I Am A Teacher. To survive the blockade.
Elena Bozhko (Unknown).
Today I am 91 years old-this is an interesting age, turning over my past life as a book from the beginning.
I was born in the village of Kovda, Murmansk region, where my dad, Koshev James D. served as a priest of the old St. Nicholas Church.
In 1920, he did not want to stay in his temple "red priest" and bless his flock in obedience to the Antichrist: how to pray for the "success and happiness" godless power, set as their goal the destruction of Orthodoxy; as to hear confessions, if the shepherd is forced to break her secret, having to sign on cooperation; what to do if the lists of the baptized and married was required to give to the authorities, and someone from the congregation asks to keep it a secret; and prayer is pleasing to the Lord when the congregation does not trust, and fear of the shepherd.
News about executions of relatives in Arkhangelsk, about the monasteries filled with priests, merchants, officers of Imperial army, about unloading of prisons executions quickly reached Kovda (on the White sea some 400 versts). Four children we had then Ya. d. Unknown — who will rise?! At a General meeting of the village of Kovda dad announced the lifting of the priesthood. And this same congregation invited him to become a teacher in the newly opened school in Lesozavod № 45 (* former sawmill English industrialist Charles Stewart, built in 1901), in 3 kilometers from the village on the islet of the same name – "45 Lesozavod".
The sawmill was operating — a large stock exchange and timber stacks. On the island there was a shop, a club, even a hospital. We lived first in a large house of the former Manager of the sawmill Stewart. The house was 2-storey, 10 bedroom. From the sea rose a wide staircase directly to the balcony in the hall. In the hall with 60 chairs and a Grand piano. Mother taught 1-2 classes, and dad is 3-4 classes and was the Director of the school, he also organized a boarding school where students lived in nearby villages. I can remember in 3 years. Mom took me to class in grade 1, they put the girls on the back row and I began to learn to read. To four years I have read, and the book is not parted to this day. Without the book couldn't live. But soon the steward's house as the best on the island, it took the party workers and the school he was evicted first in two small house, and a year later built a new school. It had two classrooms, two rooms for our family and one room for visitors. The kitchen was large with a Russian stove and stove top. And boarding school closed. The parents of the children taught very well, the school was called a support school, on vacation here gathered district teachers at the conference, this contributed to the beautiful nature and good fishing near the island.
When I was 4 years old, my friend Misha pushed me into a barrel full of water. Well mom heard that he suspiciously quickly runs up the stairs, ran outside, and I'm upside down in this barrel. Once my brother Kostya made me a beautiful birch tree. I ran outside and began to weep. Bear saw snatched the whistle and ran to the pier. When I ran up to him, he threw a pipe into the water. Well, I pushed him after the pipe from the pier. It is good that our brothers fled behind us.
To them, it was for six years, and they barely pulled out the Bear, who had been quite swallow the salt water, sorav his shirt. I ran and hid on the beach under the boat. I searched all over, but later in the evening found dad. Even with the Bear was the case. Next to us there lived a photographer. In his basement window stood a bottle of some liquid, plugged with rubber stoppers. Bear egged me what I can't get the tube. I took a cork, and he snatched it out of my hands, ran and again threw this cork in ozerko. And already everyone was shouting that I stole a tube. This the cry heard mother. She grabbed me and so beat, that I a few days could not sit. That's how she taught me to live honestly.
When I was three years old, died, sister Lucy, and in 1924 was the brother of Vladimir — boys born this year, named in honor of Lenin; I remember how long it took to buzzing ringing plants in the day of his death. During Lenin's life dad every summer went to teacher's congresses in Moscow and brought there books directly from the printing house, not yet cut. And we waited for dad not because of the hotels, but because of the books. What beautiful magazines and books they were. I remember photos of the Moscow teacher's congresses where the father sits near Lenin and Krupskaya – he was very fond of the new profession, having organized at school work lessons.
Around the school there were huge bonfires of wood, but the father did not take a single piece of wood. Brother the Bones put on the sled a large box, put in there the morning and drove to the plant. There from the 2nd floor on a trench wooden chocks rolled on a trough, we picked up them and put in a box. Except us, in the same way prepared firewood for the house and other children from the settlement. So we went daily and brought firewood for the winter (and summer). Except wood, we had to extract and water. The sled had two of the tub and went to the sea. In the ice we cut two holes not to end, they seeped through the ice the water is so salty for cooking (and fresh water was carried to the island from the village of Kovda river, but a little). In bath we were with cans fresh hot water for washing heads, and so washed their salt. After working on the farm, we went to the class to perform homework. Came to us factory guys who have not had home conditions. After completing the tasks, I read books to the children. And dad read books to adults who came to listen in the evening. In addition, adults staged performances at the weekend, and we physical room or power. newspaper. Then the winter was harsh, but the summers are hot and we swam and fished directly on the exchange, small trasacco see 30 of which were perfect for the ear. The stock exchange was headquartered La planks and behind them came the ships from England, Sweden, Norway.
We, the children, until 1928 was freely running around the stock exchange, and sailors from foreign ships threw us biscuits and nuts. We as sparrows rushed to them. And then someone noticed that we are photographed from steamboats and we were forbidden to go to the stock exchange. It was a big blow for us. We ran to the fishermen who fished herring networks — Belogorka, and we Bones and other guys helped pull chain and for that they gave us as many fish as we could carry. We had a small two-handed basket, and we barely carried it home with Bones. And my mother used to bake delicious fish. And, of course, we played a lot in the fresh air. One game was called "pebbles": they took 5 pebbles and threw them catching. The second game was called "holes": holes were pulled out in the sand by the number of players. The leading two. The Arab threw the ball. Which hole got the ball, go down the stone. When someone filled the hole, he was leading and sent all running for a distance at his request. Everything ran, and he buried the ball into one of the holes. Resort show which hole the ball. When the latter resorted, the ball was torn off. Another game was called "wrappers": they all had bone headstock and chops and box – wrappers, very beautiful, definitely ironed and spotless. Put dibs on the candy wrapper and threw the cue ball. Whipped wraiths took away. Practiced accuracy and added yourself wrappers. Boys played in towns, and all making merry during "paws." The time fled rapidly.
... There was a camp on the island. Barack criminal criminals were behind the fence. With them very badly treated: in winter, put on a stone in their underwear and doused with water or dragged on a rope from the hole in the hole – she had seen from the attic of the school. In two of the huts they lived with the families of political. Us, children, there allowed to play with children of political which, as well as their parents on the island didn't let out. Among the political were doctors, teachers, artists, which allowed together with my parents to put on plays in the club of the workshop. Other political prisoners were also brought to the performances, but then no outsiders were allowed into the club.
We lived on this island no. 45 ten years. Then dad offered to take the school in the Black river (this is a terrible backwater), and mom left here. But mom left, and left school. And my dad already felt in advance that they began to find fault with in absentia and trained as a bookkeeper and then accountant. Instead of a Black river, he went to work as an accountant in the timber industry to the station Kovda 17 km from the plant No. 45. I finished grade 4, but the station was only a primary school and hostel in Kandalaksha never gave me away and I once again went to 4th grade teacher Eugene G. Vorobyov.
In 5th grade I still went to school the train Kandalaksha, where the Director was Vladimir Devyatkin (the patronymic does not remember), I studied there for 2 years and suffered terrible hunger and cold in the orphanage. In 7th grade I had to go to the Lesozavod №46 (6 km from the island) just built there seven years, where in elementary school I worked dad's brother Vasily Koshev. But again, I lived in a boarding school. The headmaster was Michael Antonovich carpenters. He said that if we are without three finish 7th grade, then he dumped us on a tour to Leningrad. And many students even not traveled never on a train. We all tried very hard. I was generally very active pioneer, at conventions sitting at the podium with adults from the tribune often gave greetings. And here still I was called by the Director of 46 sawmill and told that to me charge to teach illiterate workers. Refuse I could not, because was preparing to enter the Komsomol. I come to the barracks, where the table was ready, covered with a red canvas. Blackboard, notebooks, pencils. Open the door to the room, and there, sleeping side by side gantry workers. I was on the list to call them — no response. Then the old man Bogomolov got up and told that I went to the place, and itself strong Mat lifted workers. They sat down at the tables, yawning and sipping. Was their 20 man, guys and girls 17-20 years. Well, I started my meal. The workers were completely illiterate, and the desire to learn had not. But after 3 months of training they were awarded: the girls got dresses and boys pants x\b and shirts. After that, it became easier for me to work with them. I was 14 years old. At the end of the year, when the workers learned to read, write and count them well again awarded – issued costumes. And I was awarded a book by comrade Stalin "questions of Leninism" and I was very happy.
But the young Communist League I still didn't, and I almost committed suicide – went to hang himself, and the girlfriend, Zina Rassokhina saw and talked. Partorg Seleznev said that I was not worthy to be in Komsomol, as my father was a former priest, although my father had long departed from San, and next to 45 sawmill 10 years worked as a teacher, and he was well known. Seleznyov himself, in the end, turned out to be an enemy of the people — the "Trotskyists" and were shot.
Well, I graduated from the 7 classes and our class, as promised by the Director, was taken to the Leningrad teacher Anna Plotnikova. Two excursions were held a day. What we saw there surprised us and remembered for a lifetime. We were taken not only to museums, but also we visited Peter and Paul fortress, Kronstadt, Vyborg, Pushkin (Tsarskoye Selo), Peterhof.
After the 7th grade again I had to leave home. Dad asked me to stay, he promised to teach me to be an accountant, but I just wanted to be a teacher and went to Petrozavodsk again to misery and hunger. The dream is a dream! Enrolling in teachers College on the street by Lunacharskii, where the Director was the same Devyatkin, I received a higher scholarship 97 rubles and 73 took over dormitories and canteen. And my mother sent me only 15 rubles. In a month 2 times I went to the Laundry for 5 rubles per visit. We went with friends to the theatre, to the gallery at every performance. I wanted to go to drama College (was here), and friends of the artists advised, saying that the talent I have, but my mom said no.
In addition to our, Russian, been in Petrozavodsk Highway on May 1 and Finnish teacher training College where the headmaster was Belyaev Ivan Stepanovich (*future Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Karelian ASSR). There were fed very well, the food chosen for the menu, bread black and white lying freely on the plates. And we Devyatkin fed rotten whitefish, corn or barley liquid porridge – stealing the staff canteen flourished. Who of students from home did not help – it hurt. I was like a dead body, too. Among the subjects we had and work, carpentry and locksmith. After 2 courses we were taken to the Sands in a military camp near Petrozavodsk.
We dressed as soldiers, on his feet – big shoes and winding, very disturbing us in trouble. Studied a rifle, a machine gun. "Went to fight", were on duty in the camp. But fed very well, after the famine in College in 2 months I gained 10 kg At the end of the 2nd course for me and a few students wanted to banish from the College – all of us were "suspicious" parents. My father came and showed the Director of the College Devyatkin documents that he took off the dignity in1920 and 10 years, then worked as a teacher and Director of the school, but the Communist Devyatkin threw these documents on the floor. I cried bitterly. Dad went to sleep with friends, and I had to get ready and go home tomorrow. But in the morning dad brought a newspaper which was an article by Stalin: "the Son of the father is not responding" and I gave up. And some students have already managed to leave and did not return.
In the third year we were United with students of the Finnish pedagogical College. They were very unhappy, because we were fed rot, and they-as in the restaurant. For them, the food had deteriorated and we became good — the bread was black enough. In the hostel I stayed until January, and then came dad – he passed here exams and was transferred to work as accountant in prionezhskiy salespromoting, and I began to live with their parents on the street Lezhneva. Here we were photographed by the whole family.
In 1937 I graduated from College, having a practice in the village Ligma and his diploma on the top five with honors. I had a good friend Zina Fotyanova from Belomorsk, smart, but very sick — kidney, enuresis (stepmother often for any reason have kicked her out in the cold canopy and ruined a girl); we lived in the same Dorm room, and I helped her in many ways. After studying, we wanted to go to a rural school and work together, but Ivan Stepanovich Belyaev said that I needed here in the city and did not let me go. Then Zina sat in the cold for a few hours and thereby killed himself. It was buried on Zaretsky cemetery behind the Cathedral. I was very sorry, and I didn't have in life more than a friend.
The first year I worked at school № 5 in the street Kuz'mina, and then he transferred to the 2nd school on the Ship, close to home, and the Director was my former teacher And Plotnikov M., and Anna, his wife, a teacher here.
At the age of 15 I fell in love with Einar Ancona. He directed the band at sawmill 46, and I played guitar in that band. Einar studied at the Sestroretsk industrial Institute. We've been texting him for over two years, and we broke up because of his evil joke. Then I met with the English teacher about to get married, but when he the party learned that my father was sentenced under article 58-6, as "an English spy", the fright disappeared from the horizon. Then I met with Victor Razin. He went to a road College and lived in our house, and his father worked as an accountant with my dad. We were friends for a long time. He went into the army, and from there wrote an insulting letter. I then worked in two shifts and more have taught the illiterate, and sometimes spent the night at school, and he received an anonymous tip and thought I walk. Regret it to the death, and life had not happened. Next to our house lived with his parents Ukrainian steamer Ivan Zigun, my friends and I went sometimes to listen to the records – there was in their house, a rare then in the home, the gramophone. And his fellow countryman Peter Bozhko who has just returned from army began to come to it. It post peel to work in the police precinct. Tall, handsome eye-catching, intelligent and decent guy. And we loved each other. Signed up and all. There was no wedding (had no money), and love was the rest of your life. His parents lived in Ukraine, and my dad was sitting in the Vyatka camps and mom just started to work in a kindergarten educator, brother Volodya was only 16 years old. And we lived all in one room. With housing even Peter, the chief of police could not help. And was July 2, and all my fellow teachers who have gone to the holidays. What to do? And we went with Peter to the Ukraine to his parents. In his native village of Ivkivtsi at first, when I started to drive to the farm, "activists" were few, a dozen people, all other people as people. And many did not want to go to the farm.
For who is taxed, who, as Petya's parents "kulaks", selecting all, and the grain for seeds and potatoes last, even straw from the roof shot at some. And most of all the poorest who could not work and did not want to sleep loved, but wanted to live well, to eat and to dress properly were raging. When the power of the poor came, all this foam went up. My husband's parents recognized the "kulak agents", selected the house and farm plundered all the property and sent to Karelia to the station Masalska (well at least not in Siberia, how many), hence after some time they moved to Petrozavodsk, and then back to Chernigov. Here we arrived in the town of Priluki, and if my husband didn't love immediately turn around and go home. His parents lived in the walk-through kitchen. A Russian stove stood near her planks, a table with a clay floor. Another family went through us to their room. Peter began to work at the mill, and I went I the education Department, and there had to bribe to work in a Russian school. But to me it was wild, and I got a job at a haberdashery factory, where I worked for 8 months and even received two prizes for the work. Petrozavodsk with his friend, teacher Claudia Alexandrovna Perovskoy, I kept texting, so she was aware of my Affairs, and increasingly, with the help of M. A. Plotnikova, fussed about the accommodation for us. And suddenly she sends me a call to work in Petrozavodsk, a pass (required after the Finnish war) and a copy of the warrant for the room on Krasnoarmeyskaya street. We immediately Packed up and went. We already had Jack 2-month. But I had to live, still, in the barracks on ulitsa Gogolya 41, because our room on Krasnoarmeyskaya took fraud people, from the same barracks. But after the ordeal in the Ukraine initially, we were happy and this shack. I worked again in the 2nd school, and Peter "tokari" Negavote, Genis took the nanny the Dunya. Live better. I bought a Desk, wardrobe, bed. Through the year the war began. Peter the 1-St day of the war took to the front and up to December 1945 we have not seen him. I had to work (at school-it was vacation), and with great difficulty got I sister - a teacher in the manger of Voenved. With Zhenya we went to my mom's on Plank street (near the present bus station) and there we found strong first bombing of Petrozavodsk. Bombed warehouses and railroad bridge across Neglinka. Several people were killed, including my disciple Paradise and her father. I grabbed Eugene with the crib, and his head fell splinter. All the Windows knocked out, and mother was wounded by splinters of glasses. Then we Plank did not go. The evacuation, and the mother of the 1st of July went along with kindergartens. Brother Kostya was called to the Navy, and Volodya dug trenches under the city and did not go to evacuation, and joined the guerrilla group headed by Plotnikov M. A, the Director of the 2nd school. On July 20, we were taken to the lake Onega to the shore of Pudozhsky. The bombing started, one barge went to the bottom, I tied myself to marry and thought that to die together. And next to me there are 22 more children from my group and about 20 more children, who were placed under my supervision, some even did not know their name. Our aircraft repulsed the enemy attack, and we have reached Andamy where my garden was my mother. I lived with my mother and Zoya Nikolaevna Ilyina in a private house, and Zhenya was in a manger. But he was still an infant and I had to stay with him for the night. And during the day I worked in the same manger. When Jack came down with the measles, I slept under his cot on the floor. After 3 months, our troops began to retreat and we were taken through the Vytegra to Vologda. And Peter at this time with his unit passed through Andomo we missed each other. Our manger Voenved were taken to Kostroma, and I decided to go with my mother. Jack in the path of the contracted whooping cough. We were given a separate cabin and during the cough I took it to the deck. And from kindergarten nobody got sick.
Finally we were taken on horseback, on a sled. Drove for a long time. Finally brought to the village of Dolgowicz, kindergarten was placed in the Cathedral, and we are in private apartments. Marrying again took ill. He had dyspepsia, pneumonia, and stomatitis. He was sick to the skeletal. Village old women said, " not a dweller.". I asked the head of the orphanage fish oil, and that by mistake (?) gave castor oil. In the morning I gave my Wife a spoon of castor oil, and carried him to the bath, put it on the shelves and began to pour in a trough of water. And he cried out: "Mom!"I turned around, and he the entire green, in mucus. But I'm not confused, washed it and ran home, on the move, shouting counter that Jack is dying. But it turns out it cleared, he had slept for two days and quickly went on the amendment.
In Dolgovich was a 4-class school, but I worked in an orphanage not a teacher, and a teacher. In my group there were 40 people of children from 1st to 4th grade. All the hard work fell on the shoulders of those Phys and children grades 3-4. We harvested wood, worked in the garden and in the field.
When I was leaving Petrozavodsk, the Director of the military manger told us to take 40 kg of things, otherwise it will not take us. And I was glad to go, even without clothes, if only with Zhenya. His things put in the suitcase – was 35 kg. my share was 5. I even coat did not take, only a jacket. July was very hot, and shoes on his feet, them I went. Even in the path of the shoes has worn. One old man in Dolgovitsy spat us paws, small and neat – so my mother and I went in bast shoes all the years of the war. We worked in this garden for 3 years, my mother – with the kids, she went out with them on the street only on warm days in the summer, because they had no clothes. Mom sat at the sewing machine, trimmed of all children, and those around her played with a piece of cloth.
But mom got sick, very thin, the pressure was great, and the Manager Istomina Galina Petrovna asked her to leave the orphanage. Even rations of bread, mother not given. She walked through the village, helping old people, working in the gardens. I was in the orphanage too, ate very poorly. Money we all the years did not pay, and we worked without weekends and holidays, went to the orphanage by 7 am to 11 PM. Once the mother was a remittance from his brother Bone of the army certificate of education. And more we nothing not had. Once past our house drove Elizaveta Dmitrievna, head of the orphanage № 2, which was 20 kilometres away from ours. She was surprised that her mother did not work and persuaded her to go to her, because she knew that her mother was a good educator, and her children loved her. I was left alone in a huge house. We lived with Jack in the kitchen, and the rest
room I was racing, boards, was very frightening. While my mother lived with us, I during the quiet hours of the children, leaving my mother in my group, resorted home, heated the Russian stove, washed clothes, sawed and chopped wood. And my mother left, and there was nobody to leave with my children in the group, and then I had to do all the housework at night. Then I invited to my house the blockade girl Maria Ivanovna Ksenofontova with her daughter Lena, and it became a little easier.
My mother twice came to us on foot for 20 km and said that her Manager invites me to work. In our orphanage stole, as the cook was the mother of the Director Istomina, fed very badly, so I decided to leave. I went to the head of RONO for 10 km, and he does not let go. Then I told him that I would go to Vologda and tell him how when he came to our orphanage, he took the bags of food. The certificate of transfer was given very quickly. Elizabeth arrived and took us to his orphanage in the village of Upper Spas. There I was told that I had arrived in hell. And I said that if from hell to hell, I have nothing to lose.
In group schoolchildren with 3 th on 10 class was 62 student, I-tutor 63 – I. With them previously worked as a teacher old teacher, she came to the orphanage for 7 km from the farm, very tired of the road, and only rested at work, and the children were left to themselves, hanging out in the village, on holidays they were not in the group. This orphanage came and girl Guta Silina, Vologda abandoned by their relatives. She was in 5th grade. While the children were sleeping, we cleaned the room (dining room) where the children ate. I whitewashed the walls, made of an application for the curtains; Guta and Tanya helped. With the fight begged the farm old sheets and covered the tables. The girls picked flowers on the tables. Have to wait for the arrival of children in the morning. But first you need to wash. "Wash yourself, - children shouted-get out!"And the dining room is closed, and we let in only washed. Finally, the children somehow washed his nose and was running into the dining room. Beauty, of course, stunned them, but the stubborn did not want to obey. Month I fought with them. Vanya Silinsky stole my bread, but I didn't say a word to him, I ate soup without bread. A month later I found the village a gramophone and records, and we had dances; the children, the adults were. Vanya brought in a bag of crackers and confessed that he took my bread and dried it. Crackers we gave and from this moment children as a substitute. They began to study well, I went to their lessons in their different classes, the children participated in the drama.mug, all the holidays were held in one place, we worked together in logging, worked in the garden and in the field, collected mushrooms and berries in the forest. The guys were not to know.
And here is, that interestingly still. It took 3 months and our doctor tells me: "Tomorrow will give rations for 3 months. Take a basket and two bags." I was very surprised: after all, in the orphanage in Dolgovich mom and no idea had. The next morning the rations we were given – which just was not there. It turns out, in the orphanage № 1 Istomina stole and products, and even (!) Krasnoarmeyskaya salary brother Bones from the front of the certificate!
The war ended, Petrozavodsk has since been released, re-evacuation, and some of the workers of the orphanage had left, and my mom and there was no replacement, and we stayed in the Top Spas. I bought a goat, called her shirt and taught her to go to bed in a blanket, because I thought that it will have to take her secretly. And now it's our turn. To railway station Raguly drove us to the horses, and I kept a goat in a blanket like a baby, and there put in the wagons, where we got the upper bunk. While went, the goat was walking downstairs at the bus stop I hid in a blanket. To carry without it is impossible, and for help we had to go 70 km from Our room on Gogol street was occupied by a family with 6 children. Mom prescribed us at a friend, and we lived on the street Lezhneva Agrippina Ivanovna Razina, in the same room 6 people. And lived until November until I returned to the front of Peter. He ended the war in the far East and as soon as he returned from the front, our room was vacated at 24 hours. It was then that we finally realized what we have is small and cold room. The house was 2-storey, and at the top still lived 65 students of the construction College. The door of a public toilet of type "toilet" with 2 cabins was obliquely to our doors. Constantly in the hallway stood a specific smell, well, when he came to the goldsmiths and opened for the whole day cesspool "smell" could knock down any man, and somehow held in our hall Gypsy said to me: "I have Bread you do not take!"And I say to her: "we Have it". Hunger was, of course, terrible. Peter did not go to work in the police, not by his nature was this work, and settled in "Zagotzerno", where brought, sometimes, "bran", from which I baked the cakes on the water. Goat we have calved, but had to give her brother the coast to fish since he came back from the war very sick. Kostya made us a tiny plate in the room, where we cooked. In 1946 Natasha was born, and she was first nanny for three months Petina's mother, who died for this from Ukraine, and then Nina's girl, whom I taught at home, and she passed the exams to the head teacher of 11 schools, where I worked first. Then we received a letter from Guti that she is dying of hunger. And I before the death of her foster mother gave my word I wouldn't leave the girl, and I wrote her a letter to come. May 15, I checked notebooks and suddenly enters the old woman, whom I said that she had nothing to submit. The old woman burst into tears – it turned out that this Gut. It was a living corpse, my stomach stuck to her back, the whole body covered with some scales. In the head of Koltun, lice, scab, scabies. Dressed like an old lady. All her clothes I immediately burned, washed in the trough, and put something not in that. Good neighbor, Buhrova Mary, a hospital nurse brought a shirt and a dress, and the gauze head scarf. Soon she contracted scabies. I sent Gutya to the clinic, where she was prescribed a prescription, and I quickly cured the girls. Petya was sent to the haymaker and wrote from there that he was infected with scabies, but I told him that it was, of course, on the haymaker. And when he arrived home, the girls were already healthy. We began to live to starve, I lost a lot of weight, but there is also the Lido in 1948 was born. Saved us being inexpensive to sell bulk in barrels cod liver, and then commercial oat flour. Here we came to life. Well, and finally canceled the card. At this time, under article 58-10 brother Kostya got 10 years for criticizing the Soviet regime, and the mother of the fish moved to the us. A Desk, wardrobe and beds had to put in a narrow common corridor made the bench in the room and slept. I wrote in Moscow Zhdanov letter about aid with housing. After 10 days came to pick me up by car and drove to the end of the line to watch 3-room apartment in the barracks, cool and even exposed inside — tow protruded from the slots. I refused because my daughter was still very small, and firewood, we're in his little room barely stocked. But I asked you to give me a warrant for the apartment. No. 13 on the second floor of our barracks, where he left a kind of Kuleshov. She has built (without a husband) the house on the Handling of; a few nights were taken from the Kuleshov huge barn with his (?) property (during the war they are well "hooked" junk — Finns allowed brothers — Khawaja, no offense meant). After the war, people called such hoarders "invaders", but with them like water off a duck. After our presorting tiny room small Sunny apartment of Kuleshov seemed to us a Paradise kuschami, although through the wall constantly hear rich, thick Mat student. There have already been born boys Sasha and Yasha, come back to us and rehabilitated brother Kostya, more than 5 years, innocently imprisoned in the camps. Immediately he went to work on the fish, although he was already very sick. And after 2 months Kostya died 39 years of age, it was difficult for us to transfer this loss.
The firewood we harvested ourselves Petya: riding horses in the woods behind the stumps, log storage, the military on the street Polenezkoy harvested Reiki is not passed dreveny lying on the road. The water in the summer and spring taken from the column, and in the winter sometimes and drove from the lake. Every week, I erased two two-handled baskets of underwear, rinsing in the river. It was very hard to rinse in the winter his feet froze to the ice and the boots was worn and the boot was not. His feet were swollen. I protected children. Helped old things some parents. Natasha grew up a very smart girl, but at the age of 8 she became ill. The doctor came Zaitsev and says that the girl has a light sore throat, but it was mostly vomiting, not even after tea and jelly, and the temperature was all the time 37, 3. I told the doctor that Natasha something heavy, but she pretended not to hear. And through 6 days began the first attack. The doctor said that she feared it, but did nothing to prevent his fears. And began my meal. At 3-4 months she was hospitalized, the day I visited her before work. She had to wear vitamins and fruits, but with our small earnings it was difficult to buy them, and I often worked in two shifts, and it's terribly hard, and at home I had an excessive load: wash, cook dinners, bring everyone to the bath. 20 years I slept three hours, worked until 3 o'clock in the morning, and had to get up at six in the morning. As I survived, simply wonder. But never lost his temper, came to school one hour earlier, left later.
Loved children of their own and others. However, once felt that I speak, went to the neurologist and after 30 sessions of treatment everything passed. Gradually life was adjusted, brought goats, chickens, geese, even a pig (then many people in Petrozavodsk kept even cows), but it did not last long – came to power Khrushchev and cattle was banned in the city and in the village. Immediately cattle began to cut, and then there was a lot of meat and sausage. Khrushchev shouted that he would catch up with America, but then began a terrible garden, the shops were empty on the shelves were only the "Khrushchev" — black bread, not even soup packets. Here we began to breed rabbits, it took 5 years, and only Peter learned to take care of them, as our family received a 3-room apartment in the "khrushcheba" on Gorky street. Rejoiced until I had to pay for an apartment, wanted to change back into a wooden house, but then I got paid for 25 years of experience and became easier.
In this house on M. Gorky № 26 lived a good time, but from here left us and my father and mother, and Peter, and Natashenka in their 43goda. I think that injustice, hardships of war and postwar period helped me to bear the love for children. And although for a long time I did not attend school, but all I heard the loud voices of kids and the school bell calling me to re-enter the class and say: "Hello children, I am your teacher!»…
To survive the blockade
They say and remember the siege of Leningrad, those who defended it or remember something about the days of stay in the besieged city, and I do not remember anything. And I was surprised throughout my life: why are the blockade silent? After all have spoken quite recently. And why? Yes because it is simply impossible to Express in words what "blockade" is. When I asked my mom to tell me something, she said, " why? Do not understand, it is necessary to survive". But sometimes I was devoted to the life of the blockade. If in two nutshell say, that such blockade for me — this was family, and there is no family. And between these words lies the tragedy not only ours, but also many thousands of people who remained in Leningrad.
There were four of us with mom and dad, two sons and two daughters. What would be better? But one daughter, Kate dies in 1938 from careless treatment by the doctor. The war began. I just turned two years old, my elder brother Volodya is 9 years old, and my younger brother Boris is 8 months old. Maybe our family would have survived if we had the opportunity to go somewhere, but, alas... an order is Issued: to send children to be evacuated without parents. And one of echelons took away me and the elder brother not to the East, and to the Novgorod region, Borovichi district. But who knew that the Nazis going so fast on our land! In the area of Borovichi bombing began earlier than in Leningrad. And parents were told to go and take their children. The mother, having arranged youngest to the oldest my sister (there lived the grandmother), went behind us, but we were in different villages. Has found one, second — have returned in Leningrad, and there learns, that the younger Borya took ill and fell in hospital. Had to wait for his recovery. September 8 was approaching, the time was missed, to leave Leningrad is impossible. Our blockade life has begun. There was no money, no food, no firewood. Father in the army did not take (he had tuberculosis), and how we lived, how they had to get bread, water, firewood, mom did not. I learned a lot from the diary of TASS correspondent in Leningrad Pavel Luknitsky "Leningrad acts..." He had to visit all the fronts around Leningrad and know the blockade of the city itself. Here is what he wrote: "On the December card products over the last decade have not been issued, except for the flour. This surrogate flour, bran with something else that is given instead of cereals". On 3 January 1942 was not the father. His mother sewed him in a blanket and took him to the Serafimov cemetery in a sleigh. Behind the Church a large ditch, his father put the third on the edge. "And how many in a row?"mother asked, and she was told: "100 people." If someone was not in that cemetery, and will be in Leningrad, let's see what sort of fields buried blockade. Worship this land. Pavel Luknitsky wrote in his book: "on December 29, 1941, Ten days ago, I learned that an average of 6,000 people die of starvation a day in Leningrad. Now, of course, more..." ..."on the January cards for the first decade in some stores issued only meat: for the first category — 500 gr. (of them half of bones), and for the second and the third — on 150 gr. It's 10 days!""January 1 of a surrogate, the bread was bitter, with a touch of mustard brandy". "Night on 11 January 1942 for the past two decades, as being nothing but hungry norms of bread, cards not issued". "On January 15, 1942 December cards (on which nothing is issued) were declared invalid. The day before yesterday ... on January 1 decade results for 400 gr. cereals.»I'm sorry I brought excerpts from the diary, but wanted to let people know a little of what conditions had to survive the blockade. early February. Big brother Vova is dying. He could not eat the bread that was given, and there was nothing else. Mom was so shocked by his death, with the death of her assistant that she didn't even have the strength to take him to the cemetery. February 22 was the younger brother. Volodya and Boris took on Theological cemetery two girls from our communal apartment, and was not adopted, ordered to take Seraphim. Forces the girls was also small, so they just left you guys in the cemetery. In late March, became the grandmother of Anastasia Ivanovna, my mother's mother. She was helping us with something. She was buried at Serafimovskoye cemetery in the area of "Eternal flame". Work, and my mother worked as home-based workers — sewing sweatshirts at home, had to stop because the company is taking the finished products, were evacuated. Spring took away the last of his strength. "I — my mom — was no longer a man, and dystrophic. All dried up, skin was black, the arm above the elbow could be embraced by middle and big fingers." Once in June my mom had to contact the housing office, and there, looking at her, and knew how old she was ordered to leave Leningrad. But where to go? But proved the familiar fellow traveler, which, too, was evacuated and knew, far to go. After the first year of the war, losing family, two of us went from Leningrad on a barge on lake Ladoga on the "mainland". On one barge people, on the other-things. In Kobane fed us and that some of the products given on the road. The train was going to the Urals. At bus stops was carried out of cars a lot of corpses. "Yes, if you would go further on the train, his mother said, I also wouldn't be alive". We reached Vologda, and then by boat and on a horse. And that's the case on the boat, or rather a conversation. The Volga was driving a woman and her daughter. When she learned that the mother from Leningrad, then suddenly said, "well, say, in Leningrad, very hard, and you are there and look good." "How old will you give me?"asked the mother. "Yes, you are 70 years old or a little more," replied the woman. "How old is your daughter?"asked the mother. The woman replied that 38. Mom kept silent and said:"you see, it's good in Leningrad that you gave me so many years, and I'm younger than your daughter, I'm 35." And the woman, once again, looking at more talk. And when riding a horse, carriage driver, grandfather Ivan could not believe I was her daughter. All mom wanted to know whose baby she carries. And, too, provided it years 70. We stayed in the village, which brought us Ivan's grandfather; the people on the train from Leningrad went to another village, 12 kilometers from Carnage. In memory of my saucer with honey, amber, liquid, I once asked my mother what kind of honey it was. She answered:"when grandfather Ivan brought us to his house, the first thing put in front of you saucer with honey and bread, ordered to dip bread in honey and eat." And the first time I saw honey. Very hard had her mother to move away from the besieged life. All hurt, each bone was aching, it was not touch either hands or feet. And it is necessary to live somehow. To work anywhere else could not, but when I learned that she sews, and in the village no one knew how to do it, we even brought a sewing machine, just have to sew. And she started with head scarves. Paid not money, and products. Gradually the mother became stronger, and during the winter we have experienced. In the spring of 1943, my mother began to work on the farm "May 1", I went to the nursery. But the mother's body has not yet come to normal, began to pour water. And it was necessary to work as a hospital there and no one gave. And working in the fields had a positive impact on the body. While working she starts to sweat, so much so, that it was bucketing down, from head to toe. At first everyone was surprised, then got used. It is seen, then the whole siege of illness left her, and it saved the mother. Skin has renewed, has become pink. So work, nutrition, nature, without drugs mother defeated dystrophy. Yes and what here drugs will help? And I got, except for the "pouring" of the bones, and even boils (homosocial). Instead of back — solid wound. Fleshy forest plantains and potassium permanganate — here my medicine.
In this village was a children's garden of Petrozavodsk. At its base were formed boarding-school, where they brought children left without parents. From January of 1944, my mother began to work there, and when liberated Petrozavodsk, the kindergarten returned home. With them, to be closer to Leningrad, we arrived in October 1944 and my mother. The city is like his mother dry autumn, a large amount of wood, snowy, dry winters. How many blows can one man take?! What spirit possessed my mom to go through hell and remain human!
From the beginning mom went to work at the depot of the Kirov railway, and since 1947 has again linked his life with sewing production. Worked in a sewing workshop Shuya-Vedenskogo Orsa, and after its liquidation in an industrial factory "onezhskie Zori". Lived mother, Maria Ivanovna, in the Affairs and concerns of 87. And all my life I worked at Onega tractor plant, in the design Department. Without a job he graduated from the evening Department of the faculty of forest engineering. For 44 years she participated in the creation of all kinds of tractors. And I can't believe she's already retired.
Light memory of Evgeny Petrovich Bozhko, historian-researcher