finishing Seminary, my grandfather Yakov Dmitrievich Koshev was a Psalmist Petelinskoe coming Onega parish. On July 21, 1914 he was ordained a priest and sent to the village of Shizhnya (*4 km from the present city of Belomorsk), then served as a missionary priest in Kemi, whose main task is spiritual and moral education and familiarization of local residents with true Orthodoxy. (*It is not easy to teach, but to show by example who the Orthodox believer is). This is what makes the locals trust, especially the older generation. Then James D. 1920, was Coldsore rector of the parish, to which was assigned the churches Bereza Nicholas and Chernorech-Trifonovskaya, and the chapel in the name of the prophet Elijah in the White Lip and in the name of the Resurrection in the village of Black River (*now the territory of Karelia). Children of Yakov Dmitrievich, Vladimir and my mother Elena Yakovlevna, baptized by his father in his ancient St. Nicholas Church built in 1705, were born in the Pomor village of Kovda. At the Church operated parochial school, where my grandfather, father Jacob taught 47 children. The iconostasis of the Church consisted of three tiers with a developed prophetic rank in the absence of a festive tier. Icon village soil science visibly testify to the spiritual strength of Orthodoxy and the bright talent of Russian painters.
After leaving North of the White army Miller and Yakov Dmitrievich left the Church – he did not want to be a "red priest" and bless his flock in obedience to the Antichrist. St. Nicholas Church was closed in 1960, and in 1991 transferred to the Department of culture of the Murmansk region. In the early 90-ies of the restorers under the Church, a grave was discovered: wooden decks that wrapped in the bark of the bodies of the children. Scientists have suggested the ceremonial burial of old believers or some attempt to stop, thus, some epidemic. Did Jacob's father know that ?
The brothers Vasilii and Yakov Cosevi after 1920 become teachers, then accountants, and in 1938, my grandfather Yakov Dmitrievich under article 58-6, as "the English spy" was defined in the Vyatka camps. All this was written by my mother in her story "I am a teacher" and I am in the work "Descendants of the Dutch master in the Russian North", which are published on the same site. But there's still a lot we don't know the life of our great-grandfather, Dmitry Vasilyevich Unknown and his family, not all documents and photos found. The search continues.
The main negative outcome of the twentieth century-the impairment of human life. Alexander Herzen wrote that under the sun the freedom is not only the Mature grains, but also fragrant miasma of the trenches, which were sweet-smelling herbs. Today, some Russian politicians and the media are changing signs in the evaluation of theories, historical events and politicians on a number of moral and ethical issues (*bet on the strong, attitude to wealth and "naturalness" of the desire for profit, which are thoroughly corrupt, criminalized and dehumanized our society). But neither a return to reverse, to "lost Russia", nor an imaginary advance to" capitalism with a human face " is the best way out of the situation. Today's generation will not be satisfied either in politics or in the economy. They're still looking for something. But looking for discos or pop culture; look with admiration on America and Hollywood. And the real life, satisfaction and peace of mind can be found only in Jesus Christ and his Church, as my great - grandfather Dmitry Vasilyevich Koshev once found.
1.Klirovye Vedomosti, the second deanery, Pechora County, for 1897 year. CGA Komi ASSR.F. 229, op.12.
2.N.. Okladnikov and N. N. Matafanov. The thorny path to Orthodoxy. From the history of the conversion to Christianity of the Nenets of the Arkhangelsk tundra. Arkhangel'sk: OAO "IPP "True North", 2008. p. 159-162.
Light memory of Evgeny Petrovich Bozhko, historian-researcher