Chronicles of the ancient genus PEC (Paetz), little-known pages of history from the XIV century to the present day
Light memory of Evgeny Petrovich Bozhko, historian-researcher
From the first Crusades
Andrew and Harald Lindes (Lindes Andrew and Harold).
St. Petersburg-Washington, D.C., 1993.
Nine centuries in search of freedom and happiness of the history of one family
The second half of the XX century: Soviet Russia
Our past is eternal, it's immortal. We often know little about it, we often forget about it, but it constantly lives in us, although all our thoughts and aspirations are directed forward to the future. We throw away as unnecessary stuff all that many centuries lies behind us. But the past can not be changed, as it can not be, neither distorted nor forever hidden, it will still emerge out, even after many decades or even centuries. Our past, the stories of our families, our personal stories should be written for our children, our grandchildren and great — grandchildren-how the history of our civilization should be recorded for future generations. But, alas, we so rarely leave after themselves any footprint, forgetting, that in is and there is our eternity. And that's why I am happy to present myself with the opportunity to introduce you to the history of one family, which is unusual and colorful stands out among the very interesting and original stories of other families of "foreign merchants", or as they were called in Arkhangelsk "Germans" who arrived in the late 18th century in this distant port city from Protestant countries-Germany and Holland, England and Scotland, Denmark and other Nordic countries.
These enterprising people have made a huge contribution to the development of the Northern region. From Holland, they brought dairy cattle, which freely killed link on rich floodplain meadows of the Northern Dvina river — "our Vinoski" as it is affectionately called. Their ships were taken from Arkhangelsk forest to all European countries, and on the way back they did not go home empty, they were carrying the necessary Russian goods — up to sugar cane from Egypt, which allowed them to develop the sugar industry in the distant Russian North. Along the rivers the court linked the Arkhangelsk with the South, their generous donations were for the improvement and ornament of the city. Here is that reports Arkhangelsk historian E. Ovsyankin in article "Business Sloboda" ("Past" 3-4 1996g. - Appendix to the magazine "homeland"): in the XVII century in Arkhangelsk formed a German settlement, which was inhabited by immigrants from Western countries. From that distant time until the first years of Soviet power, this place name was constantly used by residents of the city, although no official status of the German settlement never had. The foreign settlement was, in modern parlance, one of the city's neighborhoods. The settlement, which was located downstream of the Gostiny Dvor, i.e., the current from street of Freedom to street Loginova, and crashed deep into the city's array one block from the waterfront up to Trinity Avenue, was built of beautiful manicured homes, had their own Church, made a favourable impression on all the travelers, who visited the North.
Of the 14 merchants enrolled in the first Guild in the mid-nineteenth century, 8 were foreigners: P. Lyurs, F. PEC, A. Fontanez, E., Brandt, E. Lindes, F. Scholz, and others.
Speaking about the role of foreigners in the economy of the North, it should be noted that they have made a contribution to the social life of the city and the province. People from the West enjoyed a high reputation in business circles of the city and all its inhabitants. By the beginning of XX century descendants of "Germans" entered almost all spheres of economic and social life of the city. Here are just a few facts. Hereditary honorary citizen Adolf Scholz was a member of the provincial city Affairs presence and headed the Arkhangelsk Committee of trade and manufactories; Edward Fontanez performed the duties of a civil assessor in the order of public charity; F. Lindes was a member of the Committee of trade and manufactures. In the last city Duma actively participated Rudolph PEC, Adolf Scholz, Edmund Shtop, Edward Fontanez, Martin Olsen.
A lot of people from foreigners occupied a prominent position in the financial sector, boards of Trustees of educational institutions and charitable societies. Board of Trustees and the women's society of the poor half consisted of wives of merchants with foreign names. Among them Maria Lindes, Lydia Surkova, Maria Meyer, Ernestina Schmidt.
There is another interesting aspect concerning the role of foreigners in the life of the city. In pre-revolutionary times, descendants of foreigners were widely used as consuls. In 1905, for example, E. Lindes was the Dutch Consul, F. Landman — Belgian, W. Meyer — German, B. PEC — United king a mere proconsul."
Some more facts are given in the book of A. Vertyachikh Kapital in Arkhangelsk. Yesterday, today, tomorrow": "From the annals of industry and production: 1875. — opened trade house "Lindes Ko"; 1881. — began acting and later became the largest in the Arkhangelsk Lesozavod Association "marmots and Shergold"; 1890. — opened the trading house "E. des-Fontaines"; 1905. — formed Arkhangelsk exchange Committee, members and candidates which were: F. F. Lindes, A. Yu., Surkov, F. A., Scholz, R. K. PEC, etc.; 1906. — formed by the Union of timber industry of Arkhangelsk; 1909. - created partnership "Brothers Pen"; 1912. - the XII all-Russian Congress of timber industry was held in Arkhangelsk. In Arkhangelsk businessmen of the German settlement constructed two Protestant churches — Reformed (Calvinist), or Dutch as it was called, and Lutheran, or German. When the Lutheran pastor died in Arkhangelsk in 1783, the parishioners asked the Senate of the Hanseatic city of Hamburg, with whom they were actively trading, to find them a new pastor. This shepherd, Johann-Heinrich Lindes, arrived there the same year. He's my great-great-grandfather. But it will be discussed.
I want to tell about another family in Arkhangelsk merchants, from where our family connected by ties of kinship — both my great-grandmother came from that family. It is a nice family of French aristocrats, whose roots go back far into history for nine centuries. Their names sound so unusual to the Russian ear that the writer Yury Herman has assigned it to one of his heroes – the Swedish spy Olaf in Arkhangelsk-in his novel from the time of Peter "young Russia". But such Olaf did not exist, he was a pure fiction of the writer, as well as many other things in his pseudo-historical novel. Later, another Soviet writer, V. P., Kul, is also quite biased, in one of his works he put a string reference to: "house of Arkhangelsk rich Desfontaines, in the evening usually a fun urban youth".
So, today I want to tell you about a de — or des - Fontaines (des-Fontaines). So, anyway, their surname was pronounced in the Netherlands and in Russia. In their native France they were de Fontaine.
In the next Chapter on the French period, do you use? writing "des Fontaines", but it should be understood that in fact it is — "de Fontaine' (Des Fontaines).
The Fontaines family was one of the oldest and most famous families in Picardy, a French province stretching from Pas de Calais to the border of modern Belgium. According to some researchers, this family is a younger branch of the counts Abelsky, which began when their race came to an end, what was, presumably, after the branching of the old kind of Fontaines-on-Somme. The emblem of their graphs Abbrescia chose a large silver shield with three small shields of squirrel fur. The founder of a new branch, Guillaume (William) des Fontaines, returning via Hungary from the First crusade, replaced the silver shield Golden. Later the ermine border was added to the coat of arms.
During the First crusade in 1096, in Asia Minor, Guillaume des Fontaines participated in the battle with the Seljuks of Suliman Ibn Kutalmis. It is known that he still lived in 1119. He was married to Charlotte de May, and they had at least three children: Enguerran (Ferdinand), Rawle, Mr. Duran, and Margaret, left for Thierry, Seigneur de Linga. Their names are mentioned in the Church books from 1142-1176 years.
On their land Enguerran built the Abbey Abbey-d-Apang-Les-Abbeville, which later became known as the Church of the Holy Tungsten. (This Church, like the city itself Abbeville, suffered severely from bombing during the Second World war). Of the five children Anguera his eldest son, Aleum, became famous as a talented military commander, while his two brothers, Rawle d Arena and Gautier, or Vautier (Walter), of knightly prowess, it is also not inferior. Their younger brother, Nicholas, became a Bishop in Cambri. And they had a sister Jeanne.
Aleum, sir des Fontaines, de lawn, de Longpre, de Neuvill-AUX-Bois and other lands, married laurette de Saint-valéry, daughter of Bernard III, Seigneur de Saint-valéry and Hamac, a relative of the French king. (It is interesting to note that Saint-Valery in 1066 by William of Normandy sailed to conquer England). In 1185, the French king appointed Aleum des Fontaines Butler of Abbeville, who received a Charter for the city the year before, and the commander and protector of the castle and the Abbeville. Going to the Third crusade, king Philip II Augustus appointed Aleum one of his military leaders. Together with king and Jean, Duke POTUS, Aleum went to Palestine. When Philip II Augustus, due to health and problems in the country was forced to return to France, he commissioned a team over the French contingent of troops in the Holy Land of Hugo III, Duke of Burgundy, and Aleum des Fonteynes.
After the end of the Third crusade Aleum remained in Palestine and later joined the knights of the Fourth crusade (1202-1204). He participated in the conquest of Constantinople, where he died in 1205. Before his death, Aleum des Fontaines transferred all collected in the Holy Land, relics and jewels to his chaplain named Volbert, so he gave them to the widow of Aleum, Loretta Saint-valéry, Signore des Fontaines and other and other and other and she was instructed to give everything to the Church in Lompre, Aleum is built, and from these funds to Finance scholarships to twelve young graduate students — that was the will of the deceased that his widow did. At first, the scholarship Fund was headed by the said chaplain Woolbert, and then two sons of the late Aleum. In the rich collection been so many partial remains of saints that the temple in Londre was called "KOR-St" — the temple Relics of the Saints. In this temple Loretta in a few years found eternal rest next to the tomb of Aleum.
Three sons of Loretta and Aleum was too valiant knights. Two eldest sons — Hugo, sir des Fontaines and others, and his brother Vauthier, señor Alencar, in 1214 participated in the historic battle of Bevenom, where Philip II Augustus defeated the army of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the Distillate IV, count Flandersbio Reno and the English king John Lackland. The name of the third son of Aleum and Loreta — Henri-included in the lists of the glorious seniors of the Kingdom in the Amiens Cathedral. (The Cathedral of our lady of Amiens, one of the finest examples of the French Gothic Cathedral, was damaged in World war I, but miraculously escaped damage in war II). Aleum and Loretta had a son and three daughters.
Among the grandchildren of Aleum, the first, the most prominent was Pierre des Fontaines, one of the main advisers of Ludwig the Saint. About it Ludovig a Saint once said the hook: "Monsieur Pierre de Fontaines and (some names) are my saviors."
Over time, the des Fontanesi, like most other noble families in medieval France, began to experience financial difficulties. In 1244, they sold part of their land to Abbeville Burger, in 1270}/ they had to sell more land, and in 1289, part of their land they sold to the British king Edward I. one of the des Fontaines founded a new branch — des Fontaines de Newville-AUX-Bois. Then began further offshoots. One younger branch replaced the old coat of arms with a new one-a blue shield with six bees and three fountains; in all probability this branch belonged to the first who settled in Russia at des Fontaines. This branch settled in one need not look far, and later in Udine, Ile-de-France. The American branch is derived from branches of the des Fontaines Nuvel-AUX-Bois: first known des Fontanna was in America, James Jr., son of the Reverend James senior — he's from France fled to Virginia in 1717, and his descendants from there moved to South Carolina.
The senior branch of the des of approximately Fontaneau ended in 1301 when the head just kind of left woman — Jeanne des Fontaines, Madame de Longpre-on-Cor-Sept. Younger branches existed before the end of the 18th century. By that time, if you count from Guillaume-the first race des of Fonteneau in France consisted of 21 generation.
Perhaps the most distinguished of the whole family was Reno des Fontaines, who with his father and uncle fought in the battle of Asencion (1415). In this battle perished almost the whole flower of French chivalry on the battlefield were killed ten thousand of the French. This battle, which Shakespeare described in his drama "Henry V", was one of the bloodiest for all the middle ages. Among the few survivors was Reno des Fontaines, who then valiantly fought in the hundred years war (1337 -1453). 31 Aug 1421 under the Mans-on-Vimer he was captured, but soon ransomed. This "worthy and powerful Senor", as the chronicle calls him, participated in the siege of the Sideboard. He attacked the British when they appeared near his native Newville, and repulsed their attempt to Wade Somme between Abbeville and St. Valerie.
It is known that only in one battle, he captured 800 people. He participated in the siege of Compiègne, when the Duke of Burgundy Philip the Good captivated Jeanne d'arc in 1430. (Recall, that in the time Burgundy, as and Picardy, fought on the side British). When Renaud des Fontaines appeared on the field of battle Roana, the enemy, seeing him, retreated in haste. In 1455, the king appointed him as his representative (senchal) and Governor of the Duchy of Valois, a province owned by the crown. Throughout his life, Reno was still a bachelor — there was no time to get married.
Almost to the end of the Kingdom in France a des Fontaines faithfully served his king, most cavalry officers. Several served in the order of the Hospitallers, when these knights monks, retreating from the Holy Land, Cyprus and Rhodes, settled in Malta. And one of the des of Fontaneau, a priest, was defrocked for marrying the lady of his heart.
If at first des Fontaines choose their spouse and spouse only of the noble families, later in their pedigree are hardly mentioned noblemen. So, at the end of the 15th century, one of the girls des Fontaines married "gentleman from Scotland". In the end, they became just "madmuazele", "Madame" and "Monsieur". About senorach could no longer be considered.
Here I want to mention that I deliberately pronounce and write in Russian their name the way its pronounced in the Netherlands and Russia — that is, des Fontaines. Of course, that in French it was "de Fonteyn". And now allow me to say a few words about life in the middle ages and the Crusades.
LIFE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
In the year 391 the old Roman Empire once and for all broke up into two parts: the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire and the West, or, indeed, the Roman Empire, the Western Empire was rapidly losing its political importance. By the end of the fifth century almost all of Western Europe was dominated by barbarian Germanic tribes of the vandals, the Burgundians, Visigoths, Lombards, Franks, and many others. The end of the Western Roman Empire came in 476, when the leader of the German tribe Skiri — Odoaker — deposed the last Roman Emperor and proclaimed himself king of Rome.
The Germanic conquerors became masters of the occupied territories — and the ancestors of European aristocratic families, which explains the small difference in appearance, in customs and thinking of the European nobility in the middle ages, whether English, French, German, Italian or Spanish. Yes, and our Rurik also came from the Germanic Vikings.
In the long years of chaos in Europe, the only restraining principle remained the Roman Catholic Church, which contained schools and hospitals, assisted the poor, served as an arbitrator and informal legislators — and thus saved Western Europe, where they began to form a new Kingdom. With the coronation in the year 800 Charlemagne was born a new Christian nation — the Holy Roman Empire. It was a complex complex of States and lands, at one time covering almost the entire Western Europe, which until 1806 was ruled first by the Franks, and later by the German kings. The whole period from the fall of Rome to the discovery of America in 1492 received the name "Middle ages"in history.
As lived des Fontaines in this era? We know about them only from stingy records in Church books and other archives. For the most part, being illiterate, they left us neither diaries nor letters. We can only make our own assumptions based on rather meager information about living conditions and life in the middle ages.
Even for the great Senor life in the middle ages was difficult, dangerous and full of deprivation. Life expectancy rarely exceeded 30-35 years, and for many knights
she was even shorter — the young men they killed in battle and tournaments. The infant mortality rate was very high: three quarters of the infants died in the first year of their life. The primitivity of medical care and its cruel methods do not have to be said. Only the strongest survived. Compared to our contemporaries, men in the 12th century were much lower, but more chunky and stronger physique. Know only one appearance could immediately be distinguished from a commoner to an aristocrat because his appearance resembled that of their ancestors — Germany and commoner inherited the appearance of ancestors who lived in the area — the Celts, Romans, Slavs, etc.
Sir, as his vassal, eating with your fingers, in the best case — with a knife. He slept on the floor on straw, or on your chest. The bed had a reputation of an unheard-of luxury. In the winter in his castle he shivered in the cold and suffocating from Chad. Through the castle he walked ankle-deep in liquid mud. Washed it in the river or lake, which, however, rarely happened. Only the most solemn occasions — to return from a trip or tournament, etc. — knight personally soap his wife. As his vassals, he long looked at the sky, trying to predict the weather, because, as vassals, the feudal Lord knew that his life depends on the harvest. The food he was producing hunting-mostly deer and wild boars. Rarely has anyone had a spacious enough room, so the knight moved his guests in the open air — on the "flower meadow". In the campaigns the knight, too, slept under the open sky, and a always carry your simple belongings — pad-Mat, a bowl and a casket with linen and jewels. In castles of the richest feudal lords there were three buildings — inhabited, kitchen and a chapel. But most often there was only one building, which was the main hall and one or two sleeping chambers for the host and hostess. The Windows replaced the observation holes in the walls, deliberately narrow, so that the attacking enemy could not penetrate through them into the castle. The master chamber the slits to protect from the cold, rain and snow, the inside was covered by wooden shutters, but most of the oiled skins. The unguarded hearth in the hall served as the only source of heat, where they cooked food, ate and slept all except the señora and señora, who went to sleep in their fireplace. Rough hewn planks on sawhorses served as a table, which at night were removed to have more space for sleeping. The main piece of furniture was a chest, because it could lock up, when the knight went about his business somewhere; on it he sat on it he was asleep. Tableware hardly knew: slices of bread served with a spoon, and a few people at a time to slurp their soup from the same bowl. Holes in the roof was not, and therefore, despite the high ceilings, the hall has always been cadno and suffocating. No sanitation, no latrines existed — went directly to the yard. Only by the end of the 13th century the richest feudal lords began to arrange "internal restrooms" in their chambers: they punched a hole in the floor and flowed waste into the yard through it. On rainy days the castle yard turned into a liquid swamp of manure, litter and feces. Covered the bowls with bacon or chips. All rose with the sun and with the sun also went to sleep.
Could read only some of the clerics, and even fewer know how to write. But being illiterate, the people were endowed with a much better memory than our contemporaries. Memory served them the only source of storage information. The memory helped them to communicate with the aliens, she served them a map and a plan. With the spread of the printed word, people lost about a third of their memory. Scary to think how much of our memory we will lose from total introduction of computers!
Women were powerless, in the eyes of the law they were little different from serfs. Almost all of his life, a woman remains full property of men — first the father, then husband. And yet, over time, women have become increasingly important and influential. Knight, her husband, rarely left the house kind of battle, vehicle trips, the tournaments. All farming then fell on her shoulders, she disposed of the castle, and all the possessions in the absence of her husband. Often knight was killed on the battlefield, and if there were no adult children, all property passed to her. Having remained a young rich widow, she could easily find the other husband's ce6s-and remain highly independent, for everything inherited belonged to< personally to her and she had the right to dispose of it at her discretion. Thus, the role of women in society became more important. Many came out again, married several times, becoming more rich after each of the deceased husband. The richer a woman was, the easier it was to find the next husband, the knights preferred to marry wealthy widows. And so the women's influence grew, their voices began to listen.
Although all said and sheds some light on the life of the knights, we're all as bad can imagine how in those days lived des Fontaines. The abyss of unrequited questions remains, and one of them is very curious. Going to the Holy Land, did Aleum put on his Loretta "chastity belt" , and who removed the belt after his death? And since we're back to Aleum des Fontaines, allow me to recover in our memory, some aspects of the Crusades.
Since 673, Jerusalem has been in the hands of Muslims. And so in 1095, in Clermont, Pope urban II publicly called for the Christian world to the crusade for the liberation of the Holy Sepulchre and the whole of the Holy Land. The result of his call was the first crusade, which began in 1096. Arriving in the capital of Byzantium, the crusaders were amazed by the grandeur, luxury and wealth of Constantinople, and, not recognizing the Orthodox Greeks for Christians, were ready without delay force to appropriate all its wealth. In order to avoid robbery and robbery Byzantine Emperor Alexei Kamen hastily helped the knights to cross over to the other side of the Bosphorus to go from there to Jerusalem.
Knights March through the territories of Asia Minor took place in extremely difficult, unfamiliar environment. The crusaders suffered from the summer heat, thirst and hunger, from the perpetual raids of the Muslims, and many fine knights were killed and the bones not having reached their goals. After persistent fights, in 1098, crusaders seized one of the main cities of the Middle East — Antioch. A year later, the knights seized Jerusalem, bringing fire and sword to all and everything — old and small, men, women, children, Muslims, Jews, Armenians and local Christians. Only Christian churches survived. In 1118 the crusaders occupied the main port on the Mediterranean coast — Tripoli. And, in the end, all the cities on the coast from the border of modern Turkey to modern Egypt were in their hands. And they founded a new state of the Latin Kingdom.
The second crusade began in 1147, the French king Ludwig VII and the German king Conrad III and his knights. Passed Hungarian plains, crossed the Bosphorus and moved to the South. All the army of Conrad was in Asia Minor into an ambush and were killed. Three months later, the same fate befell the French.
In the East, the crusaders face to face faced with a completely new, unknown world for them, with a completely different culture and civilization. East struck the knights of their cultural traditions, far superior to the medieval traditions of Europe, and the everyday superiority of life, both Muslims and Christians in Asia minor. Crusaders quickly appreciated advantage unfamiliar them technical improvements, refined courteous manners, household amenities — and many of them have adopted. But the difference between East and West in intellectual and moral terms remained beyond the understanding of knights. In this regard, they can be compared with the peoples of today's developing OR totalitarian countries, which in Western countries see only their technical achievements and a high standard of living, without paying any attention to the spiritual development and thinking, which are so different from what they are accustomed to in their country.
In the hands of the Latin, as the crusaders called in the East, Jerusalem remained until 1187, when it was captured by a talented commander, the Egyptian Sultan Salah al-DIN, or Saladin. The fall of the Holy City stirred the European minds \ served as the impetus for the Third crusade (1189-1192), nicknamed} "Poho-house of kings", because it was headed by three kings — Richard the lion's Heart, Philip II and The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Friedrich Barbarossa. Having passed it by the troops of the Balkans, Barbarossa arrived to Constantinople and from there moved t the South — to Jerusalem. But, when crossing the river, Friedrich Barbarossa drowned Lost their leader, German troops lost their way, and were completely defeated by Muslims — the majority was captured and sold into slavery.
The rest of the crusaders, the English, the French, the Scandinavians, the Italians, Mr. others went to Palestine by sea. On the way, they stayed in Sicily, and only on 20 August 1190 they landed near Acre, which by then was in the hands of Muslims, but was surrounded by crusaders, whom Saladin had in turn surrounded. The crusaders had the advantage of having access to the sea, which allowed Italian ships to supply them with everything they needed. But this supply, nevertheless, was not enough. Let me remind you that among the French knights besieging acre, and was Aloud des Fontaines, which, like most of his colleagues, went to Palestine and his deep piety and no less profound devotion to the king.
Ruthless summer heat, constant malnutrition and thirst undermined! health Crusader, which are both precipitated and were themselves besieged. And the weakened organism struggled badly with diseases, and mortality in the ranks was very high. Finally, on 12 July, Acre surrendered, and Saladin led his troops. Sickness and urgent matters of the house of king Philip II Augustus, with part of his knights sailed back to France. The campaign was led by Richard the lion Heart. With the remaining knights, including Aleum des Fonteynes, the second oldest in the contingent of French troops, he moved to the South. In 1191 and 1192 the crusaders tried twice to seize Jerusalem without success. But the Holy City was never destined to be in the hands of Christians again. Richard the lion Heart most of the crusaders went home — home.
Aleum des Fontaines remained in Palestine and later joined the Fourth crusade. What led them to stay in the East? His piety and unwavering decision to liberate the Holy City? Passion for accumulation of relics and jewels? Unhappy marriage at home, unwillingness to return to Loretta? Oriental beauty that has captured his heart in Palestine? Unfortunately, we will never get answers to these questions.
The strangest of all the Crusades was the fourth, when any one leg of the crusaders did not even set foot on the Holy Land, what is the fault of the Venetian merchants, has long wanted to destroy his rival in the Mediterranean — Byzantium. Here they persuaded crusaders to go directly to Constantinople, having promised them there free of charge to deliver on the vessels. There the crusaders plundered from the occupied city, divided the rich spoils with the Venetians, and founded the Latin Empire, "forever" forbidden to practice Christianity according to the Orthodox rite. A year later, the DIN died Aleum des Fontaines, Mr. lawn, Lompre, Nuvel-AUX-Bois and the other lands. And after 55 years in the Byzantine Empire again prevailed Orthodoxy, and Orthodox Constantinople remained until i452 year, when the Muslims seized it, declaring it the capital of the Ottoman Empire, calling it Istanbul.
In the 16th century, many des Fontaines renounced Catholicism and became Huguenots in France were called Protestants-Calvinists. The Huguenots were severely persecuted and fleeing from the persecution of Protestants fled to Protestant countries — in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, America and South Africa.
The grandson of Aleum, the first des Fontaines — Aleum second and had six children, and one of them, Vauthier, founded a new branch of lords de La Nuvel-AUX-Bois. The great-grandson of this Vauthier des Fontaines, Charles, one of the many participants in the battle of Asencion, had four sons, the eldest, Reno, we mentioned above. Young our son, Charles — Guillaume, in 1362, the king appointed the military commander of the Treasury. Because only William had children, he inherited the title of Seigneur de La Nuvel-AUX-Bois, Estrugo d, d Arrest and other and other. The eldest son of Guillaume, Jean, was appointed benshalom of Seyton in the province of man and military commander of Port-de-Sents. And he's got the branch of the American des Fontanes.
One of his descendants, Jean de La Fontaine, was born in the early 16th century in the province of Maine. He had four sons, including Jacques (1549-1633) and Abraham. Jacques Fontaine dropped the aristocratic consoles " de "and"La". He had two daughters and a son, James, a Huguenot preacher in Vaud and Royane. He was married to Mary shalen, and they had several children, including James, Jr., a Protestant preacher, just like his father. He was born James, Jr., in April 1653 and married Anna Maria, Bursiko. They had children, including James the third (1686-1754), who together with his wife, fleeing persecution at home, crossed the Atlantic ocean and settled in Virginia in 1717. In the same year they had a son John, who in 1745 had a son, William. This William Fontaine moved to the area, Cheraw, South Carolina, where he settled many refugees-the Huguenots, and later participated in the war for Independence of the American colonies. He had two sons, Alexander and John. Alexander Fontaine was born in 1769 in Darlington, South Carolina. One of his son's name was William E. Fontaine, he was born in February 1793 in Springfield, South Carolina, and died in 1830.
Since then, America has moved a lot of des Fontaines remaining Catholics, many of the district of Luxembourg. Unlike their relatives, the Huguenots, they are often kept in their surnames the particle "de" that you write together — that is, Defontein. But now let's talk about those des Fontaines who fled to the neighboring Netherlands.
In the archives of the Walloon churches (called the Walloons were French Protestants who lived on the territory of modern Belgium), Leiden library, in the Church books of the Hague, Apeldoorn, Amsterdam and Delft houses many records that in the late 16th — early 17th century, a number of des Fontaines moved to the Netherlands. Some of them settled in Lille, Ghent and Antwerp, but most settled in Dutch cities.
One of the first was George des Fontaines and his wife Johann. They are from France fled to Antwerp, and in October 1585 he moved to Leiden. Then came Paul des Fontaines 25 Jan 1603 in Antwerp married Josephine, Bient. In Leiden, 11 November 1611, Jean des Fontaines married Susanne de Brabant, they had six children: Jean, born on 16 September 1612, Simeon, on 5 January, 1614, Rachel — 26 July 1615, Sarah — March 13, 1622, Mary — 1623 year, Anna — 2 Feb 1625. In October 1613 in Leiden arrived cloud des Fontaines, and a year later it was followed by Toussaint des Fontaines. In Leiden, on 11 September 1616, Claude married Jeanne de Mortier, their third son Isaac was born on 17 January 1627.
Through Antler, a port on the Seine, in the Netherlands has chosen Jean des Fontaines with his wife Francisca. In 1628, they settled in Antwerp, the same year that the Royal troops occupied the stronghold of the Huguenots — the fortress of La Rochelle.
Gabriel des Fontaines and his wife, Maria Dov arrived in Antwerp on 1 July 1656. In 1684, Paul des Fontaines settled in den Bosch. In April 1695 of Yudana (Ile-de-France) came Louis des Fontaines, a year later he was followed by his brother, Pierre, who at first lived in the Hague. A hundred years after the descendant of this Pierre went from the Netherlands to Russia.
In 1456, the first mobile-typing Mazarin Bible was published in Europe, and this new method of printing led to the widespread dissemination of the Holy Scriptures, which were published not only in Latin but also in many modern languages. Reading the Bible in their own language, people began to notice the differences between what the Catholic Church teaches them and what is really contained in the Bible. And people began to think about it. Thus began the Protestant movement. Not also is the computer in our days, that five centuries ago did the printing press.
In France the Protestants, the followers of the teachings of John Calvin (1509-1564), called Huguenots — as in the French pronunciation sounded German word "Eidgenosse" — "brother". In 1559, the first French Protestant Synod gathered, and a new Church was founded, following the teachings of Calvin, which had no Central authority, and was governed by "elected community on the spot elders." From the very beginning, the Catholic Church began to fiercely object to the study of the Bible by the population. "Let everyone read the Holy Scripture, and he will begin to interpret it in his own way-and this can only lead to heresy and chaos!"- the fathers of the Catholic Church resented. (And after all in the Soviet Union, too, is not encouraged to study Marxism-Leninism on primary sources).
In 1520-ies in France began to spread widely the Bible, Jacob Lefevre translated into French. Its study and interpretation prompted the Huguenots to oppose the Catholic Church, but they remained monarchists loyal to the crown, and only from the mid-17th century persecution by the king made them irreconcilable Republicans.
Possession of a Bible, its printing, the sale and purchase have been severely punished by law, yet France has created a network independent from each other "Biblical circles". In the 1550s, there were more than two thousand such circles, and they consisted of about three-quarters of a million Huguenots. From the main mass of the population, these religious dissidents are distinguished by the fact that he was literate. They were artisans, traders, small entrepreneurs, clerks — decent people, diligent, sincere believers. Aristocrats, like des of Fontaneau, among the Huguenots, there were no more than one percent, peasants and workers almost did not exist. They were a small bourgeoisie, a new emerging class that laid the Foundation for a new economic system — capitalism.
In the Bible, the Huguenots saw the justification of their way of life, their firm belief in hard work, their impeccable honesty. "Who work — he eats!"- it was their slogan to which Communists gave a negative formulation later: "who Doesn't work — that doesn't eat!". The Huguenots followed the teachings of Calvin, which, incidentally, was born in the homeland des of Fontaines — in Picardy, in 1509. His teaching found many adherents in those countries where the system of private entrepreneurship was gaining strength — in England, Scotland, the Netherlands and Switzerland. The rest of the country, where he also developed private enterprise, Northern Germany and Scandinavia, followed by some form of Protestantism — the doctrine of Martin Luther. From their adherents Calvinists expected self-discipline and abstention. The basis of the doctrine was the complete predestination of the fate of man. Man, regarded Calvinists, is born or a righteous man, or a sinner. He who leads a righteous life cannot be a sinner, and salvation awaits him. He who lives in sin will go to hell, and no good deed can atone for his sins. Crucified Jesus Christ in their eyes is a direct link between people and the Lord God, preachers are not given the right to it, they are not entitled to beg forgiveness for others and release their sins, as is customary for Catholics and Orthodox. Of the seven ordinances of the Catholic Church Calvin recognized only two-baptism and communion.
From man doctrine of Calvin demanded hard work and righteous living — by labour and the righteousness of man can prove to himself and others that he is worthy of salvation. A strong belief in predestination, the Huguenots were allowed to go to torture and death. No wonder George Bernard Shaw called Joan of Arc "the first Huguenot".
The Calvinists in England were called puritans, Dutch reformed, or Walloons, and in Scotland, the Covenant, and in France Huguenots, and among all of them have a lot in common. And the fact that in these four very different countries under the influence of Calvinist teachings developed a certain, similar to each other type of people, can serve as an amazing example of the power of influence of religious education on the formation of human character.
Among other things Calvin believed that God has no objection to the accumulation of wealth that people have the right to prosper: in fact, Lord willing. And by the Grace of God man can know what will be more profitable for him. Haven't seen Calvin and sin in charging moderate interest with borrowed capital — a mortal sin for Catholics, which led to the concentration of usury in Jewish hands, and allowed the feudal lords ruthlessly plunder the Jews, believing that to kill a Jew far less sin than to make money by usury.
The concept of the "Protestant ethic" is inextricably linked with the Huguenots, whose numbers have been growing and 1560 years 15 percent of the French considered themselves Protestants. The increase in the number of Huguenots has become a threat to the Catholic Church, to the king and to the entire feudal system. And therefore it is not surprising that Huguenots began to be subjected to cruel persecutions.
One of the first who died for the faith of the Huguenots, was born in 1490 Louis de Berquin, Picardy nobleman, the owner of inherited land near Abbeville. He was executed in 1523. Two years later, another Huguenot, wool scratcher Jean Ledes was sentenced to excessively cruel torments: he cut off the right brush, ripped out his nose, tore off his entire hand, dug out nipples, put on his head two red-hot red-iron hoops. But until his last exhalation, the unwavering Huguenot read the 115th Psalm. We do not know if any of the des Fonteynes were tortured to death at the time, but we do know that many generations later, many of their descendants died in Bolshevik torture chambers and camps.
The terror in France was gaining power gradually. His edict that was issued in 1535, king Francis 1 has legitimized the burning at the stake most persistent dissidents. His son, king Henry L1, almost did not pay attention to the Huguenots, which cannot be said about his wife, Catherine de Medici, gave France three kings. She insisted on bringing to life the edict of her father-in-law on burning Huguenots.
Day or night fear of terror has not left the Huguenots. Nightlife thump in the door most often meant arrest, interrogation, torture, death. (And in the same fear lived in the Soviet Union, the descendants of des Fontaines — knock on the door, arrest, interrogation, exile, execution).
At first, the Huguenots did not resist, they considered sinful to have recourse to arms, to take the law into their own hands, to distort the truth. Their strength, they saw in cohesion. But the terror has taught them different. In the midst of terror, their resistance became increasingly determined. They have ceased to meekly submit to her fate, began to fight for their faith. From The new Testament to his " love thy neighbor as thyself, "they went over to the old Testament with his ancient Judaic formula"an Eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth."
The Huguenot movement was led by the Bourbons, descendants of Ludwig the Saint, who so faithfully served Pierre des Fontaines. Their leaders were the Prince Louis de condé and Admiral Coligny.
Meanwhile, the terror was gestical. Consider this: "In Algeria burned three pastors with their congregation on fire, burning where it was taken from them, the Bible and the book of Psalms. Their fault was in possession of these." Yet persecution did not stop the spread of Protestantism, on the contrary, they sort of promoted it. The resistance of the Huguenots, their willingness to die for the faith, to withstand any torture — but it shall not be abandoned, excited and kindled the curiosity of even the most incredulous skeptics. What's the matter, they thought. And began to read the Bible to find out why there was such resistance of the Huguenots. And often themselves became Huguenots. (Perhaps, fearing such a reaction, the Soviet Union has always avoided public executions).
To combat the Huguenots, the Duke de guise rallied a small group of like-minded people that led to the creation of the Holy League in 1576. Cruel bloodshed began after the death of Henry II in 1559, when his widow Catherine de Medici was declared Regent for her eldest son, king Francis II (1544-1560). Power-hungry, Catherine de Medici began to set the Huguenots and the Duke of guise on one another, alternately supporting the, then the other. She invited Henry of Navarre (1563-1610), the representative of the Bourbons, the hand of his daughter
Margaritas, famous for her love escapades, and of all her lovers, the latter preferred the Duke de Giza. After long negotiations and intrigues the wedding was to be held in Paris, which brought together the whole color guenette led by Admiral Coligny, a favorite Advisor of king Charles IX, second son of Catherine de Medici, who took the throne after the death of his brother. But Catherine de guise, prepared and committed the murder of Admiral Coligny. And after the death of Admiral de guise and his accomplices ruthlessly destroyed almost all gathered for the wedding of the Huguenots. This massacre went down in history as the Bartholomew night (1572). The extermination of the Huguenots swept across the country, and many had no choice but to flee abroad. (Remember: "One of the first des of Fontaneto was George and his wife Johanne, from France, they fled to Antwerp, and later, on 15 October 1585, he moved to Leiden").
The brutal massacre of Huguenots is not served description. For example: "the Naked dead bodies of the Huguenots, the nobles were dragged from all over Paris to the Louvre and there paraded in the street... the Murder was throughout France. The massacre was so massive that the troupes overflowed the rivers, and for many months the French refused to eat fish even on Fridays, as all pious Catholics are supposed to". It is assumed that from sixty to one hundred thousand people were killed — men, women, babies.
After the death of Charles IX, his younger brother Henry III became king, but in 1589} ' he was killed by a Dominican monk. King was Henry of Navarre, the husband of the sister of the three kings, the undisputed leader of the Huguenots. Becoming the king of France Henry IV, he for political reasons had converted to Catholicism, and then divorced the wrong Margarita and re-married a relative of her mother, a deeply religious Catholic, Marie de Medici. Being a protector of the Huguenots (he served several des of Fontaneau, including Mr. Nicholas) and brought up in the Huguenot tradition, Henry IV encouraged entrepreneurial activity. In the years of his reign in many areas of France has become a mandatory visit to the Huguenot Church and commercial schools.
In 1598 Henry IV issued edict of Nantes which gave the Huguenots the right to live in any place open to worship in two hundred towns, equated Huguenots students to everyone else, declared Huguenots equal before the law, etc. For self defense the Huguenots were allowed to fortify some cities — of which the most famous was the fortress of La Rochelle on the Bay of Biscay. And the king has surrounded himself with advisers Huguenots.
But in 1610 he was killed, and his widow immediately removed all his advisers-Huguenots and began persecution of Protestants. The next king, Ludovice XIII (1610-1643) came to power, cardinal Richelieu, clever and cunning politician, who set a goal to break the military power of the Huguenots. After a long siege he was forced to surrender the last stronghold of the Huguenot fortress of La Rochelle. The calamities of the besieged are hard to describe: over 14 months of siege by Royal troops from hunger killed more than half of the inhabitants. In 1629, the Huguenots were forced to sign the "Edict of mercy", which took away all political power from them, but leaving them the right to profess their religion.
Conscious of the importance of the Huguenots to the country's economy, industrial development which were only in Bud, Richelieu destroyed the threat to the throne on the part of the Huguenots, leaving them enough rights to continue their business activities. Similar policies sought to pursue and the next cardinal-Mazarin. However, king Louis XIV (1638-1715) tried to discriminate against the Huguenots in every possible way. Children of Huguenots were encouraged to accept Catholicism: in seven years, the child had to choose a religion, and severe penalties, up to the death penalty, expected those parents who tried to influence the decision of the child. And they had to pay for his maintenance, against their will, in a Catholic monastery.
Began to force close the Huguenot churches. In the areas inhabited by Huguenots, the Royal Dragoons were housed in Protestant houses, where they were declared the owners of all and everything, including all women, from young to old women, who were considered the "full property of the regiment". Only the adoption of Catholicism rid the owners of uninvited tenants.
In the end, at the insistence of his latest mistress, the former Gugerotti, and at that time the Catholic, Madame Manton, the king decided to secure a place in heaven that will destroy all the Huguenots. He said that there were no more Huguenots in the country, and therefore abolished the edict of Nantes. The Protestants were deprived of all their rights and remained outside the law. In two weeks, all Protestant preachers had to leave the country-or be sentenced to life hard labor or death. While trying to escape the Huguenots and all their relatives were sent to prison or the gallows. Children from Huguenots were selected and sent to Catholic monasteries. The state selected all the Huguenot property. Protestant servants had no right to work for either Huguenots or Catholics. Catholics were forbidden to trade with Huguenots, to work for them or to help them in anything. The men who violated these rules were sent to the galleys, and the women were flogged and branded "white Royal Lily". Men who harboured preachers were sentenced to life imprisonment and women to life imprisonment. If before the death of the Huguenot was not communion from a Catholic priest, his body was thrown into the drains. If refused before his death to partake of all the same recovered, he waited for the hard labor with confiscation of all property. All this was decided without court and investigation, and it was forbidden to appeal against the decision. (Thinking of the sad fate of the Huguenots, can not help Recalling the years of war communism, Stalin's collectivization, the Yezhov terror, etc.).
And yet some managed to escape, although all the departing ships carefully fumigated to etch the refugees hiding in the holds. Among the refugees were des Fontaines: "In 1684, Paul des Fontaines settled in den Bosch. In April 1695, Louis des Fontaines came from Judan, Ile-de-France, followed a year later by his brother Pierre."
The abolition of the edict of Nantes led to the depopulation of France, a sharp economic downturn, to the cooling of relations with Protestant countries. From France fled about 400 000 people, including from eight to nine thousand best sailors of the Royal Navy, 12 000 soldiers, 500 members of the officer elite. The abolition of the edict of Nantes was one of the main reasons for The French revolution of 1789. And she completely defeated the Huguenots, sending the survivors into dispersion.
In 1787, king Louis XV was forced to show some tolerance towards the Huguenots, but full freedom of religion France received only with the revolution. However, when Napoleon was defeated in 1815, religious persecution immediately resumed in France. "Kill the Protestants. Long live the king!"- shouted monarchists.
The Huguenots in France had more than three hundred years, and there they are almost gone. However, in other countries they were destined to play a significant role. Descendants of the Huguenots were among the first settlers in America — their fathers and grandfathers, fleeing from France, were again persecuted in England by the Catholic and Episcopal churches. In new York state, they built the city of new Rochelle, many of them lived in Virginia, South Carolina, Pennsylvania. Huguenots-the Boers settled in South Africa. The Huguenots had put down solid roots in Prussia and in Russia. In old St Petersburg was four Calvinist Church: the British-American at new St. Isaac, 16; Reformed French on Bolshaya Konyushennaya, 25; Dutch-Reformed on Nevsky, 20, and Evangelical-Reformed on the Sea, the house 58. The pastor of the latter, baptized, confirmed and crowned there my mother, her sisters, baptized their children. The last pastor, Dr. Gelderblom, after the revolution of 1917 fled to Riga, opened a Reformed Church there, which closed with the arrival of Soviet troops.
For the sake of their faith, the Huguenots lost everything — his home, all his possessions. But in the new countries they brought something that can not be paid in gold: their diligence, their skills, knowledge, virtue — and their free spirit. In the new countries they lived justly and freely. With new compatriots, they willingly shared their experience and skills, and thus helped to develop faster. And when needed, they fought bravely for their new homeland, for their faith and for their freedom. His victory over Catholic king James II, Protestant king William of orange owes much to the courage and dedication of the soldiers and officers of the Huguenots who fought under his banner. They helped to achieve Bloodless revolution in England in 1688/. Many Huguenots, including William Fontaine, fought for the independence of American colonies. And when you read the Declaration of American Independence carefully, it clearly shows a Huguenot spirit.
THE NETHERLANDS OF THE XVI-XVII CENTURY
What was waiting for des of Fontaneau in the Netherlands? What was life like in those days?
Until the 16th century, the Netherlands as a single state did not exist. Government they were only with the inclusion of the Holy Roman Empire. When in 1556 the Emperor Charles V abdicated, he expressed a desire to his brother Ferdinand ruled the German Empire, and his son Philip, to the other, i.e. Spain, Netherlands, Naples, Sicily, South America, etc. His son Philip II (1527-1598) has become a religious fanatic and threw everything into the fight against heresy. In the Spanish province of the Netherlands lived many Protestants, and he instructed the Inquisition to destroy all heresy there. But he faced persistent resistance from the entire population — the poor and the rich, Protestants and Catholics. They rose against the Spanish crown and against the Catholic Church, which led to an unexpected result-the country of peasants and fishermen turned into a country of financial power and high culture. All the Dutch provinces came together and in 1576 entered into Ghent Peace. In 1581, seven Northern provinces declared themselves independent of the crown. But the final independence of the United Provinces was achieved only after a Thirty-year war with the signing of the Westphalian peace in 1648.
The United provinces opened wide their doors to fugitives from religious persecution, Spanish and Portuguese Jews and French Huguenots. The influx of these artisans, entrepreneurs and financiers played a major role in the future economic prosperity of the Netherlands. With the growth of material prosperity came the Golden age of Dutch art, crowned with the work of Rembrandt (1606-1669). The influence of Calvinists grew, and in some provinces almost half of the population professed Calvinism. At the end of the 16th century, most of the Flemish and Walloon Protestants fled the southern, still Spanish provinces to the North, and they had a significant impact on the development of the country. The flow of refugees increased, and in the 17th century the Netherlands became a shelter for all persecuted for religious beliefs, political views and scientific activities.
By the mid-17th century, most of these refugees were Huguenots. Many of them were opened "French school" where he taught them pleasing to discipline them pleasing methods. Local authorities provided financial assistance to these schools, and they flourished. Huguenot craftsmen continued to ply his trade, the Huguenots-nobles gave lessons in dancing and fencing, became cooks and hairdressers. With a Huguenots brought Gallic integrity, cheerfulness and gracious manners, which had to like quite gloomy by nature to the Dutch. The country took care of its new citizens, and not one Huguenot was not issued back to France at the request of the king. However, the Huguenots were not easy to get used to the new way of life, many could not master the Dutch language, so different from their native French.
We must assume that des Fontaines were quite competent to conduct the correspondence, and diaries to draw up the drafts of his sermons and teaching lesson plans. But nothing has come to us. Perhaps something is still kept in the old archives and in the dusty attics of Holland. It would be interesting to read the sermons of Pierre des Fontaines of which he read from the pulpit Huguenot Church. Or hold it in your hands letters, where Johann Anton des Fontaines said goodbye to friends, floating away to Russia. But we have none of this, and we will have to restore their way of life again according to the information we have about the Netherlands of those times.
Compared with other countries, the standard of living in the Netherlands in the middle of the 16th century was quite high. On the paved city streets there was a stream of horses pulled into carriages and carts, and in the winter — in a sled. You could still see quite a lot of wooden buildings, but all new homes, often single family, consisted of a brick. With the onset of dusk, everyone was ordered to walk with lanterns — urban street lighting began around 1670.
Usually the first floor of a residential building was divided by a partition or a corridor into two halves — the front and the back. A spiral staircase led to the first floor where the bedrooms were located on either side of the corridor. The back staircase led to the attic, where the maids slept, and stored in different Luggage. All trade deals were made in the house, and for that the owner in the cellar had office. The front half served as the front living room, where there was the best furniture, and used this room only on special occasions. The back half of the house served as a living room, dining room and kitchen. In more affluent homes it turned into something like a Museum, and the food was cooked in a niche in the back wall. The furniture was limited to a table, chairs and wardrobes — usually there were two wardrobes, one for linen, the other for utensils.
The beds in the bedrooms on the second floor were built-in, short and tall, so they had to climb the ladder. Under the bed were boxes that were pulled at night and turned into bed for children. Slept between feather quilts and pillows on the mountain, but due to the short size of the bed slept half-sitting — which was considered useful for health. Oven bottom often stoked with peat, and the bed took warmers. The house was lit with oil lamps. And all the houses, almost without exception, were exquisitely clean.
The Dutch led a secluded way of life they loved solitude, and seldom spoke to each other. From the back half a few steps led down to the garden, with a green lawn, with small "spots" of gray moss, and of course flower beds — all adored flowers: roses, irises, lilies, tulips. Every town had at least one flower garden. And by the middle of the 17th century the Netherlands became the main supplier of tulips across Europe.
At the table under the strict eye of the owner of the house was about the whole family, including children and maids. Before the prayer, none of the food is not touched, and none without prayers did not get up from the table. Ate in silence. Used knives, occasionally spoons, forks still didn't know, plates and bowls were faience. The Dutch were famous for their appetite. They ate four times a day. At five in the morning Breakfast: bread, butter, cheese, the remains of yesterday's dinner, milk and beer. At noon, served two or three dishes: soup and meat dish, or soup, fish dish and meat dish, as well as salad and fruit. Soup, usually vegetable, boiled together with a spike in milk. At three o'clock in the afternoon snack: bread, cheese, herring, almonds, raisins and warm or cold beer. Eventually the beer was replaced by tea, which at first was considered a remedy for colds. Drank tea in prikusku. Only in the 18th century the Dutch met coffee, chocolate and cocoa. At eight or nine in the evening sat down to dinner. Often food was prepared once a week. On other days, eat heated food, greatly facilitates the owner to keep their home spotlessly clean. Favorite dish was " hutspot — - finely chopped lamb or beef stewed with vegetables, parsley, or prunes, with fat and ginger, which was eaten, sprinkling all this with lemon or orange juice. Eggs are mainly prepared sweet food, mostly pancakes, but someone fried them in vegetable oil. Water the Dutch almost never drank, considering it unclean, drinking beer or beer diluted with water. The Dutch loved to play cards-we got a description of more than twenty games. Went to bed right after dinner and they got up with the roosters.
In the second half of the 17th century Reformed (Calvinist) Church was almost the state religion. On Sundays, in the morning and at noon, all went to Church where service sometimes was tightened for two-three hours. Most of the service involved preaching, or" lecture", where the life of individual parishioners or the whole community was discussed, but politics never affected — the Church was supposed to stand aside from public Affairs. (One of these lecturers were Pierre des Fontaines). Sunday was famous for boring boredom-to have fun did not rely on how it was forbidden to trade, conclude, or simply discuss transactions. If someone took on Sunday borrow money, he could not safely return, since such transaction was considered illegal.
French refugees belonged to the Walloon Church, which differed from the Reformed Church only in that the service there was conducted in French. They had their own schools, which were built on the Dutch model. And the system of public education in the Netherlands was as follows: in seven years, the Dutch sent their children to train a teacher who taught at home. The course was five years. Usually, the school had two rooms — one for younger students and one for senior. However, children of the rich were often engaged in one room, and children of the poor in the other. Taught them literacy, arithmetic and the basics of religion. School Huguenots to financially support the municipalities. This school was Pierre des Fontaines and his son Abraham. From the Dutch schools, they are distinguished by the fact that there was also a French teacher. Huguenot schools are well established, and wealthier Dutch began to send their children. At the end of these schools, those who wanted and could afford to send their children to a Latin school, where some rich lucky people went to University, where they studied art, Geology, law or medicine.
In a love relationship, the Dutch were distinguished by coldness and commercial business they prefer the lovemaking, and women preferred tobacco and alcohol. Women before marriage were granted much freedom in love Affairs, than they became so famous that even resulted in a surprisingly sophisticated French. "Making love in Dutch" became a saying in Paris. Tall and blond-haired Dutch women in their youth were very attractive, but quickly lost their freshness and turned into a fat matron.
Despite their piety, the Dutch have preserved some ancient pagan customs. So on the day of the old spring festival — may 1 — on the lawn were set decorated with ribbons and flowers, the pillar around which danced, young people exchanged gifts, and in the evening all gathered for common chants. If the young man liked the girl, he tied flowers to her door. If it is then somewhere appeared with its flowers, it meant that the tendency of his mutual. After that, the young couple was given more freedom. For the day they can together go for a walk, could late sit her or him at home. Usually a young man in the bark of a tree carved out the name of his beloved. Some places still maintained the custom of trial marriage: the girl was allowed to live with different young people until she gets pregnant. Then she married the father of her child, and remained faithf
Betrothal took place in a solemn atmosphere, further rejection of it was considered criminal and punishable by law. Married in a Church, or the marriage was in grad school. The groom wore his wedding ring on the finger of the right hand of his bride, and later she went with two rings on one finger. The betrothal was followed by a feast, often zatyagivaetsya until morning. And then came the working days: honeymoon young did not rely. Families were strong and disintegrated very rarely. Adultery was punishable by law, which is also punished for rape and homosexuality, which is more common among sailors. Guilty of sodomy sailor unceremoniously thrown overboard.
There were far fewer servants in Dutch homes than in other countries. The state was against hiring men for service and their employers were subject to high taxes. The use of corporal punishment against servants was punishable. It was possible to expel the servant only in case of proven theft, but in turn the servant had the right to leave work at any time at her own discretion. Usually in houses, there lived a maid, and she was in the position of member of the family. The work of the maids was well paid, in the case of the disease, she was well cared for, and often did not forget to leave her something in the will. Usually, the maid remained in the same house my whole life.
In his spare time, the Dutch loved to catch fish and have picnics, and in winter ice skating. They loved to celebrate and did not miss the opportunity to have a feast and absorb a fair amount of food and alcohol, and in the latter the Dutch rarely conceded to men. Of course, that the Church is not like she tried to protest and deny but to no avail. And it is worth noting the Dutch passion for reading. They read everything without limiting Themselves to Scripture, and often in the house, in the evenings, you can see someone reading aloud when the rest of the household, each silently engaged in their own business.
FROM AMSTERDAM TO ARKHANGELSK AND BACK IN THE DISPERSION
The first ten years of Pierre des Fontaines lived in the Hague, where in February 1693, in the Walloon Church, he married a Huguenot Elizabeth Role. They had 11 children, the first four of whom were born in the Hague. Of these four, the last to the light of God appeared on may 30, 1706, Abraham, who was baptized on September 25. Soon the whole family moved to North Brabant, in Hertogenbosh where Pierre des Fontaines opened a French school. By the end of his life he became a "lecturer" (preacher) of The local Huguenot Church. The school took his son Abraham, who in den Bosch on Sunday, February 11, 1727 married Wendeline Nimwegen. Their son, Pierre-Jean, married a young Dutch Hildegunde van Dijk. They lived under Reachable in Oosterhout, and they had three children: Johann Anton was baptized in may 1757; Gilderoy-Theodor-Claudine, born 5 may 1765, and Maria Anna, born on 29 Jun 1769. In 27 years, Johann Anton des Fontaines married in Amsterdam on the young and attractive widow, Eli-Covenant Hall, nee Rosen. By origin, the menonites from Altona, a port city near Hamburg, Rosena about 1715 settled in the young Russian capital, but after a few years left St. Petersburg to Arkhangelsk, where their family, like the Dutch family van Brinen, was one of the first among the "foreign merchants". Over time, the Arkhangelsk settled several dozen foreign families — des Fontaines, Gernamy, Pezi, Hoevelaken, Rotary, Shergold, Lindesy, Claptone, Brandt, Solzi, Lyursy, Stoppy, Schmidt and many others. For a hundred years of life there all reborn, and several times.
So, in 1787 the ship with Johann-Anton and Elizabeth des Fontaines on Board left the dock in Amsterdam and took them to Archangel, where Johann was called simply Ivan. I don't know exactly what kind of commercial activity he was doing. But, I think, get rich quick, because in 1802 donated for the improvement of Arkhangelsk 150 gold rubles — a considerable sum in those days. He died in Arkhangelsk in 1805. He had two children: daughter Katherine and son of Abraham I., and both intermarried with the family of Scottish Calvinists -Cleftones. Catherine married Moses Moiseyevich Clafton, and Abraham married the son — in-law's sister Anna Moiseyevna. In Arkhangelsk Abraham I. des Fontaines was filed by the Russian Empire until the end of his days, successfully engaged in commercial activities.
Some other information about Johann des Fontaines results mentioned in the introduction the article Yevgeny Ovsyankin: "... a Significant portion of foreigners has achieved success thanks to the hard work. So, for example, was part of the big business North of the famous business dynasty Fonteneau. Its founder des-Fontaines Ivan arrived in the city from Holland at the end of the XVTII century and began serving as an ordinary clerk, and then took the place of a stockbroker. But to turn had died in 1805 at the age of 48 years, leaving a widow and six children with minimal means for living".
Some discrepancy of facts is connected, apparently, with the fact that the focus of E. Ovsyankin pays the article Abraham I. des Fontaines. And a few words about his father Johann (Ivan) written only for the sake of accession. Deserves special mention for the part of that article, quoted below.
"The younger son of the Dutchman Abraham Ivanovich was able to achieve great success in trade Affairs. Like his father, he early began service in the most simple positions; first, he worked as a clerk in the trading house of Franz Scholz and Felix Clark, and then a freight forwarder foreign ships.
The last place of service allowed the young entrepreneur to establish ties with foreign merchants and start an independent business: trade edible supplies, supply them with foreign ships.
The first success of the merchant noticed a prominent Nicholas merchant Ilya Gribanov and persuaded Abraham to open a large-scale foreign trade. The negotiations resulted in the creation of the trading house "Gribanov, Fontaines Ko". The formation of the company was facilitated by the marriage of one of Gribanov with the eldest daughter of Fontaines and adopt the latest in 1829 Russian citizenship.
Becoming a Russian citizen, Abraham Ivanovich gained wide access to social activities and left a noticeable mark in the history of the city. For many years he headed the Board of the Arkhangelsk state Bank, held the post of mayor for six years, was at the coronation of Alexander II in 1856, met the Emperor in Arkhangelsk. At different times, Abraham Ivanovich was a member of the Board of Trustees of the reform school, Mariinsky women's gymnasium, orphanage, opened in the latter at his own expense a Department for 8 people.
For impeccable public service, he was awarded the title of Commerce adviser, hereditary honorary citizen, received a number of high awards: three gold medals on Annensky, Vladimir and Andrew's ribbons, had the order of St. Stanislaus 2nd and 3rd degrees, St. Anne 3rd degree and others.
Avaricious on praise the newspaper "Arkhangelsk province news" rightly noted in the obituary dedicated to the memory of a merchant of the 1st Guild: 'Abraham Ivanovich deserved utter respect for citizens, not by obsequiousness and flattery, and unconditional observance of public interests." The author of the publication called the deceased " a worthy citizen of our city."
As noted above, Abraham I. des Fontaines became Hereditary Honorary Citizen of the Russian Empire. It is a hereditary title of the tsarist government introduced instead complained of the nobility, because was concerned about the growth of the last class, especially after the accessions in the Caucasus, the Baltic States and Poland, which added the princes, barons and gentry.
Abraham Ivanovich and Anna Moiseyevna des Fontanes had two sons and five daughters. Their eldest daughter, Anna Abramovna, I married the companion of her father and her brothers, a merchant of Vladimir Y. Gribanova, who owned among many other by the Great Ustyug, Krasavino, flax and linen factory, one of the largest in the Empire. Lived Vladimir and Anna Gribanova in his mansion in St. Petersburg, on the promenade des Anglais, 66. Adjacent to the right of the mansion, almost a Palace, belonged to Braga my Yes Prades, Eduard Egorovich Lindes. And on the left there was the Palace of Grand Duke Pavel Alexandrovich, commander of the guards regiments, who in February 1917, with a red bow on his chest, led his regiments on The millionth oath to the Provisional government, and whose son, Dmitry Pavlovich, took part in the murder of Rasputin. In the house lived Gribanova also beloved nephew of Anna Abramovna (she was not), my grandfather Edmund K. Pilatzke, stockbroker, Director of the Board of Krasavino manufactory etc. For death Gribanova he inherited after them almost all, including the mansion where they were born all his children, including my mother.
The second daughter of Abraham I. des of Fontaines, Carolina Abramovna, left Arkhangelsk for the Director of the gymnasium, Konstantin Bogdanovich Palackoho, a native of Courland and a graduate of the University of Tartu. In the early 18th century, his Protestant ancestors fled religious persecution in Bohemia to the Baltic States. Caroline and Konstantin Pilecki had 11 children. The eldest son mentioned above, Edmund Konstantinovich, my grandfather, fled abroad after the revolution and died in Berlin in 1935.
The third daughter of Abraham Ivanovich, my other great-grandmother Fanny Abramovna des Fontaines, married Arkhangelsk businessman and entrepreneur Fyodor Yegorovich of Lindes, whose grandfather, a Lutheran pastor Johann Lindes, came from Hamburg to Arkhangelsk in 1783. Short and petite, Fanny Abramovna for 18 years, bore her husband 12 children, but because talked about it (okaya-Arkhangelsk): "Poor Vanushka, only does that gives birth, feeds and again is!»
Two other daughters of Abraham Ivanovich did not want to marry merchants. Pauline Abramovna married math teacher Arkhangelsk gymnasium, certain Fredriksberg, and soon after the wedding they went to Kronstadt, where he continued to teach mathematics. They had a son who lost his eye in the First world war, and their grandson Alexander Friedrichsberg until recently was a Professor of mathematics at LSU. In Kronstadt, Polina Abramovna introduced her sister, Jeannette, with her husband's colleague, teacher of Russian language and literature Nikolai Bazhenov, and they got married. Their daughter, Anna Nikolaevna Bazhenova, was an artist of the Alexandria theater-she played the role of comic old women. But as her role coincides with the role of the party stars Cartagines-Alexander, that did not give Bazhenova stroke, and she is further honored went. Died Anna Nikolayevna Bazhenova from starvation during the blockade.
We have kept an old photograph, which brought together almost the whole family des of Fontaines — not only of Abraham I. and one of his sons. This is a copy from the original of 1860. Involuntarily you are amazed that in those days in far Arkhangelsk were able to take such high-quality photos, and that in fashion this Northern city was not inferior to St. Petersburg or other capitals of Europe.
The youngest son of Abraham I. des Fontaines, Alexander Abramovich, was born in Arkhangelsk in 1839 and died in 1869. He married Amalia Franzone Scholz, daughter of Arkhangelsk lumberman Franz Scholz and Amalia Louise gernert. They lived in one of the best houses on Trinity Avenue, and this house was inherited by their son Edmund. During the British occupation, this house was chosen by the commander of the expedition troops, General Ironside. This house is associated an anecdote. In the beginning of the revolution des Fontanesi put all their silver in a chest, which is buried under the floor of the cellar. With the arrival of the British, they decided to dig this trunk-but did not find it, he plunged forever into the marshy bowels of the earth. House des of Fontaneau long been demolished.
Alexander and Amalia-Luisa had two children. Their son Edmund Alexandrovich was born in 1866 and died in emigration, in Brussels, 1938. He was married to Esther Schmidt, also from a family of Archangel businessmen. They had five children. The eldest son of Edmund Edmundovich also lived in Belgium and after the Second World war he held some position in the Organization for aid to refugees at the UN. Children of Edmund Edmundovich des of Fontaines still live in Belgium. His brother Alexander Edmundovich, lives in Geneva. One daughter of Edmund Edmundovich des Fontaines married Alexander Clifton, their children and grandchildren live in England and Australia. Another daughter married a Dane, which is now live her children and grandchildren. Two of the younger son of Edmund A. and Esther des Fontaines — Franz and Georg was in 1919 brutally executed by the Bolsheviks in Vologda.
Besides the son Alexander Abramovich had a daughter Alice A. des Fontaines, who became the second wife of her cousin Edward E. des Fontaines. Alice sympathized with the revolutionary movement and secretly from her husband, his ships, and helped to smuggle in Arkhangelsk, Lenin's "Spark". Some of her children were also infected by the revolutionary spirit. All this was found out, someone from the forest of Fontaines was temporarily detained by the police, as well as several other revolutionary students. But fontanska money saved all. From Petrograd was discharged the best lawyer, the case was hushed up, and only a few outsiders got off with very mild punishments.
The eldest son of Abraham I. des of Fontaines name was Edward. In 1837 he married Vilhelmina Petrovna Dreesen. He was the owner of the trading house "E. A. des Fontaines" the co-owner of the company "Gribanov and Co" J 862-1878 G. G. Danish Consul ]z Arkhangelsk, etc. he Lived in his own house in Olonetskaya Avenue — in the house of his father on Troitsky prospect he lived with his parents and then widowed daughter-in-law with the family of his younger brother. Eduard Abramovich had eight children. Here it should be mentioned that in the fourth and fifth generation arkhangelogorodskaya "German" merchants incest was beginning to tell. There were cases of mental disorders, children were born deaf and dumb. Deaf was born and the youngest son of Herman E. des Fontaines, the eldest son of Edward Abramovich. Data on the family of Herman Eduardovich is quite scarce. His eldest son married Seraphim Popova from a well-known family in Arkhangelsk, they had a daughter. Another daughter of Herman E. married Dr. Popova, they also had a daughter. One son, Herman E. died of tuberculosis, he was beautiful and talented daughter. All we know about his brother is that he was married. No one from the family of Herman E. was not abroad. Second son of Edward Abramovich des Fontaines his name was Theodore, he was married, but children they had, and they lived later in revel.
The third son, Eduard Eduardovich, married Berta Scholz in Arkhangelsk. His wife died of childbirth. Their daughter Bertha was married several times and divorced several times; after the revolution she lived in Tallinn. Before the Soviet occupation of Estonia, she went to Hamburg, and after the Second World war — in England, where he still lives with her daughter Carmen.
After the death of his first wife Edward E. des Fontaines married his cousin — Alice Alexandrovna des Fontaines. They had seven children, two of them deaf and dumb. A daughter who married a German and died in Hamburg. And a son from Arkhangelsk in the revolution fled to Rostov-on-don, where he still live with his daughter and granddaughter.
The eldest daughter of Edward E. and Alice Alexandrovna, also Alice is still in Arkhangelsk, married William R. PEC. After the revolution, they lived in Hamburg, where Alice and widowed. In 1950, Alice E. PEC emigrated to Australia, from where he moved to Canada and died at his youngest daughter Renata in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The son of Renata, Heino, does not live in America, not in Germany. The eldest daughter Alisa Eduardovna PEC, Nora moved with her husband to Brazil. Their children are still there.
I will not list the other children of Edward E. and Alice Alexandrovna. I will focus only on their son Alexander Eduardovich, the only family left after the revolution in Arkhangelsk. There he married Lucia R. the PEC, the sister of his son-in-law. She bore him two daughters — and died in childbirth. After his wife's death, Alexander Eduardovich married the widow of another brother of his late wife, who was shot by the Bolsheviks.
So, from the first marriage of the second wife of Alexander Eduardovich had a daughter, and by his second marriage he had a daughter. In the early thirties, when the red terror in Russia gained strength, placidly located him gaewsky warned: "get out of here, Sasha, soon'll come to you". Leaving two young daughters from the first marriage in the care of the relatives of his late wife, Alexander Eduardovich urgently loaded on the train his second wife and daughter and her mother, his daughter from the second marriage, and they all rolled South. In the first big city they went to the Registrar and divorced, and the next major centre again went to the registry office and got married again, but purely Russian under her maiden name. Under the new name, they got to Rostov-on-don, where it remained until the occupation of the city by the Germans. For some reason, the Germans transported the whole family to Vinnitsa, from where they last military winter, on foot, in hunger and cold, reached Hamburg.
In Hamburg Alexander E. rebuilt one room in a large, almost completely destroyed in the bombing of a house belonging to the widow of Alexander Surkov, also a former Arkhangelsk businessman, who among much else was also owned by a large paper mill "Sokol" near Vologda. Fear of persecution drove Alexander Eduardovich climb as far as possible from Russia — because then seriously discussed the possibility of further advancement of Soviet troops in Europe. And he emigrated with his whole family to Australia, where, as soon as it became clear, my cousin and my cousin had settled, who had fled Riga, through Germany. They found each other thanks to a very funny episode. The daughter of Alexander Eduardovich was married in Australia, and of course, local correspondents could not ignore such an interesting event: a native of one of the most Northern cities of the world was married in one of the most southern cities. The newspaper reported that the girl des Fontaines was born in the Arctic, and on the old Russian tradition at the baptism of her three times immersed in the deep snow in the presence of polar bears. My cousin, after reading this note, immediately contacted them, and the kinship was established.
Until the death of Alexander E. knew nothing about the fate of his daughters from his first marriage. Their fate is their half-sister in Australia, the Commission found out by accident a couple of years ago.
Despite the fact that because of the language barrier and lack of best-selling specialty Alexander E. des Fontaines in Australia made a living in heavy physical labor (and in the heat and cold painted roof), he was happy in his fate, happy that he can live peacefully and freely. His daughter had a ballet school. She complains that someone considered her an impostor, assuming the name of the famous ballerina Margot Fonteyn. "But I was born Fontaines. she says, — of Course, as a dancer, I'm up to it as far as to the heavens, but she was born Peggy Hookham, the fountain of her stage name. It turns out the impostor it is, but not me." Alexander Eduardovich's daughter has two daughters and two granddaughters, all live in Australia.
We now return to the remaining children of Edward Abramovich des of Fontaines, grandfather of Alexander E., of whom we have spoken above. Eduard Abramovich had four more daughters and one son.
Daughter Fanny married Arkhangelsk timber merchant Adolf F. Scholz. After the revolution, lived first in the Baltic States, and later in Italy, in Harborne, where she died in 1944, leaving behind five children.
Another daughter of Edward Abramovich, Dagmar, married the brother of my grandfather Alfred K. Piratskogo. They had five daughters, two of them deaf and dumb. Dagmara E. Pilatka died early from tuberculosis, she was buried at the Smolensk Lutheran cemetery, in the crypt, where he later buried her husband and my little sister, who died from encephalitis. Fortunately, they had a very good governess who taught deaf and dumb girls to speak lips and somehow, let them speak deaf. In gratitude, Alfred K. married her. She died in the blockade. He had a dacha in Terijoki, now Zelenogorsk. There he found the revolution, and there he remained after 1917. But Russian doctor without the knowledge of the Finnish language and the right to practice it was almost impossible to feed a large family. And in the early twenties he returned to Petrograd with the whole family. In Finland, there was only his eldest married daughter, who later left for Morocco. Their (her?) son, fighting in the ranks of the French army, fell in Vietnam.
In Leningrad, Alfred K. was a Professor at the Military Medical Academy. His youngest daughter, a Professor at the Pedagogical Institute named after Herzen, died in the siege. Another daughter, also a doctor, was called during the war, which she graduated from the Colonel of medical service.
Another daughter of Edward Abramovich, Edith E., married Professor rudnicki and lived in Dnepropetrovsk. Her sister Clara married Professor Medvedev and lived in Odessa. Nothing is known about their fates.
The youngest son of Edward Abramovich des Fontaines, Peter E., was born in 1865 in Arkhangelsk, but the greater part of his life in Vologda and the surrounding area. As he himself wrote:"on October 2, 1885, at a very early age, living in Vologda, I married the maiden Ann Vasilyevna Petrova." But the marriage was unsuccessful: "... since 1887, life together with his wife became completely unthinkable ...". In September 1889 Peter E. went to St. Petersburg and entered the service, and then moved to the position of factory Manager of the "Association of the heirs of Jacob Gribanova Sons" in the village of Krasavino great-Ustupski uyezd, Vologda province.
At that time, his brother, Fyodor Eduardovich, found himself in Vienna and there in 1890 introduced Peter Eduardovich to the charming woman Karolina Frieze, with whom he tied his fate. Unfortunately, now we have only a few meager facts about Jenny (Eugenia) Frieze. This is a wonderful and decent woman deserves better from posterity to her biography. I know that Jenny was born in a noble family Nicolaus (Nicholas) Friese and Caroline Elizabeth (nee Clapton) February 21, 1867 and was baptized in the Arkhangelsk evangelists of the Church. Her godparents were: Abraham des Fontaines, Constantine and Adele Clifton and Anna Gribanova.
In 1895 Peter Serdyukov and Yevgenia began to live together. In Vologda they had 5 children:
Evgeny (1897), Nicholas (1899), Elena (1901), Anatoly (1904), Vladimir (1909g.).
But since the first wife of Peter E. was Orthodox, the Church does not allow divorce, a second marriage is not recognized. Children of Peter E. and Jenny (Evgenia Nikolaevna), not to be illegitimate, was recorded as the children of his brother Theodore, retaining, however, a patronymic of the father — so there was Petrovich. Repeated petitions, including "At the Highest of His Imperial Majesty's Name" to nothing lead. Yevhen Nikolaevna worried not so much about his position as the fate of the children. As she wrote: "... to grant these children the right to take the patronymic and surname of their father and the right to use his title, I not only agree, but also mail for special happiness for myself and my children."Only after February revolution it was succeeded to correct this Church bookbinding which lasted 27 years.
After Krasavinsky factory Peter E. des Fontaines began to serve, but apparently preserved the card, the Manager "of the Vologda Department of Russian for foreign trade Bank". The revolution, of course, changed everything dramatically. New authorities granted to Peter E. workbook to the citizen Peter, Tanes, stating that all "ten" and "backgrounds" are canceled (worse had known the doctor Osten-Saken, who, for the same reason turned into a Saken). Piotr Eduardovich was appointed Chairman of the liquidation Commission for private banks. He died in 1919 at the age of 54, and his death raises many questions.
At that time the family lived in Vologda on the street, Salle, d. 15, sq 1. In 1924 Yevhen Nikolaevna and her children moved to Leningrad. Some time later, Desfontaines (so was written with the name in the Soviet era) settled on the embankment of the Moika river, d. 14. In this house stayed A. Pushchin, and in the next, he lived and died Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin. It was rumored that the apartment in which they began to live Desfontaines, once intended for Rasputin. So this or not, but the apartment was really unusual: some of the arches resting on twisted columns, some kind of pseudo-Eastern-painted walls and ceiling. (As far as we know, this style was in fashion in the pre-revolutionary years).
The photo below was taken after the revolution in Leningrad. It depicts Eugene Nikolaevna with children. Their descendants live in Russia in St. Petersburg, only one family in the Urals in the city of Tchaikovsky, near Votkinsk.
The eldest son was an engineer — gidroelektrik, one of the closest collaborators of father's plan GOERLO Akademika Graftio. In the yezhovshchina, during the construction of the Svir hydroelectric power station, Graftio was arrested. Behind him in ankeveen the dungeons went a and; its staff, including ten of Fontaines, which by whim of fate, was arrested the same day as my father. Graftio soon issued, fully reabilitarea whether even his name was called the lower Svir hydroelectric station. Employees not released, and des Fontaines died in prison.
Another son, Peter E. was the head of one of the shops Putilovskogo (Kirov) plant, think tank, or as it was officially called, tractor. Although non-partisan, with "misty" on those concepts in the past, it remained highly secret work, he was awarded the order had at their disposal a car with driver and enjoyed other benefits of the Soviet dignitaries.
The other two brothers were also engineers. The daughter was married, but she had no children.
On it is written the history of the family of noblemen, Huguenots, traders and merchants, the Russian and international intellectuals until the end.
I want to tell you about Eugene G. Fraser, nee Scholz, great-granddaughter of des Fontaines, who left his native and beloved Arkhangelsk 15 year old girl in 1920 — he went home to his mother in Scotland. There, at the age of 82, she wrote her first book" house on Dvina " about her young years in Arkhangelsk. This fascinating book is translated into Russian in Arkhangelsk, and hopefully we will be able to get acquainted with it.
I would like to say a few words about the situation of Russians who found themselves abroad after the revolution, but this topic is too big. I can only say that left without a penny and often without a degree, most often without knowledge of the language and customs of their new country, remaining almost powerless, they are, for the most part, has experienced a lot of ordeals. Descendants des of Fontaneto was a little easier. Most of them knew the language of the country in which they settled, and they often professed the religion of that country. As a rule, they were taught from youth to commercial business, and therefore they could work as small office or Bank employees. Some people still have old business connections, which helped them get a job. Most of them fled by sea, and although almost all of the property was left behind, they managed to bring some of their personal belongings with them. To pray they went to local Protestant churches and thus avoided the fate of the majority of Russian emigrants, for whom the Russian Orthodox Church remained the only part of their former homeland. Only there, in complete isolation from the rest of the world, did they feel at home. And their children and grandchildren, often after losing their native language of their ancestors, mechanically repeating the prayers of the Russians. And in the Church, many of them believed that all by the Will of God would change, that they would return to their old homeland, would live the way they lived before, would again occupy those posts that they thought they were supposed to occupy.
The descendants of des Fontaines were different. From their ancestors they inherited the ability to quickly adapt to new conditions, inherited their Protestant work ethic. Like their ancestors, they no one could expect to help, did not expect that someone, even God or the king would save them. They relied on themselves and built a new life, albeit very modest, but also comfortable. Their children quickly assimilated the new culture, and often completely lost the Russian customs and traditions.
Allow me to finish the story of a family that has come such a difficult and unusual way in nine centuries.