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Archangelica - children German settlement

Chronicles of the ancient genus PEC (Paetz), little-known pages of history from the XIV century to the present day

Light memory of Evgeny Petrovich Bozhko, historian-researcher

The descendants "from England and sveyskoy Germans" in the Russian North



































Stone island (instead of joining).

Part one. "...where the source of the Russian Fleet came from."

The secret of Willoughby's expedition.

corner of Europe.

"Constable Peter Mikhailov".

The state in the state.

Master Paul and Peter king.

Certificate Of Peter I.

"Goto Predestination" is a symbol of the Russian nation.

"Welcome, Peter Baas."

"De Grootvorst" mill name of Peter I.

The way to the throne had been washed in blood.

Godson Of The Grand Duke.

Part two. Children of the master in Russia.

From one bakery.


Governor William W. Hoevelaken.

From one of the bakery (continued).

12 children of Ernestine, Blumenroeder.

The Danish Consul August A. PEC.

Baker and judge Frederick A. PEC.

The secret service of Her Majesty.

The angels disappeared and the crosses were stolen.

Medals and eagles of linen cloths.

The German pogroms.

white North.

Red Archangel.

Brazil, Brazil.

The Germans Veliky Ustyug.

Russia-Orthodox monarchy!

Hostage Yak-island.

Proud Ingvar.

There, where pine are worth giants, where mighty rivers flow.

Gold from the grave.

Ice fonts.

"Vyartsilya, Konovalov."

Sea-mia because the nian, sie, milma you nia.

In the way of the Vikings.

Ordnung uber Alles — Order above all else.

Descendants " Bulavintsev."

The rod of the civil guards.

The taste of the cake.

God's Providence has come to pass.

Part three. "...In this skulls pile – our red revenge»


City of the dead.

With the stigma of "English spy".

10 years and 5 "muzzle".

9 grams of lead.


Annex 1. Help the KGB.

Annex 2.

The sources used.

Каменный остров

Stone island (instead of joining)

The eight-year-old boy, Arnold PEC, together with his parents, left the Great Ustyug on the night of December 1929. Suddenly collapsed established way of life and the orderly well being and good that a friend encasement whispered to her father: "Soon after you get there".  To Kotlas raced on horseback, firing in the path from the wolves, then train to Leningrad, where they were sheltered by relatives Lindesy on Stone island*; and here the childhood of Arnold with odnogodka by Harald. Children's games in beautiful parks, swimming and boating in Malaya Nevka, school № 22 on Krestovsky island, museums of Leningrad and its history — everything was interesting to the impressionable boy. But it turned out not less interesting is the story of a family of a new friend. The mother of Harald came from a famous family of de Fontaine, the founder, Guillaume de Fontaine in 1096 during the first crusade distinguished himself in the battle with the Seljuks, Suleiman – Ibn – Kutalmis... Knightly valor Aleum de Fontaine during 3 and 4 of the Crusades is described in historical writings. This is followed by participation of the knights de fontanov in the hundred years war and the battle at Asyncore, killing almost the entire flower of French chivalry, devotional service the kings of France. The transition to Protestantism forced fontanov Huguenots after the massacre of St. Bartholomew to flee to the Netherlands. Many years later, one of fontanov – Johann des Fontaines (this has now become a surname) lives in Arkhangelsk, where is listed among the first "foreign merchants" van Brentano, Hoevelaken, Parov, Garnatov, Cleftones, Lindenow, Watershow, Brandt…
Came the 1941 year. Harald Lindes studies at the journalism Department of the University. Arnold PEC enters the "mid-terms". War, mobilization, fronts domestic and Japanese were separated friends. Since December 1941, the traces of Harald finally lost…

In 1976, Arnold was given the magazine "America illustrated" Russian version) with a portrait of the editor (Harald G. Lindes. Found an old friend! Correspondence meeting, an exciting story: in late 1942, Harald under Medvezhegorsk gets captured by the Finns ... Destroyed, retreating red Army Petrozavodsk gun in place of Lenin on the circular square and here the office of the Finnish concentration camps. Then there were prisoners of war camps in Norway, brutally destroyed by the "carpet" bombing of the allies Hamburg, new York in 1951, work in the magazines "National geography" and "America". With great opportunities, Harald devotes much time to the study of the pedigrees of foreign surnames of the Russian North. He then gives impetus to Arnold Petrovich in this direction, suggests the search path, shares materials.
More than twenty years worked for A. P. PEC in the archives of V. Ustyug, Vologda, Arkhangelsk, Petersburg, and corresponded with German researchers E. N. By amburger, H. Meyer – von Altram, Ulf Krause, Edward L. Carr, etc…
Here, in Petrozavodsk, we did not know much about our pedigree; after such a terrible war, every German did not separate from the fascist, and this knowledge was not welcomed then. Our related branches of long-gone: the February revolution, the October tragedy of Russia, which lasted for 70 years, the period of post-Soviet circus ... My second cousin Lydia PEC moved after marriage from Kemi to Arkhangelsk, by chance met there with our family and wrote about it in Petrozavodsk.
... Arnold Petrovich repeatedly advised me to visit Arkhangelsk, the city of our ancestors. From the blessed lands of Germany, Switzerland, England and Holland they went from the 16th century to the Russian North, especially after the publication in 1702 in Germany of the Manifesto of Peter I, who invited entrepreneurs and artisans on favorable terms and accurate execution of these promises by Russia.
... Arkhangelsk is more Petrozavodsk, with an interesting past, but of course, the history of the German settlement, with which this city began, is more interesting.

...Natalia L., Leitinger introduces me to the Dvina land — the ancient Zavolochye: here the Northern Dvina embankment — there were planted by the first settlers, the Cape PUR — Navolok — here in the 12th century, was the Archangel Michael monastery, which is the name of the city, Gostiny Dvor, where seething commercial life. Here the Church of St. Catherine, where from 1763 to 1776 held a service of our common forefather, Reverend Albertus Hoolboom (Egbertus Hoolboom), family tree which dates back 600 years in the Netherlands born in the Dutch city of Deventer, and found his calling and happiness in the far North of Russia. Here is the Lutheran cemetery with the graves of our ancestors, the Solombala, the quarter of the former German settlement» …
Having received from Arnold Petrovich materials and blessing to continue the main work of his life, for several years I have been involved in the restoration of the tree of our common family, I conduct correspondence, I visit the places where my ancestors lived. I learned a lot during this time about the family of my grandmother, of German settlement in Arkhangelsk, where she was raised by their aunts miss Emilia PEC and Mrs. Matilda Clifton, many of our other relatives, Dutch and German blood which mingled with Russian, Ukrainian, Karelian, and others. Gradually came the realization that these materials are valuable not only for me, that the history of my family is a part of the history of Russia, which my ancestors served not for fear but for conscience for more than three centuries.
(*Since the Foundation of St. Petersburg, the Stone island has become one of the elite districts – eminent nobles and members of the Royal family erected palaces and estates, arranged greenhouses, ponds and parks, where festivals and masquerades were held. In the early 1960-ies, a student of medical Institute (LSGMI), I lived on a Stone – Malaya Nevka, 11 in the former mansion of Peter of Oldenburg, a grandson of Empress Maria Feodorovna. In this house visited by A. S. Pushkin, near removing the country from 1834 to 1836, and their children he baptized here in the Church of St John the Baptist, which was called for before the duel. Unfortunately, I did not know then that the square of the Old theatre in building 32 lived and Arnold Petrovich PEC and Harald Lindes Garoldovich.

And today, Stone island is a terrific place for a stroll: fast Malaya Nevka, the amazing architecture of villas and mansions, wonderful nature, oak of Peter I, cemetery of the Royal horses, a yacht club on the river. And the nightingales…)

часть 1

Part one. "...where the source of the Russian Navy happened»
The mystery of the expedition of Willoughby

“In the summer of 7063 in the winter overseas Karelians found at the Murmansk Sea two ships are anchored in places, and the people on them are all dead, and the goods on them a lot” (Ancient Russian Vivliothecs (ed. 2) XVIII. The Dvina chronicler, p. 12). In the logbook flagship "of bona of Esperanza" fishers found a record of Hugh Willoughby (Hugh Willoughby), the head of the company "Mystery and Company...", went in search of the northeast passage to China, to break the trade monopoly of Spain and Portugal, which controlled the route across the Atlantic ocean.  From the records of Admiral Willoughby followed that three ships of the expedition were separated on 3 August 1553 near the Norwegian island of Senja, and the two of them storm hijacked to a New Land. Hence, " bona Esperanza "(good Hope) and" bona Confidence "(good hope) went South to the Kola Peninsula, where on September 18, both ships entered the Harbor," two miles long vrezyvavshuyusya in the mainland and had a half-mile width... " (about 2.7 km) .
On this desert shore, they, and they remained for the winter, and there Kem and dvinskie Pomors who came to the hunting sea mammals, and found them at the mouth of the river Varzina. Expedition was utterly not adapted to the Arctic winter. People fed on corned beef and cod from their stocks. The cold, darkness and despair has exacerbated the suffering of sick people with scurvy. A sinister picture - some dead on two ships loaded with goods, found pomory: "died, frozen to death" (Dvina chronicle) all 63 people, just a couple of months without waiting for help.
The reason for the simultaneous death of people and dogs is completely incomprehensible and mysterious. But since all were found in the premises of the vessel (s), we can assume that the crews caught up with some kind of disaster. However, on the ship there was no sign of panic or other desperate actions taken by people, knowing that it was the last few moments of life. The bodies of the victims were in such postures, like instant death caught them in a moment of their everyday lives. Someone was sitting at the table for the unfinished meal. Someone froze the everyday movement of opening the Cabinet. And someone stood forever bending over the notebook in which took notes.
But everything you need for polar wintering from British. This is much food in the holds, and fresh meat behind herds of frightened deer and seals, fresh water in the river Varzina. The last entry in the diary Willoughby dated January 1554 – 4 months after the beginning of wintering: " tree, no living soul around, only bears, deer, walruses, Yes Arctic foxes." Because it is clear that no one was not going to die. But then something happened.…
A strange story-the cause of death of all people and dogs is completely incomprehensible and mysterious. For more than 450 years, the mystery of The death of Willoughby expedition remains unsolved. Here is not visited by the researchers, although it is not the inaccessibility of. Simply the coast of the Kola Peninsula entering a border zone is still under control of military. But, on the other hand, perhaps due to the military, territory is not invaded by "black archeologists" and to this day represents a kind of "reserve white spots".

... And in further years the fishermen of the Northern Dvina and Mezen, white sea coast-dwellers from Kemi, magpies, Composed and Podujatia constantly came to Murman in summer and winter in their encampments. Fresh water Varsini of the river, its sandbanks, where the good summer was caught seining capelin and sand eel for bait tier, good catches of cod and halibut in the coastal zone of the Barents sea; in winter, the herds of harp seals of Noseeum island from ancient times attracted the coast-dwellers on the trapping fields.
... And the third ship of the fleet "Edward Bonaventure" (Edward – Good company) under the command of an experienced captain Richard Chancellor (Chancellor, Richard)suffered less from the storm. Having rounded the North Cape, it came into the Harbor of vardø. After standing for a week in anticipation of Willoughby (arrangements), cansler at your own risk continued swimming. Moving forward on unknown waters, "Edward Bonaventure", on memoirs of the participant of expedition of Kliment Adams," ... came so far that appeared in places where at all there was no night where constantly the clear light of the sun over the terrible and mighty sea shone". Finally, the ship Censor penetrated into the White sea and on 24 August 1553, entering into the Dvina Bay, moored to the shore in the Bay of St. Nicholas, opposite the St. Nicholas monastery karelskogo.
(From Dvina chronicle: "Come to the ship with the sea at the mouth of the Dvina river and obosralsya came to Kholmogory in the case of small ships from the English king Adear Ambassador Ricart, and with it the guests.") The Russian people did not know that in this moment they were "discovered".
From the locals, amazed by the appearance of a large ship, the British learned that this coast – Russian. Then they announced that they have a letter from the English king to the king and want to start with the Russian trade. Providing the British victuals, the Governor Fofana Makarov sent Richard Chancellor in Moscow, where Ivan IV expressed his desire to establish trade relations with England. Russian Tsar at the time was a young man twenty-three years old, which did not prevent him to understand what benefits promise direct trade relations with England through the Northern sea route (before that trade was conducted through intermediaries in the Baltic sea). Besides doubly useful to enlist the support of a powerful ally for the impending war with Livonia.
... The result of Richard Chensler's voyage was the appearance of our country on the English trading cards. The British discovery of the sea route to Muscovy equated to the discovery of the route to India and the discovery of Muscovy – the discovery of America by Columbus: they did not want to give sea of glory nor the Portuguese, nor Spaniards. Chanslor, as a reward for the expedition was "a great commander and Navigator of the Navy."
"Mystery "was renamed" Moscow company " – "Muscovy Trading company" with a patent from Queen Maria Tudor. Trade with Russia quickly brought revenue to the English merchants. Trail of Chancellor at the mouth of the Dvina rushed shopping people from different countries here with a light hand of the terrible Russian Tsar began the practical development of the West a great country, and trade with England was beneficial. Russia, soon entered the war with Livonia, received from the British everything necessary for the army: gunpowder and armor, sulfur and saltpeter, copper, tin and lead. In turn, the Russian forest and hemp helped England to stand in naval battle with Spain (thirty years later, Admiral Francis Drake, who defeated the "Invincible Armada", asked the English Ambassador to Moscow to thank the son of Grozny, king Fyodor Ivanovich, for the excellent equipment of their ships, which allowed to defend the independence of England).
....The Russian Tsar returned to the English merchants ships and goods, and those in July 1556 sailed back as a part of a squadron to England. But there these two ships never came (unlike the others). "Bona Esperanza" went missing along with all the new crew and Russian goods, and "Bona Confldenza" crashed against the stones near the Norwegian Trondheim. Such a mystery.

уголок европы

Corner of Europe

... The Royal Charter to the Governor Peter Nashokin and Paleshanina Volkovu of 4 March 1583 read: "the City to do at that place and on the extent and drawing, kakovo sent to us, in a hurry". A year later, in 1584 in Moscow were sent a "formal reply" to the Governor: "the City of wooden one year is put" around Michael the Archangel monastery. Arkhangelsk became in the seventeenth century first and only international sea trade port of Russia, not counting Astrakhan. In XVI-XVII centuries up to 50 foreign vessels came to Arkhangelsk annually. Privileges granted by Ivan the Terrible to foreign merchants (and confirmed by Boris Godunov), the right to trade duty-free throughout Russia and to arrange their Lounges in Arkhangelsk, Moscow, Vologda and other cities attracted Western trading people to Russia. Many foreigners here and settled. The British competed with the Dutch.

But in 1649 Alexey Mikhaylovich, the father of Peter I, limited movement across the country of the English merchants, having ordered them to come: "tokmo to Arkhangelsk for many unfair and harmful them for trade of the Russian act, especially, for the murder of the king Charles I committed in England". And there are already merchants from Holland and the Hanseatic cities have achieved significant advantages in the competition. Immigrants from Germany became the third big wave of foreign settlers in Russia. In the centre of the city was built by foreigners private houses and commercial offices, shipyards on the river Dvina, in the exchange hall of Gostiny Dvor was held a mutual commercial transaction. Foreigners have formed part of Europe — the village where they lived Russified (and neorussia) the Dutch, British, Germans, Danes, Norwegians, and dozens of other nationalities, while maintaining domestic culture and religion and actively participating in the social life of the city. They've got families, took Russian citizenship, some took Russian names and surnames.
I don't speak Russian, here, as in Moscow, were called "Germans" and the settlement became known as "German". It stretched from Gostiny Dvor almost a kilometer down the river embankment.
Clean streets, solid wooden sidewalks, not bent under the feet of passers-by, buried in greenery, neat houses with red roofs, competing with each other in richness finishes and lace curtains on the Windows and flower pots on the window sills, reminiscent of one of the quarters of the German town, the similarity with which emphasized Lutheran Church with a Gothic roof and bell tower. To 1693 on the Dvina embankment was 29 households foreigners; the Dutch in Arkhangelsk remained the most, they were brought to the North even their cows, who dormeuses on the local water meadows, gave rise to the famous black-and-white Kholmogory breed, which in the eighteenth century became known almost throughout the European part of the country.

... In the summer of 1693, a young Russian Tsar Peter I headed to Arkhangelsk. He met there with many Dutch, British and Hamburg merchants, and visited in their homes: hot feather-bed; on napkins Gothic lettering stitch: sayings from the Bible and moral maxims; on holidays dancing to the violin, pork and cabbage, and beer. The inhabitants of the "German settlement," then were not viewed as heretics, on the contrary, began to adopt European customs. In the shops there was a lot of foreign goods: medicines, thread, needles, Amsterdam, Atlas, Venetian velvet, London cloth, Danzig blankets, silk, woolen cloth, lace, gold and silver items, glass-ware and other luxury goods, wine, metals, guns, fancy goods, paints — everything here can be bought, as in any European city. On their ships "Germans" loaded: honey, yuft, pitch, meat, lard, dried and salted fish, flax, hemp, ropes from which were considered the best in the world, and on decks laid mast wood.
On may 30, after the feast of the Holy Trinity with its few retinue and Archbishop Athanasius on his 12-gun yacht Saint Peter, the Tsar sailed to Solovki. 120 miles from Arkhangelsk the yacht was caught in a terrible storm; the collapse was inevitable, and the king, communion, chalice spare gifts from the hands of Athanasius. Peter himself stood behind the wheel. Of all those who were on the yacht, only the Emperor and the logger from the Karelian village Sumposad Antippa Timofeev did not lose their spirit. The yacht is freed from death, when the king took the wheel, Antippa safely guided it through the dangerous passage Unckie Horns — two number of submerged rocks to a calm anchor in place Unscol lip. On the shore was crowded the few brethren Pertominsk men's monastery. Dressed in a different dress, all that was done on it, the Emperor bestowed Antippa in the memory and, moreover, he determined the retirement to death. A few days the king spent in Pertominsk monastery in memory of his rescue of the Emperor himself made a large wooden cross, and carved on it in Dutch: "Dat Kruys maken kaptein Piter. van. a. Chr. 1694" ("This crestwell skipper Peter in the summer of 1694 of Christ"), he took it and was erected on the place where landed.

Then "Saint Peter" took a course on Solovki, island white gulls and black monks. When a large ringing in prednisone crosses and banners, to meet the Emperor came ashore all the brethren, congregational in festive vestments ahead. Archimandrite offered the Emperor a cross to kiss. The Emperor went to the assumption Cathedral, where, after hearing the prayer, venerated the relics of the Wonderworkers, at the Liturgy, he stood on the choir and sang to the singers. In the Transfiguration Cathedral, the Emperor expressed his desire to build an iconostasis and Royal doors "to his sovereign Treasury". June 13, "Saint Peter" arrived in Arkhangelsk. "The safe return of the Emperor — wrote provincial newspaper — such a dangerous trip was to celebrate a few days in a row cheerful feasts... <...> spared neither wine nor gunpowder". Before leaving, the king lays in the city sorokousty ship, and another was instructed to buy in the Netherlands. On the way home, at the plant in Olonets, Peter himself poured guns and sharpened rigging blocks for the laid ship. During lent in Arkhangelsk was sent samopaly 1000 and 2000 pounds of gunpowder.

"Holy prophecy — - the Forerunner of the Russian fleet

At the end of the thaw the next summer Peter again in a hurry to Arkhangelsk and twentieth of may descends upon the water the frigate “St. Paul”. The year before Peter ordered "to issue an order to the Dutch shipbuilder and shipyard owner Nicholas WITZ to build military and galleys 44-gun frigate", who waited now with impatience. 21 Jul 1694 in Dvina Bay seemed to be 3 ships — 2 English and, among them, at that time a 40-gun frigate, built for the East India shipyard master Gerrit Field in Holland called "Santa Protetia" — "Holy Prophecy". Tsar Peter on his yacht went to meet him, saluted the frigate, he introduced it to the mouth of Dvina and put it in a safe place near the Solombalsky island. The joy upon receipt of the ship was marked according to the custom of great feasts. "What long desired, now made, — wrote Peter to Moscow — more vastly to write this post; and now, oboseala, it is inconvenient to write a lengthy, more same and impossible; inasmuch as in such cases is always Bacchus is revered that its leaves overshadow the eyes although lengthy, pisati".
On August 14, Peter raised his red-blue-white standard "inverted Dutch flag" for the first time on the "Holy Prophecy"under the cannon fire. Catching the sails of the South wind "shelonik", "Holy Prophecy" and "Holy Peter" and "Saint Apostle Paul" went to sea, accompanied in marching order eight Dutch and English merchant ships. Knowing the Dutch language, swimming with the Dutch was for Peter “marine literacy”; the Emperor was interested in everything: from supplying beer to the captain before the cleaning of the sails. Bringing the caravan to the Holy Nose, the extreme point of the White sea, the ships exchanged a good-bye salute and left. King — skipper ("cipher", as he called himself Peter, and called him around), he returned to Arkhangelsk after being at sea 10 days. So ordinary "amusing travel" to the city on the White sea became an event in the life of young Peter. He saw the real sea, made sailing in dangerous elements, so different from the quiet suburban ponds. Having been on foreign ships and saw the commercial life of the seaside town, Peter realized the huge benefits here by foreigners. He loved the sea and concluded that only the sovereign has two hands, who has the army and Navy, and in Arkhangelsk, one should seek the origins of the Maritime power of the Petrine Russia.

The frigate "Holy Prophecy" under the command of Dutch captain Jan Flama, in 1696, made a voyage with public goods: bread, meat, resin and potash in Amsterdam and returned safely to Arkhangel'sk. "Holy Prophecy" could not be considered a powerful warship, his guns of small calibre were placed only on the upper deck, under which was located the cabin and cargo hold. Therefore, he was soon disarmed and turned into a "merchant". But it is this Dutch ship was the forerunner of the mighty Russian fleet, justifying its name!

Государство в государстве

"Constable Peter Mikhailov»

The young king realizes that the vastness of Russia it is necessary to allow free exit in the South seas: Azov and Black. The implementation of this idea was facilitated by the fact that Russia has been in hostile relations with Turkey since 1686, under whose control, the Crimean Tatars, ruined our southern borders. It was decided to take possession of the mouths of don and Dnepr, and most importantly, the fortress of Azov ("Saad — ul-Islam" — "the Stronghold of Islam", Turkish.) locking the exit from don to the Black sea…
... After the capture of Azov, Peter poisoned himself in Europe to the shipyards of Italian, Dutch and English under the guidance of these masters to study shipbuilding in all its forms. Realizing that he will be welcomed there as the king — all show, but not until then did not allow, Peter went with the "Great Embassy" incognito, that is officially abroad went to "the Preobrazhensky regiment Sergeant Peter Mikhailov". So he felt much freer, being on a par with their teachers.
August 8, 1697, visiting Riga, Mitava, Pillau, Koenigsberg and other cities, Peter arrived in the Holand town of Saardam (now Zaandam), 20 kilometers from Amsterdam, where he settled on the street Krimp in the house of the shipsmith Gerrit Kist (Gerrit Kist), met with him at the shipyards of Arkhangelsk.
9 Aug Peter began work at the shipyard Lipsti Rogge along with other carpenters. In Saardam, Peter was only 8 days; in a small town soon everyone will know who is hiding under the guise of a simple carpenter. And cardascia carpenters, who lived in Moscow and Voronezh, has written home that de is going to Holland himself the king of Moscow, hiding among the minor officials of the Embassy; and to recognize it easily: shakes his head, waving while walking with my hands on his cheek he had a wart, and the growth of the it giant. Peter's incognito was violated, and annoying spectators made his residence in Saardam unbearable, especially since there were built small merchant and whaling ships, and large warships — the main thing that interested him — collected on the shipyards of Amsterdam.
On August 16, the Embassy's Grand entrance to Amsterdam took place. Peter said the city's mayor, Nicholas WITZ (Nikolas Vitsen), difficulties in Saardam, and he recommended the king to postpone the work at the Amsterdam shipyard of the East India company and, as one of its Directors, contributed to the decision of the Board on the adoption of "noble persons living incognito", at the shipyard, and disqualification for residence house cable car masters around the. And so that this person could see and trace the entire construction of the ship, the company's Directors decided to lay a new frigate 100 feet long. The king was delighted.


A state within a state

The shipyard of the East India company was less accessible to the curiosity of Cherni. Here Peter was not annoyed by ceremonies, hypocritical court etiquette. It was not customary to collect autographs or ask for interviews. Under the leadership of the shipyard Manager shipmaster Gerrit Claesz Pool (Gerrit Claesz Pool) began this study of Peter. Every morning he appeared at the shipyard with the tools in the hands of the appeal is simple: "Timmerman (carpenter gall.) — Peter" the King is even prepared food for himself, abandoning servants.

...As far as it was possible to trace German researchers Eric N. The amburger, Heinrich Meyer – background Altru Sven and Rick Fisher, the founder of one of the three branches of our family was a ship's master Cornelis Paul (Pool Cornelis van Alphen), who came to Amsterdam from the southern Netherlands (the town of Alphen aan den Riyn, East of Leiden) and started career as a journeyman ship carpenter in "Kompanie van Verre, which in 1602 turned into a great East India company with the main capital 6.600.000 guilders and lasted until 1798. It was called a "state within a state", as the company enjoyed monopoly of trade from the Cape of Good Hope to Cape horn; had the right, on behalf of the States General to declare and wage war, to conclude peace, to coin money, to build cities and strongholds, to produce civil and criminal court, to execute people, to appoint officials, to enter into contracts with the native authorities, to collect taxes and issue money. The company owned colonies in Indonesia, Ceylon and other parts of the globe.

It traded copper, silver, textiles, cotton, silk, ceramics, sugar, spices and opium with Japan, China, Ceylon, Indonesia. The East India company was founded a network of trading posts at the Cape of Good Hope, Persia, Bengal, Malacca, China, Siam, Formosa.
In 1610, Chinese tea and coffee were brought to the Netherlands for the first time, the income from the trade of which was huge. The opium trade, and especially the slave trade, in which the Dutch had pioneered, had proved very profitable.
...In 1603 the Fields Cornelis was born the son of Claes (Cornelisz Claesz Pool), from early childhood, studied under his father at the shipyard and then replace him as the master. 29 Oct 1629, when Klaas in the Oude Kerk was engaged to 18летней Gertie, Gerritt (Geertje Gerretsdr.), daughter of Tithe, Tourist. (Tietgie Teunisdr.) and Gerrit Janson (Janson Gerrit) judges of the Amsterdam prison, Cornelis, Paul and his wife were still alive, and both died before the census of the inhabitants of Amsterdam 27.06.1637. In 1657, CLAAS Paul in the census book named the shipbuilder living on Foeliestraat. He died on 5 August 1668 and was buried in Sint Anthonis-kerkhof. Widow of Klaas, Gertie, called the died in 1679 at the announcement of the marriage of her younger son, Gerrit Field.

Мастер Поль

Master Paul and Peter king

Many members of the Paul family served in the East India company as accountants, carpenters, shipbuilders, captains floating around the world. The Klaas and Gertier family had 11 children, our line continues from the youngest and most famous – the shipyard Manager Gerrit Paul, thanks to his pupil – Russian Tsar Peter I. Gerrit Claesz Pool was born and baptized in Zuidekerk (southern Church) on February 19, 1651. In the first marriage, Gerrit, had already chartered ship carpenter, living independently on the Rapenburg, entered August 29, 1679, 28-year-old Marricle, Andr. van Saanen (Marritye Jansdr. van Saanen. 1651-1693), paivassa then, on the Heiligeweg. With the announcement of the marriage the groom was attended by only the elder brother of Gerrit captain Ian Paul (Johannes Pool), since the bride was her sister. The wedding ceremony was performed 29.08.1679 year in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam. The family lived on Oosterburg about the East India Wharf, were born 8 children. 25.11. 1686 Gerrit Paul becomes the ship's master. The "about his service in the East India company" along with the annual maintenance of 1,200 Gulden, is indicated payment by the company of renting a house master, along with light and heating, and a separate line beer money, which at the time was an important part of the food content. The story became the second wife of Gerrit Fields, Eva Snellings (Eva Snellings), where, having become a widower, he married 24 November 1693. At the announcement of the marriage 43-year-old bride, living on the island of Niewe, invited her sister Marritje (Marritje Jacobs Snellings). The second family had no children, but this is the wife of the wizard, Fields are always welcome "shardakova carpenter Peter Michaeloff". She died in 1726 and was buried at Oude Kerk (in the side chapel of the Old Church).
And for a long time later the Dutch told their children and grandchildren, passed from family to family, as they saw king Peter, who worked at the shipyard; how, tired by work, in spite of sweat, he sat down on a tree stump and lowered the axe between his legs, friendly talked with his comrades. He spoke willingly and with foreign visitors, unless they just called it "Peter Timmerman" or "Peter Baas", but turned away and did not answer a word, when welcomed him "Sire" or "Your Majesty". However, in any case, he did not like long conversations and after a few minutes, returned to the interrupted work. Once upon a time a noble Englishman from the castle of Loo (Oran princes ' castle in Holland) visited the shipyard to see Peter, and Baas Paul, to point him out to the visitor, shouted to the great carpenter: "Peter! Timmerman Of Saard! Why don't you help your comrades?"carrying a heavy log at that time. Peter obeyed them unquestionably, ran up to them, put his shoulder under the tree and carried it together with other carpenters to the appointed place to the great surprise of the viewer.

Peter valued the work at the shipyard, so he reduced his participation in social events and ceremonies to a minimum. In the evenings, resting from work, went it into some Gerber (restaurant) and the Dutch pipe in his mouth, a beer or a glass of gin and talked with the visitors gerbera: ship carpenters, blacksmiths, sailors, craftsmen. He came to work mates, they have sat for a couple of hours of beer and conversation, and in the family of his Baath party, to which he had become attached, and often had lunch at home. This attachment to Gerrit Paul remained with Peter for many times, as evidenced by the further correspondence of the master with the Russian Tsar.
The Emperor is still a student, Europe him — like a big German settlement. Guardian of The great Embassy, mayor Nicholas Witzen leads Peter everywhere and shows him everything: factories, workshops and hospitals. Curiously inspects Peter saw-mills, churns, sukhovoli, managerially and other mills that filled, sallandsche village. He tries to stop the windmill behind the wing to examine its mechanism, in Zandik helps workers in the structure of grains for the merchant Calf, at the mill De Kok (Cook) sees the process of making paper, in Leiden watches the opening of corpses, and in the synagogue the circumcision of the baby. In Amsterdam, Peter examined the Kunstkammer, animal and bird yards (menagéries) and churches (he loved Quaker); he visited the "gap" houses (brothels), as well as a collection of scientists, where he listened to their debates. It was in Holland that Peter got acquainted with European civilization and culture, for the first time saw the town hall, Admiralty, circus, shelters for children and even a house for the insane. Once the first time on the play, he witnessed "intimidation of hell and marvelous dances, and other consolations." Many useful and beautiful, which could learn from Russian people, saw Peter in the Netherlands: the cutest dam, countless channels; diligence, neatness — all were fascinated by him, all Dutch he loved, like his native, loved Dutch products, especially cheese, but prefer Flemish shoes. Dutch Newspapers, "on which was making his remarks," the Emperor he "used to read after lunch."
Months of work on Ostenburg shipyards of the East India company held a gift for the king, he repeatedly returned to them in their thoughts, letters, deeds.

"Shipbuilding Paradise" shipyard made a strong impression on Peter. The first is a five-storey warehouse building with a dome, the embodiment of the sea power of the East India company and the Netherlands. The stock is this practical for the Dutch was the more beautiful of all the palaces and cathedrals, and warehouse even dedicated poems. On the first floor of a warehouse stored iron, nails, a wire and there were huge slaughters on 50 hooks. Here slaughtered cattle, dried and salted meat, which was then fed crews at sea. Above there were warehouses for spices, coffee, warehouses and workshops of ship's gear and sails. Before the warehouse was arranged naval depots and the shipyard on three building berths, where the shipwright family Paul and built by the famous Dutch sailboats. Behind a warehouse there were carpentry workshops, sawmills, dryers for the wood. Forest, brought from Germany, Scandinavia and Russia, have long been prepared to the case. First six months the logs are soaked in water, in December, the winch pulled them ashore, then special cranes were loaded into the drying-room, where she dried them upright, on its technology. At a safe distance from the shipyard were located molocure where the tarred ropes and prepared for the resin.
With Peter at the shipyard has 10 volunteers — Golovin, Ivan M. and Ivan Alekseevich, Menshikova Gabriel and Alexander, Fedor Pleshcheev, Peter Gutman, Ivan Kropotkin, Gabriel Kobylin, Theodosius Sklyaev and Lukyan Vereshchagin.
The first three weeks were spent in preparation of materials, and on September 9, in a solemn atmosphere, Peter laid the frigate in the name of the Holy apostles Peter and Paul. In nine weeks the frigate had been rebuilt. "And November 16 — written in the "field journal"— got off that ship, launched at the time were ambassadors, as the ship was down".

Аттестат Петра 1

Certificate Of Peter I

Having passed all the practical course of building a frigate with an axe in his hand at the East India shipyard, Peter, who learned skills in carpentry art and passed a sort of exam to Baath Paul, became a good ship's carpenter. Thus it is also characterized by the certificate which is personally made by his ship teacher:
"I, the undersigned, Gerrit Klaas Paul shipwright at the Amsterdam chamber of the privileged East India company, indicate that Peter Mikhailov, who is in the retinue of the great Moscow Embassy, including those here in Amsterdam on the East India shipyard on August 30, 1697, for the reasons mentioned below, the number of lived under the guidance of our carpenter, during the whole time of the noble here your stay was a diligent and a smart carpenter, also in the bondage, the lot, building, lifting, fitting, draping, weaving, caulking, strugania, uravnenii, raspolojenie, paving and smoleni acted as a good and skilful carpenter was required and helped us in the building of the frigate "Peter and Paul" from the first tab it almost to the end, with a length of 100 feet (from the bow to starboard); in addition, under my supervision naval architecture and drawing plans for his honour to have studied so thoroughly that maybe how we ourselves mean, and another to practice. For a true identification, I have signed this with my own hand.
Given in Amsterdam, in our permanent stay at the East India shipyard, January 15 in the summer of the Lord 1698.
Gerrit CLAAS Paul, shipmaster of a privileged East India company in Amsterdam."
But Peter wanted to become not only a ship's carpenter, but also a ship's engineer. The nearest teacher Peter Baas, Gerrit Paul was not able to fully give him a satisfying answer. Found them, Peter and the masters of the Admiralty of Hendrik Jacobson of Cardinale and Jacob van Tellison Retina.
At that time in Holland the art of shipbuilding passed from generation to generation according to family traditions. Dutch shipbuilders were masters of more practitioners than theorists of the ship business. Much was done by intuition, by eye. But of the 20,000 ships plowing at that time the seas and oceans of the planet, 16,000 were built in Holland — of the five ships in the oceans of the four Dutch!

Гото предестинация

"Goto predestination" - a symbol of the Russian nation

The king invites to Russia nine Dutch, Swedish, Danish, and German seamen, from Admiral to ship's cook. And 640 people — artists, artisans, craftsmen, but most were hired skilled ship carpenters, including invited was a ship's master, Gerbrand Jansen, Niklas Vilim, Jan Rance with the East India yard — Click Gerens (* Choose Gerens traveled to Voronezh, and then in Olonetsk shipyard on the river Svir. Choose later, and then he and his son Peter worked in St. Petersburg and Arkhangelsk).
Before leaving the Embassy in Russia were distributed awards: entered into the Russian service of Vice Admiral Cornelia Kruis-a couple of sable in 30 and a couple of 25 rubles, his wife and daughter "for his service" for a couple of 8 rubles, Nicholas Witzen — 3 pairs of 40 rubles. Not forgotten was the teacher-Baath Gerrit Paul: "... by decree of the Great Sovereign given bass, which was in the East India courtyard, 21 Chervona. Alexander Menshikov accepted them." In the fields "expense book," against this entry note "that worked together".
Leaving Amsterdam, Peter asked N. Witzen identify Baas Paul in some quiet and profitable position under The Amsterdam Admiralty. The Royal wish was fulfilled. Gerrit Paul thanked Peter for his return to Moscow the following letter from 20.02.1700 year: "Your Majesty probably forgot that I had the honor, as nobody here lived, to work in partnership with such a Great Monarch in the East India yard... Gracious word You spoke for me to the mayor Nikolay WITZ, produced its effect: I granted him the title of servant ship carpenter's shop. From the East Indies court came down and was very pleased with his fate. My position is: twice a day walking the city and to oversee how dumb and caulk ships. The annual salary no; get, that will have. I am very grateful to you, and here I have learned that your Majesty is continuing the cunning of the ship business, That you have already prepared a merry caravan and that one of your ships went even to Constantinople, to which the Turks were quite surprised... I Wish you all the best, good health, successful shipbuilding, peaceful death, the Kingdom of heaven. If you write, address: Gerrit Field Guild servant of the ship carpenters in Amsterdam".
Peter gentle's letter thanked the Baas of Klaas Gerrit Field for the good memory and sent him a painting of a 58-gun ship "goto Predestination" ("God's Providence"), which was entirely designed and built under the watchful vigil "Dutch carpenter Peter Mikhailov". English captain John Perry noticed that the keel of "goto Predestination" was invented by Peter himself (as they say, know-how) in the event of damage to the keel of the ship threatened to flow. Such keels were then used on English ships. On this occasion, Peter I made his own entry in the magazine: "November 19 day. To the memory of St. Martyr laid his ship, called "God's foreknowledge". Keel laid, 130 feet long, 33 feet wide."

добро пожаловать

The idea of building "Predestination" arose from Peter on his return from Europe. Russia needed a powerful ship capable of fighting the Turks on the Black sea. For the construction of "goto Predestination" was caused by the disciples of Baas Gerrit Fields from Venice Theodosius Moiseevich Sklyaev and Lucian A. Vereshchagin. All drawing work on this ship was done by Peter himself. Sleeve was tasked to monitor the work of local artists. Vereshchagin was responsible for the finish of the ship – "good equipment and proper to his Majesty virtuoso." The construction of "Predestination" was carried out from well dried select woods, so the ship has turned solid and durable: he served in the Azov fleet for over ten years and after that for many years was in excellent condition. Launched "sovereign ship" was on 28 APR 1700 in the presence of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, the tsarevna Natalia Alexeyevna, the boyars and their wives, foreign ambassadors and other representatives of the diplomatic corps, government officials of different ranks, specially invited on this occasion. Peter the great blow of the axe severed suderinti under "the goto Predestination". Under the battle of drums and cannon firing new vessel smoothly descended from the slipway to the water. The name " goto Predestination "in Russian meant" God's this is foresight", but on the stern it was written in Dutch so that the meaning of the name was more understandable to European ambassadors and specialists. For reasons of national prestige the construction was carried out without the help of foreign masters. Dutch diplomat van der Gulst told his king William of Orange in the Hague: "Being in Voronezh... we saw the descent of a very beautiful ship built by the king himself with the help of Russian workers. No foreign master made a hand in this matter." Peter himself spoke about the quality of his offspring: "the Ship is" God's Providence " named, what is the proportion, strength and convenience to us to write and reason is not possible, after all our size and labor, and that for believe in reasoning." "Predestination" had excellent stability, well rose on the wave. The length of the ship is 36 meters, width-9.5 m, depth of hold-2.9 m. the Crew was 253 people. On the lower deck was located 26 shestnadcatiletnih guns on the top — eight 24 pounders on the quarterdeck and 8 a three-pound guns. All guns were cast in Russia at the plants Demidov. "Predestination" was part of the Azov flotilla until 1711goda and was the fastest in the squadron Cornelis Kruis. For 11 years, "sovereign ship" shackled Turkey's hostile actions against Russia and was a symbol of rising from the knees of the Russian nation. The enemy chose not to engage in battle with this Russian battleship. In many respects it is the presence of "goto Predestination" in the Black sea has kept Turkey from being hit in the back of Russia. The king failed to negotiate with the Netherlands and England for a military Alliance against Turkey. Therefore, he made peace with Turkey and began a war with Sweden in Alliance with Poland and Denmark. The decision to transfer "goto Predestination" to the Baltic sea for the siege of Stralsund and raising the morale of Russian soldiers is ripe. In July 1711, Peter I ordered his Governor of Azov, F. M. Apraksin translated "Predestination" through the Dardanelles into the Mediterranean sea and then in Kronstadt. Equipped for swimming around Europe, "goto Predestination" received Apraksin's instruction:"to Hurry, but not to avoid the enemy, to act in a military manner with pirates of the Mediterranean sea, so as not to drop the honor of the flag." The Turks prevented the passage of the battleship through the Bosphorus, and Peter did not risk to ignite a new conflict in the South during the war in the North-West and therefore ordered to sell "goto Predestination" and part of the ships of the Azov military fleet of Turkey, to this fat piece to temper her appetite.

"Welcome, Peter Baas!»

On his return to Russia Peter had implemented what they learned in the Netherlands: have found the desired oak forest in the upper reaches of the Oka and the Volga; was an orderly system of waterways to the headwaters of the Volga, it was possible to fuse the forest to the lake, and from there along the Volkhov, lake Ladoga and the Neva river in St. Petersburg. Peter exercised his right the ship's master and issued diplomas to the best students and workers on the Russian shipyards, where he wrote: "Hereby granted the title of master of the famous art of shipbuilding, which is listed first among the mechanical arts because the owner of the certificate can use not only a compass, to draw plans of various ships, and following the General rules not only of all the sea to build ships, but if you want their size to increase or decrease".
In the basins of the rivers flowing into the White sea, there was also a lot of forest, suitable for the construction of large ships. Arkhangelsk is far from neighboring States, and the White sea is completely the inner Russian sea. Construction of warships in Arkhangelsk was also important because the ships built here were sent in the future to the Baltic sea. Difficult for sailing ships, the transition from the White sea around Scandinavia to the Baltic sea served as an excellent school for sailors of the young Russian Navy.
Peter brought from Europe not only labor calluses, knowledge and impressions, but also the idea: to make Russia as strong as the great powers of Europe, it is necessary to adopt from the West everything you need.
...Gerrit Klaas Paul responded to the letter of Peter 19 may 1704: "... April 22 a day from Your Majesty through a Moscow factor of Cincius handed me a sea map of the Black sea with the figure of a single ship, which is declared in three parts — United declares from the other to see the back, and the third front, which Your Majesty himself sakladim and the Builder was... for sending the image of the ship and thank you. The ship is exceedingly fair proportion of the English sample with round spielen". Baas Paul again reminded how they like two contratherm in 1697 in Amsterdam at the shipyard of the East India company built the ship "Peter and Paul" and he added: "This vehicle already went once to the East Indies, and returned safely, stand near the shipyard and equips to a new voyage to kreisiraadio".

de grootvorst

The years 1716-1717, Peter I spent abroad. In Saardam, Peter went to the house of Gerrit Smith of the Cyst, where once lived 8 days. But the old man, having fallen into poverty, worked in someone else's forge. Peter found this blacksmith and told me to call the Cyst. The obstinate Dutchman exclaimed with disappointment: "what to me to the Tsar, I do not want to see him, he still owes me for the apartment!"Peter was told that the old blacksmith, he quickly entered the smithy, hugged the angry old man and asked about his position, generously paid him the old debt, gave more money for the correction of Affairs and in memory gave the silver Cup.
He visited Peter and the shipyard of the East India company, where he once lived and worked. Eva Snellings, wife of Gerrit Baas Fields (deceased and buried 02.06.1710 year at Oosterkerk — Eastern Church chapel), said to him: "Welcome Peter Baas!"The king asked her,' how do you know me?"What eve said,' Yes, 19 years ago, you were so often in our house and ate at our table. I am the wife of master Paul." Peter recognized her, hugged her with both hands and asked for dinner, where he remembered his teacher with greater warmth and talked for a long time with herrit's son Jan (Jan Garrit Pool), whom he knew as a 15-year-old teenager and who, following the traditions of the family of Fields, worked as a shipmaster. The document of the East India company indicates that Jan Paul 11.08.1710 took the place of his father as a master and Manager. By the time he learned to build and windmills, complex structures of the time. From the normal operation of the wind turbines, then, depended the life and well-being of the Dutch people. It is known that king in first visit to Holland extremely interested in these buildings. The first time he saw such a great variety of mills, Peter joked: "That would be something for don Kichatov was here for work." He invited Jan Paul to work in St. Petersburg. The invitation was accepted, but immediately moved to Russia the master failed. 1.11.1720 years of the East India company increases his salary, and 1.7.1723 year shall notify that Ian Paul dismissed. From this moment begins the history of Russian descendants of the Dutch master…
In a letter from Amsterdam to Admiral Ivan Golovin, the main shipbuilder of Saint Petersburg Admiralty, which "together with the axe knocking" on the East India shipyard under the supervision of Gerrit Baas Fields, Peter wrote: "the Place of work, where the source of the Russian Navy happened, was honored to see packie and drinking about Your health in the place: yet bring that to Your mates, in addition to bass and children of the commander no one... Everyone was asking about You at first, and then on protchaya and exceedingly surprised so quick with Your concept and work things; herewith send Your Excellency a tobacco that I bought…»

"De grootvorst" Mill name of Peter I

Jan Gerrit Paul (born in 1682), in 1697, working on the East India Wharf and learning from his father the art of shipbuilding together with "Peter Timmerman Sandanski" and the ten volunteers, were trained by them and the Russian language. So on arrival in St. Petersburg it was easy for him to get used to the new situation, here Jan met old friends-volunteers, who by that time had become noble masters of shipbuilding: Feodosiya Sklyaev, Lukyan Vereshchagin, Gavrila Menshikov and his influential brother Alexander. Many in Russia and compatriots Ian Field worked in the shipyards: J. Cole, R. Bento, K. van Bokoven, I., Willemsen, J. Jansen, J. Brant, W. Woutersen van kolck etc. In the Russian Navy was the Dutch Vice-Admiral Cruys, K. I., shautbenaht (rear Admiral) I. F. Bolcom, J. van RES and many other sailors. In the Admiralty, St. Petersburg has worked more than one hundred shipbuilders and carpenters from Holland, near the Admiralty, and they are settled compactly on the basis of community and occupation. The first Lutheran Church stood in the yard of the house of Admiral kruys and all Lutherans of "German settlement" of St. Petersburg went to it.
Ian Paul did, of course, questions of shipbuilding, but the king has determined it in the first place construction in the Russian windmills more perfect, Dutch type tent. Windmills were necessary in the intensive construction of ships, factories and plants for the maintenance of their construction, for the drive of various machines and mechanisms. Before the discovery of the steam engine remained for half a century, and the gratuitous use of wind energy was a vital necessity. In the Netherlands for a long time and serious attention to this issue. K. Marx wrote in 1836: "there were about 12,000 windmills in the Netherlands that protected 2/3 of the country from being turned back into a swamp."

These mills were used not only for water supply and dehumidifying of the earth in lowlands, and also operated cars and different machines on sawmills, oil mills, in paper, sailing and hemp production; crushed grain, paints, mustard; rubbed snuff tobacco and spices. Interestingly, in the Netherlands windmills had names such as: "Iron boar", "Blind donkey", "Cat", "Old hare", "Falcon", "Zabuldyga", etc.
The mill at Saardam in which Peter took some part, the Dutch called then "de Grootvorst" — "the Great Prince.". Peter Holland nearly scalecia, trying to stop the mill for the wings of the mill and silk factory, clinging to the main wheel was almost lifted into the air, one of the secondary wheels, and only the skill of the Miller, roughly jerked down royals, saved his life.
... Construction of St. Petersburg required a huge amount of materials, especially wood — for houses, bridges, quays, joinery. Sawing wood at the saw mills on the Dutch type save raw materials and requiring less costly, give a cheaper lumber. But the maintenance of saw mills required specialists. Therefore, having mastered the design and construction of eight types of tent mills in the Netherlands from the simplest tjas-ker to the eight-drained bovenkruier, Jan Pol at the insistence of the Tsar was mainly engaged in this in Russia.
In the "Description" of St. Petersburg (1710-1711)" States: "construction on the Vasilyevsky island, against the fortress, over several small houses — three beautiful newly-built Dutch windmills mainly for sawing of logs and planks". The territory of Vasilyevsky island was elevated, so from 1700 until the beginning of our century the island was densely scattered windmills, sawmills, rotating in the Neva wind wings of white canvas beautiful silhouettes decorating its landscape, becoming a noticeable and outlandish feature of St. Petersburg. Later these mills, belonging to the Admiralty, was moved to the Sink. Next to the Admiralty mills there were others. Some belonged to the Treasury, part of Prince Menshikov.
Whole families saw mills were standing in various areas of St. Petersburg, at Okhta, on the banks of the Izhora and the Big Neva, the spit of Vasilievsky island, at the mouth of the Sink; even the Trubetskoy Bolverk of the fortress stood a flour mill. This fortress was like Amsterdam, on the bastions which at that time also stood the mill. From 1720s, the Dutch began to build windmills "on the beach", mainly from the Admiralty side, where there was a strong wind. The saw mill at the large manufactories and metallurgical works have become quite common. Windmills built by the Dutch, grind the flour, "Ter cement", at the gunpowder mills on the island Policeman on "Dutch gunpowder stones twisted" Russian gunpowder. In 1721, a special mill was built in Peterhof, "which will saw and Polish the marble and any meaty stone, except for the wild and strong stone." Ekaterinhof and other places, the Dutch built a water mill for drying of the soil.
... By the end of the reign of Peter I in Russia was built about two hundred factories, factories and manufactories. And until 1917 in Russia about two hundred thousand wind turbines processed 2 billion poods of grain from 4,3 billion. The engravings of A. F. Zubova Petersburg 1717 everywhere one could see the typical Dutch steeples — spires (they were then at least 50) on which the jacks and waving flags as can now be seen in Holland. Most drawbridges have been made with the Dutch, resembling a bent storks, counterweights, painted white (as they do in the Netherlands so far), which lasted until the early nineteenth century. The memory of "Dutch childhood" of St. Petersburg serve as the Golden spires of the Peter and Paul fortress weathervane-Angel and the Admiralty with the Ship, George the victorious at the Summer Palace of Peter, the globe on the Cabinet of curiosities and the ringing chimes of the Dutch churches, the Admiralty and the Peter and Paul Cathedral bell tower. Peter said: "Give me health, God and St. Petersburg will be a second Amsterdam." And he's done a lot for it. Almost everything connected with the sea came to St. Petersburg from Holland. The emblem of St. Petersburg became a ship; the tower, crowned with a gilt ship, and adorns the Royal Palace in Amsterdam.
... For the rest of his life, Dutch master Jan Gerrit Paul lived in Russia and witnessed great historical events. He died in 1762, and was buried in St. Petersburg; his tomb is unknown.

Путь к трону

The way to the throne washed in the blood of the

The ancestor of the straight male branch of the descendants of Gerrit Klaas Paul in Russia was his grandson Jacob (Jakobs Pool), born in 1712 in Amsterdam — the youngest son of Jan Paul. (From the memoirs of grandson Ian Field, Peter Y. Field: "... especially the grandfather, Yang loved her son Jacob. In winter, while riding, he put Jacob between his legs in a sleigh. After walks they both with appetite ate cooked mother erwtensoep " - (*pea soup with smoked bacon). Education and good education Jacob received in the Netherlands in Leiden, knew Dutch, German, French and Russian. This allowed him to make a good career, initially as a merchant in Arkhangelsk, where he headed the Arkhangelsk branch of the Amsterdam firm van Brinen and earned a significant fortune. Then Jacob continued his work in St. Petersburg, where he gained a special favor from the Royal family, was close to the court Of Grand Duke Peter III and became his adviser.
In August 1745 Empress Elizabeth married Grand Duke Sophia Frederick Augustus, daughter of Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, who was in the military service of the Prussian king, to the German Princess Sophia. Converted to Orthodoxy, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst became known as Grand Duchess Ekaterina Alekseyevna.
On 25 December 1761, the Empress Elizabeth fell asleep in the Lord. On the throne, Peter Fedorovich — Emperor Peter III and Jacob Paul, as a Trustee was to represent the interests of the Emperor in Holstein. In 1762 Peter ordered Jacob to the Field to close his business, to proceed to administer the estate in the Duchy of Holstine and construction of the North-East of the channel than he did.
July 6, 1762 the brother of Empress ' lover Alexei Orlov and his drinking companion Prince Fyodor Baryatinsky strangled Peter in Ropsha. The way Catherine to the Russian throne had been washed in the blood. Officially it was announced that the Emperor "died from inflammation of the bowels and apoplexy". Sophia-Katherine wept, after learning about her husband's murder. However, the culprit of the death of the monarch G. Orlov not only was not punished, but for a long time was listed in the favorites. Catherine anyone not executed, sent into exile, no one took names.
But Jacob Paul with the whole family goes to Hamburg. He was married three times. For the first time on Anna Meyer (APPA Meyer) from the Archangel family of Meyer from which he had two sons about whom we have, unfortunately, no data. The second marriage of Jacob Paul with Magdalena van Brinen (Magdalena van Brienen), added to his family five more children. Magdalena died in Hamburg 8.10.1763 years and was buried in the Cathedral of St Lautebush. Petri. In 1766 Jacob bought several estates in Mecklenburg, including "Klutzer Winkel" (between Lubeck and Wismar bays) and lived there in the summer. For the winter the family went to Hamburg, where they had a big house in Wandrahm. In 1767 Jacob marries Judith Schreur van Hohenstein (Judit Schreur van Hoghenstein), the widow of the Prussian court Charles Sarry, for the third time, but in two years he will be widowed again. In the city of Jacob Paul rides four horses, as used to in Russia, that the hamburgers is surprising and curious. From the moment of departure from Russia he lives as a free person without certain occupations and on September 25, 1775 for 63 finishes the life. And the North-Eastern canal would be built more than 100 years after the death of Jacob Fields Kaiser Wilhelm II.

крестник великого князя

Godson Of The Grand Duke

From materials of Dr. Eric Amburger, Heinrich Meyer von Altz and Sven-Rick Fisher it is known that all children Jacob p. Fields, except younger David, were born in Arkhangelsk and St. Petersburg. Paul Arnold (Arnold Poel) was a Mecklenburg court and counsel. He died in lübeck, where he lived following the age of his brother, a merchant, Ian Paul (Jan Poel). The other brother — Paul Rutger (Rutger Poel), named after the grandfather on the line van Bananov a student at göttingen University, was killed in a duel about 19 years old. The Daughter Of Jacob, Magdalena, Paul (Magdalena Poel.1757-1825), married Lubeck merchant and Swedish Consul Adrian Wilhelm Pauli, giving another branch of the tree of Fields. Descendants of the family Pauley in the early twentieth century flourished in the Reich.
The fifth son of Jacob Paul, Peter (Pieter J. Poel), was born in 1760 In St. Petersburg, and the Grand Duke Peter III became his godfather at the universities of Bordeaux, Geneva and göttingen Peter Paul studies history and national economy. Returns to Russia and gets a place in the College of foreign Affairs, where 5 years working as a Secretary and translator in the rank of captain. In 1785, Peter Paul went to Stockholm to look for a more prestigious job. Despite the patronage of king Gustav, when hired for service, he suffers a fiasco on the grounds of religion. The Calvinist Peter Field the Swedish Lutherans did not accept in their society (*from the correspondence graph and the graph of Troitza Oxenstierna). After this failure, Peter returned to Hamburg and lives at his estate "Zierow", which has always been a meeting place for friends. Among them, we see Baron Kaspar Vogt (Kaspar Vogt) and Hamburg Professor Johann Georg Busch (Johann Georg Busch), whose daughter Frederica Busch (Friederike Busch) Peter and married in 1787. With friends he takes a trip to Paris, London and other European cities. (*In honor of his friend Johann Büsch, the street in Hamburg between the Goose market and the Colonnade is Called büsch street). Peter Paul was an adviser to his cousin Peyron, Swedish resident Minister in the lower Saxon district and at the time of Napoleon was sent by oberpresident count Blucher to negotiate with the Swedish crown Prince and founder of the present Royal court, Napoleon's Marshal Bernadotte. The last years of his life, Peter J. Paul has devoted to the writing of memories of his past life and the lives of their parents. (His son Ernst published these memoirs 50 years late). Peter Paul survived his loved ones. In 1821 he dies his wife frédérique, and in 1825 – beloved sister Magdalena Pauley. Died Peter J. Paul 30.10.1837 year at the age of 77 years. In 1929, in his honor, the road to Hamburg — Hamm was named "the Road of the Field".
Children of Peter and Frederica, three dying in childhood. Son of William (Wilhelm Poel) was a successful banker in Amsterdam. Lawyer Ernst (Ernst Poel. 1796-1867) during his studies he took part in the famous Wartburg festival. Then he became a follower of his father in the publishing house "Alton mercury".
Peter Edward Paul (Pieter Eduard Poel. 1798-1850) was a co-owner of the company of the court banker, Baron Bernhardt Stieglitz "Stieglitz and Co." and directed its branch in Odessa, marrying the daughter of Baron Anna Stieglitz. His descendants were later called von Paul, although the origin of the title is unclear.
Gustav Paul (Paul Gustav Poel .1804-1895) received his legal education in 1852-68, he has been the mayor of the city Itzehoe (Jtzehoe). 09.07.1868 year he became the first honorary citizen Itzehoe.
Paul Theodore (Theodor Paul Poel) studied at the law faculty, together with Heinrich Heine, was friends with the poet and 19.09.1824 years, traveling to Germany with him visited the Brocken mountain near Magdeburg, widely known under the name "Bald mountain, where, according to legend, on the night of may the witches come and celebrate your "coven". And now thousands of fans of magic and witchcraft on 30 April every year come to this mountain to celebrate Walpurgis night.
Emma's younger sister Sofia Cecilia Wilhelmina Paul (Emma Poel) founded the Alton children's hospital, and in 1835 the women's hospital for poor people.
In the family in the next generations there were many interesting personalities, some became lawyers and officers. During the two world wars, the family missed many. But today this name is flourishing in Northern Germany.

Часть 2

Part two. Children of the master in Russia

The founder of our Russian line of the descendants of Gerrit-Klaas Fields was his granddaughter of Wendelin Paul (Wendelina Poel, second daughter of Jan Fields), in marriage Zollikofer (Zolikofer) when she married a Dutch merchant, Johann Kaspar Zollikofer who came to Russia in the first half of the eighteenth century (already in 1722 the name occurs in Dutch people shopping in St. Petersburg).
Daughter Wendelin and Johann Zllikofer, too, of Wendelin, married hofmekler of the port of Archangel, of the merchant Johann Fürst (Johan Furst.1728-1806), went with her husband to Arkhangelsk and lived there in 1804. Their two daughters, Dorothea and Anna-Katerina married: Dorothea of Abraham van Brinen, and Anna-Katerina for the pastor of the Church Arkhangelsk Dutchman Albertus of Hoolboom, given two branches of the tree Fields: van Benanav and our Petsev when the granddaughter of Hoolboom Ernestine married Andreas Pets.

Из одной пекарни

From one bakery

The Father, Andreas, August Avgustovich Paehtz (August Paetz. 1746-1819) was born in the town of Weissenfels, formerly owned by the Thuringian counts, and since 1657 became the residence of the Dukes of Saxe — Weissenfels, the side line of the house Saxon electors. Duke Johann Georg Weissenfels is known for the fact that on July 11, 1698 at the masquerade costume festival "Wirt schaft", arranged by Leopold I in Vienna in honor of Peter I, in the company of Duke Eugene savoysky and other celebrities honored the Russian Tsar. And all were dressed in costumes of different peoples of the world. Duke Weissenfels was dressed up as an Indian, and Peter I was dressed up as a frisland peasant. Peter was going from Vienna to go to Venice to study the galley shipbuilding, but from Russia came a message about a riot of archers, and he was forced to return home.
... The city of Mannheim emerged as a trading post below the knight's castle with the poetic name of Weissenfels — White rock and got it's name. The status of the city of Weissenfels has since 1185. Early Baroque three-winged castle, castle Museum, rich paintings in the castle chapel, late Gothic. City Church of St. Mary 15veka, Baroque town hall in 1670 and 1718. Weissenfels is known as an old Shoe-making centre. There is also a Museum dedicated to Shoe business in the city. It presents a rich collection of shoes of all times and peoples, as well as the equipment, which worked as a Shoe Smith. The city is located on the river Saale, flowing into the Elbe, and is part of the German "Saxony — Angalt land."

Rich cultural and historical traditions of this "land". Johann Sebastian Bach created his Brandenburg concerts in the Kitten. In Weissenfels lived, worked as an engineer at the salt mines and buried the famous German poet NOVALIS. Martin Luther (Wittenberg, Eisleben) was born and preached Protestantism in these places. And Georg Friedrich Handel and Georg Philip Telemann, two of the most famous composers of the Baroque era, were born in Galle and Magdeburg. Names Otto von Bismarck, Friedrich Nietzsche, Thomas Münzer, Lucas Cranach and Vasily Kandinsky, one way or another, are associated with the "land of Saxony-Anhalt." And the German Princess Sophia-Frederica-Augusta — is the Russian Empress Catherine II from the kind of Anhalt-Zerbst on the Elbe. Mount Brocken-a symbol of German (according to geine) and, at the same time, an ancient gathering place witches in Europe, recently discovered bronze "heavenly disk" of the Seal — the oldest calendar, high school construction and art design "Bauhaus" in Dessau and other attractions of the land attract Saxony-Angalt attention around the world.
...During the Thirty years war the city was badly damaged, the population decreased from 2200 to 960 people. Since 1764, coal mining has contributed to the industrialization and growth of the city's industry. Weissenfels has experienced an economic boom, developing handicraft production, especially sewing and shoemaking. From mid-1930-ies in Weissenfels was hosted major chemical plants Leuna and Buna.
After world war II, many Shoe companies were nationalized, a new Shoe factory with large production facilities, and scientific organizations emerged. By the end of the eighties, the plant produced 75% of the GDR shoes, which employed more than 6,000 workers. Until 1991, production flourished, but Germany's reincarnation erupted, privatization of enterprises led to the collapse of the industry and the plant that closed. The part of the building was destroyed, and the other is leased. (Well, just like in Russia today!)
... It is known that the mass and organized resettlement of Germans in Russia began with the blessing of Peter I. in 1702 in Germany, his Manifesto was published, inviting to Russia entrepreneurs and artisans on favorable terms and the exact execution of these promises by the Russian government. The most rapid development of trade, as well as the timber industry in Arkhangelsk, marked the "Golden age" Catherine II. On 4 December 1762 and 22 July 1763 was published the Manifest of the Empress, which said that immigrants from the West “may be purchased from my art, remodelista, crafts, and various unknown in Russia machines to access the subjects of the easiest and shortest means to the handling of the lands, to the spread of a house of cattle, the establishment of their own factories, to control all peasant Economics”. From Europe recruited everyone is free to live in the "most advantageous to the settlement and habitation of the human race the most useful parts of the Empire, until the remaining idle".
... August A. Paehtz arrived in Arkhangelsk on one of Hanseatic ships in 1774, during the reign of his compatriot Catherine II. In "Policeman of the narrow-minded book of Arkhangelsk in 1786 — 1788.", which gives the most valuable information on the activities of the urban population of Arkhangelsk and its social structure is written: "...August Avgustovich PEC, 40 years, a native of upper Saxon district of Weißenfels; has bought a house 2-3-41; has a craft – biscuits breads in the French manner; the capital is not declared…»
I always wanted to know what kind of city is this — Weißenfels live there, even our distant relatives. On the Internet websites I saw a wonderful town, beautiful faces of the inhabitants, learned its rich history. By chance, just on another website caught my eye: "...WAGNER, RICHARD (1813-1883), famous German composer, born may 22, 1813 in Leipzig, in the family of official Carl Friedrich Wagner and Johanna Rosina Wagner (nee PEC), a Miller's daughter of the Weissenfels".
Very much greater degree of likelihood, it occurs to me: the same city, the same surname and almost the same profession. On the website www. published three more ancestor of the composer's mother, who lived in Weissenfels since the beginning of the 18th century, and the profession of his grandfather is not Miller (Muller), and Weißbäckermeister — Baker, as my great-grandfather August A. Petz, in 1774 left Weissenfels in Russia. Three matches is too much for just a coincidence! Of course, we still have much to clarify, but I was very impressed by this. Fly Charter flights from one hemisphere to another in planes Packed to capacity, wealthy people and aristocrats from all over Europe, even from Japan to perform any Opera Wagner. Weissenfels ' websites talk a lot about the cultural heritage of The city, its writers, poets, artists and composers.
Not a word is said not only of Wilhelm Richard Wagner, but his mother and his ancestors born in Weißenfels. Warum? – How? After all, not only the Nazi authorities encouraged the performance of Wagner's works, as Hitler was a fanatical supporter of his work, but today, thanks to V. Gergiev, even in Russia revived powerful Wagner. (“Gergiev breaks a storm of applause with his orchestra...” (V. Putin). Although the works of the great composer are forbidden to be performed in Israel, no artist kept the public in such a state of incessant excitement as Richard Wagner. Decades after his death, the debate about him continued unabated. Books written by Wagner's opponents and his defenders made up a whole library. And only the city of Weissenfels does not know the genius of the German people – Richard Wagner.



Rasseyannyi around the world today live offspring "from England and sveyskoy Germans" — archangelica (Archangeliten), mainly consisting of people of German, English, Dutch or Norwegian origin, who lived in the Arkhangelsk (Archangel). During the Viking age this area was known as Bjarmia. In XII century it became a part of Novgorod Russia under the name of Zavolochye; Novgorod ushkuyniki floating on the yard, a Mezen and a Pechora, got here in XI century. The young capital of the North was first named New Kholmogorsky town, and then Arkhangelsk city, the inhabitants thereof became Archangelsk. Subsequently, the city was renamed Arkhangelsk, but the residents still called themselves the old — Archangel. Foreigners called this city Archangel, and themselves archangels. Their history is full of drama. With German punctuality described achievements and achievements of the archangels and how they lived these years in Russia.
Life in the North is unattractive and enterprising people settled here. Their religion mostly was Protestantism; the Protestant ethic according to the main symptoms of election to salvation are the power of faith, labour productivity and business success. German settlement was an energetic island in the stagnant waters of the Russian North. Archangelica built here the spinning and the cable enterprise, erected forges, mills, and established "the kitchens for the heating of the fat of marine animals and leather drying", were bargaining in companies with their own members. So, Mensendiek traded together with the Englishman Arthur Cayley and Edward Legendcom, our great-grandfather, William the leper, Blumenroder (*Arkhangelsk merchant of the 1st Guild, from the Saxon town of Ilmenau) with the Danish merchants A. Becker and Carl Loftus. In the second half of the XVIII century, the city was settled by the founders of dynasties, who left a noticeable trace in the life of Arkhangelsk. Among them, the natives of Hamburg, pastor of the Lutheran parish of Johann Heinrich Lindes and one our great-grandfather — "the Golden arts master" Johann A., Roters, tailor Carl Lors from Hanover, the Saxon Baker August Avgustovich PEC, Johann des Fontaines from Amsterdam and other. At the end of the XVIII century in Arkhangelsk lived 383 natives of Western European countries.
In the 70-ies of the 19th century in a town on the Northern Dvina profit Norwegians Martin Olsen and his friend Carl Stump, Swiss Jacob Lazinger, Prussian citizen A. Y. Surkov, Franz Amburger, Abram Russata, Solomon Penbryn and others.
From simple merchants, they were timber merchants became successful traders and the first men of the city whose names were well-known not only among the inhabitants of the province but of the whole Russia. By 1859 of the 9 merchants of the 1st Guild were five of archangelica: E. Brandt, E. E., F. E. and A. F. Lindesy and E. e Fontanes. The most profitable at that time in the North were shipbuilding, rope production, sugar production (for a short time). In 1880-e years A. Y. Surkov, founded the first brewery, and in 1881 along with Shergold built distilleries and saw mills
In the early 20th century near Arkhangelsk were plants Stuart, Brandt, Classen, Kegostrov — the trading house "Golvin and Guest". The processed wood-sawn into standard boards and bars-was very much appreciated in the West. Operation North woods was engaged in the firm "Bratya PEC", Smolny exports of goods — "Partnership of the Northern zolotarjova", headed by A. Ya. Belyaevskaya, E. F. Lindes. On the eve of the war, in 1913, a forestry firm in Arkhangelsk established a Norwegian citizen F. Prutz. Your funds invested here are well-known in Norway face: the famous polar Explorer, Nobel laureate Fridtjof Nansen, the Baldur, the Swede Olaf O. Vager, K. Brock, A. Hendrichsen, T. Mowinkel and others. A sawmill was also engaged in the Dutch Hoevelaken and des Fontaines and many others.

The energy these people had created a sawmill in Arkhangelsk, Onega and Pechora. Only large capital made it possible to build a large sawmill, expand the harvesting of wood, towing it to the sawmills. And after the advent of the railway greatly expanded the possibilities of realization of production of mills: she could have sent in the Central province. Swedish sawmill company Alfred Lideka operated since 1901 and was located opposite the small village of Ekushe on the Pechora river. Typically, the plant employed 200-350 people, and in the summer of 450 or more. At a distance of two miles from it was the construction of the plant "Stella Polare" partnership Arkhangelsk trading house "Olsen, Stamp and K", founded in 1903 with the participation of Aleneva, A. Scholz, Rudolf K. PEC and other entrepreneurs.
They are not scared of difficulties: severe climatic conditions, remoteness from Arkhangelsk, lack of experienced manpower, lack of knowledge of the marine fairway in the estuary of Pechora and pass through it. Having founded a plant here for only 3 frames, Martin ulsen, with the consent of the Board, soon bought the plant of the Swedish company Alfred Lidbeck for 10 frames. The Association already had its own fleet of 8 steamers, 7 (!) of which were rifle.
The Stella Polare plant at that time became the largest and advanced enterprise of the industry of the Arkhangelsk province. On average, 500 people were employed there. Every year 250,000 logs were sawn. Almost all of the Pechora wood was exported.
On February 4, 1904 the property of Stella Polare plant consisted of the wooden, two-storeyed on the stone base of the building of sawmill plant, machine office, steam room, locks, foundry, two buildings for office and accommodation of employees, the house for skilled workers, the building for hospital and the apartment of the paramedic, three barracks in which lived 185 people, bakeries, shops with storerooms, stables, baths, steam cars, three saws "Bolinder".
By the beginning of XX century descendants of "Germans" entered almost all spheres of social and economic life of Arkhangelsk. In 1909 in Arkhangelsk was opened a branch of the St. Petersburg international commercial Bank, whose Director was F. F. Landman. Members of the accounting Committee of the Bank was also Lurs A. A., and R. K. PEC. The Bank played a significant role in foreign trade.
Hereditary honorary citizen Adolf Scholz was a member of the provincial Committee for presence and led the Arkhangelsk Committee of trade and manufactures; Edward des Fontaines performed the duties of a civil assessor in the order of public charity. In the work of the last city Duma of the total of 21 Vowels 9 were descendants of foreign entrepreneurs. Among them: Rudolph and Edmund Patsy, George Lindes, Emil Brautigam, William Lovelace, James Leitzinger, Yegor Shergold, Ernst Schmidt, Martin Olsen and other archangelica.
Many of them held significant positions in financial spheres, in boards of Trustees of educational institutions and charitable societies, opened schools and high schools with their own money. Board of Trustees and the women's society of the poor half consisted of wives with foreign names. Among them, Maria Lindes, Mary Meyer, Ernestine Schmidt (PEC), Lydia Surkova.
Before the revolution the descendants of the foreigners who have accepted Russian citizenship, were widely used by native States as consuls: W. H. Grelle (Bremen), I. I. Gernet (Hamburg), A. I. Fontanes (Oldenburg), C. Brandt (Dutch, Danish, Bremen, Prussia and Hannover), V. A. Russata (French), E. E. Lindes (Prussia), V. M. Clifton (Mecklenburg), p. P. Dresen brothers and PEC (Danish, British). Representative offices were mainly on the island of Solombalsky, where there was a Harbor for foreign ships. Such a practice of appointment of consuls existed in the twentieth century and even in the first period of Soviet power.
Arkhangelsk is more than other cities, in contact with Western European culture, doing business with foreigners. In the middle of the 19th century in the German settlement was built the building of the commercial Assembly, designed for 1460 people, where meetings and various celebrations were held, which United all the foreigners of the city.

(*Today this most beautiful monument of architecture of the XIX century is announced by guitar sounds and cries "Jesus loves you!", "Hallelujah!"- here the sect "Holy Trinity" of the Union of fifty celebrates the mass).
There were private schools in the city where foreign language was taught along with other subjects. At the end of the eighteenth century a merchant of Arkhangelsk filed a petition for the opening of the city's gymnasium for the "needs of Commerce" requiring "enlightened merchants". (*Known in the merchants P. K. Luers, F. Scholz and K. I. Meyer and many others were educated in Arkhangelsk Evangelical school.
(*Arkhangelsk Evangelical school-private educational institution). Registered in 1811 as a German school at the Lutheran Church of St. Catherine. Opened in 1817 on donations of the Arkhangelsk foreign merchants. The management of the school was carried out by the Church Council of the Evangelical Arkhangelsk companies. The school was a three-year with a 6-year term. It was intended mainly for children of trade and industrial circles of the foreign population of Arkhangelsk. The school accepted boys and girls mainly of the Evangelical faith. The main subjects were Lutheran catechism, sacred history, General history and arithmetic, English, French and Russian; teaching was conducted in German. In 1915 in College was 80 students (40 — Evangelical of religion, 35 — the Orthodox, 2 — Roman Catholic, 2-Jewish) and 13 teachers).
In Arkhangelsk opens the first in the province of scientific historical society and Russia's oldest Museum of local lore, begins book trade, even formed its Masonic Lodge. Here there was a temperance Society, whose activity with cultural-educational work were trying to "counteract the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages." Assessing the role of the North in the economy of Russia, historian SF Platonov rightly said: " the Northern harbors stretched population, trade and labor. Not only did the ways in which the trade-induced movement took place come to life, but the entire areas that worked on those paths or were dependent on them in one way or another. North of the remote outskirts of the state became one of the busiest of its regions. The whole country, in its relations with the cultural world, turned its face to the North."
The visible figure of authority archangelica was their election as mayor. As historical Chronicles testify, the Mayor was elected by city election meeting from among the most honourable persons of city society (nobles, eminent and honourable citizens, merchants of 1st Guild) who owned in the city property for the sum not less than 15 thousand rubles. From 1793 to 1910 this office was visited by 32 people, including 9 residents of the German settlement. Among them mensendiek A., and Brandt. Twice trusted Gorodskaya Duma this post Abram des Fontaines, K. Meyer even three times. And James I., Leisinger was elected mayor four times ! By the early twentieth century archangelica included in almost all spheres of social and economic life of Arkhangelsk. In the last city Duma of 21 vowels 9 were descendants of foreign entrepreneurs. Rudolph and Edmund Patsy, George Lindes, Emil Brautigam, William Lovelace, James Leitzinger, Yegor Shergold, Ernst Schmidt and Martin Olsen.
In the documents of the Arkhangelsk archive we find the "German settlement" and its residents: "...of the inhabitants of the "German settlement" came the dynasties of merchants, factory owners and Industrialists: Claptone, Pezi, Schmidt,Rotary, Desfontaines, Lyursy, Shergold, Hoevelaken, Gernamy, Lindesy, Brandt... Gradually the foreign merchants were able to take in Arkhangelsk key positions. "German Sloboda" favorably differed from other areas. Here for the first time there was street lighting, water supply, electricity and telephone... these are the real owners of the city and the whole Northern region."

Губернатор Вильгельм В.Гувелякен

1910 year. Business people in Arkhangelsk. With the cap in his hand — William V. Hoevelaken. On his left is Walter K. PEC.
And the people of Arkhangelsk sang at this time, such a ditty:
"Lindes cooks meatballs.
des Fontaines sews vests
Clifton street sweeps
PEC sells firewood".
(*The family of Kaftanov was a rope factory, and the ropes were then spread out along the streets).
More than three centuries foreign businessmen of different levels were engaged in business in the North of Russia. Their business acumen, experience and capital played a huge role in the development of the economy of the North.
The activities of the first merchants who settled in the "German settlement" helped to gain strength to local merchants. Creation of common trading houses and joint-stock companies, communication with Western firms helped Russian merchants to master the world experience of trade.
Even in the 1920s the Soviet authorities tried to use the experience of attracting foreign capital. In the Arkhangelsk region was the creation of three mixed companies: Rusangeles, Rossellinis and Russianvegas. The former owners of sawmills in Arkhangelsk and Onega F. Protz, family Vaganov etc. actively cooperated with the Severoles helping to rebuild the sawmill, upgrade the machines, establishing of forest export. However, the difficult state of Russian industry and political instability, the rapid establishment of planned methods of leadership of the national economy, incompatible with the market economy, made Russia an unattractive place of investment of foreign capital. Therefore, all mixed societies in the North were closed by 1930.
History archangelical interesting, multi-faceted, deep and instructive, and not return to it impossible.


Governor William W. Hoevelaken

For two terms, from 1895 to 1903 and from 1914 to 1917 the mayor of Arkhangelsk, was elected and is our kinsman, merchant of II Guild, hereditary honorable citizen of Arkhangelsk, timber merchant William wilghelmovich, Hoevelaken (22.5.1857, Arkhangelsk – 16.9.1930, Hamburg), engaged and active public activity. He was Chairman of the Arkhangelsk orphan's court and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the naval College, a member of the exchange Committee, Chairman of the Committee of the Arkhangelsk temperance societies and of the society for the protection of animals, honorary justice of the peace of the Arkhangelsk province and so on. V. Hoevelaken were awarded gold medals "For diligence"on the Stanislav ribbon "For outstanding work" on the Ann's Protestant ribbon, order of St. Stanislaus 2степени, Anna 3rd degree, sign of the red cross, the French order of "Black star".
... In Arkhangelsk, the February revolution became known immediately, although the local authorities and the chief Executive of Arkhangelsk and the White sea General Fedorov did not seek to inform the population. March 1, 1917, a meeting was held vowel city Duma, headed by V. V. Hoevelaken, where members decided to take the leadership events into their own hands, and by all means contribute to the preservation of order. On 2 March, the workers of the Arkhangelsk stopped the factories, the work in the port and arranged a demonstration. In front of the demonstrators was made by mayor V. V. Hoevelaken and cadet N. A. Elders who announced the received telegrams about the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. After that, the city Duma met for a meeting and formed a "town Council Committee" to manage food business and maintain order. In a special telegram dated March 3, 1917, the head of the Provisional government, Prince G. E. The lions have informed Hoevelaken: "the Provincial Commissioner is the carrier power of the Provisional government in the province, and we assign the rights and obligations imposed by law on the Governor, with the exception of a lapse by the incident in the state system changes ..." Thus, the Provincial Commissioner has now become the first person in the province, and the management of the Arkhangelsk province was transferred to Wilhelm Wilghelmovich Hoevelaken.
Formed in parallel, the Executive Committee of the Board on March 21, the workers appealed to the Petrograd Soviet with the request: "to put on the kind of Provisional government disruption introduced by the Governor Hoevelaken". After the October revolution, Vladimir, Hoevelaken running their forest enterprises and resisted the new government. For example, 9 January 1918, the city newspaper wrote: "In response to the reluctance of the lumberman Hoevelaken V. to raise workers' wages to the newly built sawmill near Arkhangelsk, the Union withdrew all of the workers transferred to other plants. Hoevelaken was imposed boycott".
In 1920, Arkhangelsk stripper with the "revolutionary expediency" of the province from "unearned elements" arrived comrade Felix Dzerzhinsky, one of the leaders of the Cheka, M. S. Kedrov. Wilhelm V. Hoevelaken with his wife Lucie a Frantsevna Scholz managed, like very few inhabitants of the "German settlement", to escape from the Bolshevik traps and settle in Hamburg. But many residents of the "German settlement" came under repression and this will be discussed further…

Из одной пекарни

From one of the bakery (continued)

1775 Arkhangelsk. No. 23 — the house of Johann Heinrich Fürst (our ancestor). № 22-Trinity Church. A fragment of a Dutch lithography.

...Arrived in 1774 in the city on the Dvina river, in 1807, August A. Paehtz becomes Arkhangelsk merchant (recorded – "foreigners"), and in 1800 — elected from the merchants "of salt". In the same year, August Avgustovich Paehtz accept Russian citizenship; simplify the pronunciation and spelling of his name: instead, he leads — just PEC. As such, this name and has reached our days. Soon after arrival in Arkhangelsk August A. PEC married Elena Christianovna Schreiber (1746-1817) "...the daughter of the Danish nation Christian Schreiber of the town of Altona, Duchy of Golshtinia" (*Alton was founded in 1535 as a village of fishermen on the right Bank of the Elbe. In 1664 he received the rights of the city from the Danish king Frederic III. From 1640 to 1864 Altona was one of the most important port cities of the Danish monarchy in the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein. After the war with Prussia, Denmark lost Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia, and Altona became part of Prussia. In 1937 Alton and several other nearby cities were merged with the free Hanseatic city of Hamburg).
In 1777году Augustus and Helen PEC they had two twin girls, Maria and Dorothea. The first daughter — Maria Magdalena married Martin Philippe Rinek, who came from Hamburg, who became the first organist in Ekaterinburg.
Their grandson, Alexander rinek, after graduating from The military medical Academy in 1864, participated in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878, working as a surgeon in a military infirmary. Then for a long time he headed the Department of theoretical surgery at St. Volodymyr Kyiv University, being a Professor and doctor of medical Sciences. The works of the scientist surgeon are listed in the Encyclopedic dictionary Brockhaus and Efron: "* Rinek (Alexander Khristianovich, born in 1837) — surgeon; graduated from the Military medical Academy in 1864. In 1867, for his thesis "to the teaching of the cylinder" (St. Petersburg), he was awarded the degree of doctor of medicine. In 1868 he was sent abroad for scientific purposes, in 1873 he was elected associate Professor at the University of St. Vladimir in the Department of surgery; since 1878 — Professor in the Department of theoretical surgery and hospital clinic, then — operative surgery. In the dissertation, Rinek printed the following: "Clinical and anatomic significance of sarcomas" ("Protocols of the society of Russian Doctors in St. Petersburg", 1867), "the Case handsome upper jaw" ("Protocols of the society of Russian Doctors in Kiev", 1872), "On Sapna tumors" ("Protocols of the society of Russian doctors in St. Petersburg", 1868) "the doctrine of the inflammatory process" ("Proceedings of the Congress of naturalists in Moscow" and "Medical Bulletin", 1869), "On the development of vascular leaf in the Bud trout" (ib.) and other.»)

12 детей

Prfessor rinek's son, Boris Alexandrovich, a track engineer on the TRANS-Siberian railway, together with his family fled from the revolution to Harbin, then to Shanghai, where Russian people lived in their colonies, built churches, schools and shops. The daughter of Boris, Olga Rinek graduated in Shanghai
school technical some College, married an Englishman, came to light girl Daria Natalia Elaine Brandt. But the revolution has caught up with the family of Rinkov in China. It was decided to move to Canada. On the road, "wrapped" in Australia, where lived a brother and a sister Olga Borisovna. "I'll never see them again," she said. In Australia suddenly sick daughter and was in the hospital, money from my parents melted away, and think about Canada no longer had meaning, and remained here. They spoke in the family in English, but the mother, who all her life missed her homeland, the Russian expanses, the Russian sky and the Russian birches, persistently taught the girl the Russian language, constantly reminding that her roots remained in Russia. And Dasha grew up with this idea. With all the moving and the mother and aunt Natalya treasured family heirlooms : documents about ancestors and among them the "baptismal Certificate" in Arkhangelsk Alexander Khristianovich Rieneck, heirlooms, silver, crystal, told me a lot about the kind of Rinkov, Pecev, Desfontaines …
And here Darya Fyodorovna Brandt in Arkhangelsk: meeting with relatives, visiting the Lutheran cemetery and Ekaterinenburg is a tribute to its first organist Martin Rinek and a wonderful performance of several plays Bach the organist. Victor by Raheny in honor of Dasha's great-grandfather.
Then there was a warm welcome in the club "German settlement" with the descendants of Pecev, Hoevelaken and Desfontaines, visit the fine arts Museum and Museum of Small Korlach, as well as an old Russian village. "It is good that in Russia began to revive temples — she says — it is clear that the Northern peasants were very hard, glad to note that the ancient craft of living and a taste for beauty was, and steam room – such a treat!". About difficulties in Russia, about beggars, about the homeless, which she noticed in Arkhangelsk: "it's sad, but there are many in Sydney, they are everywhere, and especially in the United States. So we should not be complacent overseas Paradise." Before parting to the question: "What can you call the most important impression of Arkhangelsk?"Dasha said, "I felt with all my being: here lived worked my ancestors, their spirit, the trail remained on this earth. The roots – live. Perhaps, this and is called kinship with land. I am very proud that it is here in the North that I have met so much heart kindness that I have not found in any other country. Russian sincerity, the warmth of the Russian soul is incredible. The light of this kindness I will take with me !»
The second twin daughter Dorothea Elizabeth married a Dutch Navigator from the city of Emden Hermann Santer. In turn, the daughter of Dorothea and Herman, Hermine Santer married a native of Amsterdam Johann Hoevelaken, the clerk of the company, "Gernet and Klefeker".
Today, their great-great-granddaughter and granddaughter of Herman Wilghelmovich Hoevelaken, flora V. Ambrozewicz lives in Arkhangelsk, Arkhangelsk after the physics and mathematics of the pedagogical Institute he worked for many years in the schools of Arkhangelsk and Pomor University. She is a high achiever of public education, honored teacher of the RSFSR.
The third daughter of August A. PEC — Christina was married to the parade-major Alexander Felkner. Their son Henry (1808-1810) died in infancy. One of his sons – Wilhelm worked as a translator at Arkhangelsk customs and died young in September, 1817, leaving a wife Catherine Ioanovna Lindes and children William, five years and one year old Aug.
... In the first half of the XXVIII century, the competition between Russian and foreign merchants were pretty sharp. And often, the first, taking their goods abroad, were forced to sell them for nothing or take back, as living in Arkhangelsk foreign merchants had relatives or friends in Europe, who deliberately knocked down the prices of Russian goods. In turn, the Russian merchants in the way "of the Germans" at home. Often the foreigner entered the Russian citizenship formally, the calculation to obtain the benefits required by law for Russian merchants. Often the children of such a Russian citizen, brought to Russia, remained foreign subjects. And only the needs of business, accumulated capital, the need to obtain benefits in its use and inheritance forced such a merchant to introduce them into the citizenship of Russia. Archangelica for many years led a secluded life, living in Arkhangelsk close community had its own churches, schools, your type of behavior; Russian marriages were the exception. Looking ahead, I will say that when the son of Andreas of Avgustovich PEC , Herman A. (1813-1900) broke tradition by marrying a Russian merchant's daughter Pelagia Alexeev, and Orthodoxy (what you won't do for love), it stopped taking in families of Lutherans and Catholics, in addition to brothers and sisters. Those, of course, condemned, but helped in every way. And Herman are not in poverty, being a merchant of the 2nd Guild, and some time even the Danish Consul in Arkhangelsk. In the journal of the city Duma on the external improvement of the city for 1890 13 March read: "according to merchant GA PEC about keeping him right on the content Lenskogo the cellar, located in bought their home (belonging to St. Thomas) on Trinity Avenue in front of the Lutheran Church, agreed: Discussed the petition, the order of the Presence of drinking in A. the PEC allowed the right to the contents thereof, the cellar..." And my great-grandfather Alexander A. PEC, according to the "Chronicles of Cleftones" often ran to my brother in the cellar to drink the Lafite or Moselle even to the detriment of their health. In General, the Sands turned out to be related to almost all the names of the "German settlement", and even more than once. Later everyone realized that joint activities would bring more benefits. Began to enter into mixed marriages between foreign and Russian, to create joint ventures and trading houses…
(*In 1970-ies, in connection with the reconstruction of the city center, most of the houses of the German settlement of Arkhangelsk on the present Trinity Avenue was demolished).

12 children of Ernestine, Blumenroeder

The last child of August and Elena PEC Andrias-Traugott (1784-1850) and initiated a large Archangel family of Sands. From early childhood he worked with his father in the bakery, and after his death continued the business of the parent. In 1807 Andrias PEC joined the Russian citizenship, from 1823 to 1826 he was a ratman, i.e. an elected city Council (Arkhangelsk city Duma). In 1830 the Lands enrolled in Arkhangelsk merchant "of the Philistines", 3 merchant Guild, a Baker. From 1838 to 1841 Andrias PEC-judge of the civil criminal court under the city Council. 8 Feb 1808 in the Evangelical Lutheran Church took place the marriage of Andreas-PEC Reception with the girl Ernestina-Catherine Blumenroder (1784-1833) , great-great-granddaughter of Gerrit Fields and the granddaughter of Albertus of Hoolboom that 1 may 1763 became the pastor of the Dutch reform Arkhangelsk district. (*Egbertus Hoolboom.3.3.1730. Deventer-25.1.1776. Arkhangel'sk, vicar of the reformed congregation, representative of the famous Dutch kind Hoolboom father, who is a. Haalboom, in 1383 mentioned in the Protocol of the court of the Hague. The coat of arms of Hoolboom hive with three gold ears on a blue background. The profession of the representatives of this clan of gold and silversmiths).
In the Church of St. Catherine, the core of the parish was constantly changing. First, it was the representatives of the reformed Church of Holland. Then trade people from Hamburg-actually Lutheran. It was added to the British, representing the Anglican Church. It is known that in 1660 to Arkhangelsk arrived first Dutch pastor Willem Costerus. In 1686, merchants from Hamburg built a Lutheran Church here, and the Lutheran parish was headed by Hamburg pastor Schroeder. It should be noted that for the whole period of existence of the Arkhangelsk Lutheran community (till 1929) its pastors were natives of Hamburg. Among them are Johann-Heinrich Lindes (1784-1810). In 1817, with the permission of Emperor Alexander I by the act of November 30, Lutheran and reformed parishes were United into one religious community under the name "Archangel Evangelical Lutheran parish". Lutheran Church of St. Catherine became common.
The Commission for the unification of parishes included and participated in the discussion of the Charter and Andreas-Traugott PEC. The Council of the parish, which consisted of noble foreign citizens (Chairman of the Council — pastor of the local parish) observed the activities of the Archangel Evangelical school. It is important to note that at the end of the 18th century at Lutheran and reformatory Church four schools operated. Russia has managed in practice to resolve the issues of the rights of foreigners, it has not been deprived of his right to inheritance and freedom of personal religion, no violence in matters of faith, remained alone other people's religious beliefs. In 1916, for example, the Evangelical, Anglican, Roman Catholic churches, the Jewish synagogue and the Mohammedan mosque operated in Arkhangelsk along with 30 Orthodox cathedrals. From 65,5 thousand believers at that time 1671 parishioners visited the Roman Catholic Cathedral, 2836 Lutheran Church.
After the revolution, the Church building was nationalized and leased to the community. But most entrepreneurs and Industrialists went to their homeland, and the remaining did not have the funds to maintain the building. In 1929 at the meeting of the parish it was decided to cancel the lease, and the community ceased to exist. The building was used as a youth theater, a canteen for specialists, a canteen for a naval school, and until 1984 there was a sports school. In 1984, at the initiative of the townspeople, the building was converted into a Philharmonic concert hall, where the body of the company shuke was installed. In 1992 there was an attempt to recreate the community, but it failed. Since 1999, the community has again carried out services and is currently engaged on a weekly basis.

Датский консул

"I love the Lutheran Liturgy,
Rite of passage their strict, an important and simple —
Still bare walls, this empty temple
It is clear to me the highest teaching."
(Fedor Tyutchev, 1834)
...Most of the foreign merchant families were crowded. By the mid-nineteenth century arhangelske formed numerous clans of the former foreigners and their descendants. The vast majority of them had large families. The family of Fontaines numbered 12, 13 F. Scholz, Brandt 14 people. It is also characteristic that of the 78 people awarded for their deeds the highest titles of hereditary and personal honorary citizens, half were from abroad. The Lands of Ernestine and Petev had 12 children: 7 sons and 5 daughters. Of these, only one died in infancy, the rest in the next generations significantly increased the family of Sands and family names. Already in the third generation, the family of Sands became cramped in Arkhangelsk, and the most enterprising children of Andrias and Ernestine began to look for places to do their job. The eldest son of August and a fifth — Friedrich remained in Arkhangelsk. The third son William moved to St. Petersburg, and is considered the founder of the St. Petersburg branch of Pecev, most of his descendants worked in the capital in the public service in the postal and financial departments and in the field of education (* news about them very little). The fourth son, Christian, founded Veliky branch, and the fifth, Alexander — founder of my Kem branch. Unfortunately, in this small work the author managed to tell only about the few archangels, and there are still many white spots…

Danish Consul-August Andreevich PEC (5.04.1813-15.01.1894)

This is the eldest son of Andris and Ernestine PECs. According to family tradition he was engaged in the bakery and confectionery trade, from 1874, he became a merchant of the 2 Guild, from 1864 to 1866 he was mayor in city hall, City Councilor, assessor of the order of public charity. In 1879, by order of the Government of the Senate of August A. PEC was appointed Danish Consul in Arkhangelsk. He was an honorary patron of Lutheran Church, and since 1891 – Hereditary honorary citizen of Arkhangelsk with children and grandchildren. August A. PEC was married (20.01.1835) to Hermine Andreevna Norman (1813-9.03.1900) from the city of Emdem (now sister city of Arkhangelsk). Their eldest son Andrew, worked in the office of the Archangel merchant 1 Guild Lyurs. Andriy Pets was ill from early childhood and died at the age of 20, but remained:
"The message of the civil Governor to the military Governor about Andrey's acceptance in eternal citizenship of Russia:
No. 3444. 19 Jul 1855, office 1, Desk 1.
The city of Arkhangelsk Military Governor, the Governor of the civil part
Living in the city of Arkhangelsk Saxon citizen Andrey Avgustovich PEC, according to the petition and for expressing Your High Excellency's consent is accepted in the eternal Russian citizenship by attributing the established order to the capital in his father's local 3rd Guild merchant Aug PEC and because of this the 13th of this July in the presence of the Provincial government he is sworn in.
Bringing about this, the provincial Board has the honor to present issued by your Excellency PEC on may 21, 1855 for the number 1835 ticket for residence in Arkhangelsk.
The civil Governor (signed)
(Attached crossed out ticket No. 1835 of may 21, 1855)
Given free accommodation in Arkhangelsk the local native Saxon subject to the student of Commerce, clerk in the office of the Arkhangelsk 1 of the merchant's Guild Lyursa Andrei PEC for a period up to 1 January 1883.
Signs: summers-18 (p .1837); growth – high; hair, eyebrows – light-fair – haired; eyes – gray; nose, mouth – moderate; chin – sharp; face – oblong; special will-not available".

Was well known in Arkhangelsk grandson of August A. PEC architect Sergey Avgustovich PEC. He graduated from the Institute of civil engineers named after Emperor Nicholas I in St. Petersburg, Russia's oldest institution for the preparation of architectural and construction personnel (*the famous LISI in my time). Having received a rank of the civil engineer and the right to rank of the 10th class of the collegiate assessor, Sergey is appointed the Junior engineer of the Arkhangelsk provincial administrative Committee. In 1907 Sergey PEC – collegiate Secretary, from 1910 he was a titular Councilor. By order of the Ministry of trade and industry of August 10, 1914 he was appointed as a producer of works of the Arkhangelsk port, a staff engineer of the VIII class; December 10, 1916 he was presented for production in the next rank – court adviser. January 2, 1917 Sergei Pets presented to the order of "St. Anne" 3rd degree. On September 4, he was appointed senior engineer of the Arkhangelsk port Administration, at the same time fulfilling the position of city architect. By order No. 289 of September 23, he was appointed senior producer of the Arkhangelsk port, with permission to perform part – time civil service until January 1, 1919. Famous projects of Sergey Avgustovich PEC: house Makarov on Bremen street in Solombala; house V. P. Makarov for retail space in Solombala; Constantine shelter in Solombala; sawmill Valinevich in Maimaxa. As an architect of Arkhangelsk Sergey takes part in a significant event for the city: the design and installation of the monument to Emperor Peter I in memory of the great services of the Emperor in the development of the region.
In Arkhangelsk on the eve of the 200th anniversary of the battle of Poltava began to dwell on the idea of staging a monument to the Great Autocrat. First it was voiced by the Governor Ivan Sosnowski. He said: "for the city of Arkhangelsk, the anniversary of the Poltava victory, as any event related to the memory of Peter I, is of particular importance. Having appreciated with genius insight the exceptional commercial position of the city of Arkhangelsk at the mouth of the mighty river, at the entrance to the open, the only entirely Russian Student sea, Peter, before "cutting through the window" in Europe at the Gulf of Bothnia, opened wide gates for our international trade in Arkhangelsk." The Governor appealed to the mayor Yakov Ivanovich Leitzinger: “nowadays it is rare to acquire for the city of Arkhangelsk for a relatively insignificant price statue of the Emperor Peter the First on the model of the famous (now deceased), Antokolsky... Two statues are cast now in his Paris Studio by accident... after Learning about this, I went to Paris to the nephew of the late sculptor's request, would he at the same time make the order for the third copy of the bronze statue of Peter the Great to Arkhangelsk. The other day I received the answer that the statue could be made and delivered to St. Petersburg in three months for 50 000 rubles... having Spent about 7 000 rubles, it would be possible to build a magnificent monument to Peter the Great, which would be the decoration of our poor artistic constructions of the city.

The pedestal of gray granite (*architect Sergey Avgustovich PEC) was made by monks of the Solovetsky monastery in the quarries of Kondostrov in the Onega Bay of the White sea. On three faces of the pedestal the architect has knocked out four dates – years visit by Peter the great Arkhangelsk (1693, 1694, 1702). Date on the front side (1911) means the year of the monument. The Tsar-reformer is depicted at full length in the uniform of an officer of the Preobrazhensky regiment. The opening of the monument was very solemn, as evidenced by the Newspapers of that time. For example," Arkhangelsk "reported:" 11.30 the procession from the Trinity Cathedral to the monument began. Ahead of carrying decorated with greenery, a wooden cross, which Peter the great made his own in Pertominsk monastery. After the service, took the salute, and then the parade of troops and the passage in front of the monument of the courts of the former on the roads of the Northern Dvina".

In 1920, the Bolsheviks dropped the statue from the pedestal, and in its place built an obelisk to the victims of the intervention. Until 1933, the statue lay on the shore, after which it was moved to the funds of the Museum. In 1948, the monument was reconstructed at its present location – the Northern Dvina embankment historical site of the founding of Arkhangelsk. The monument is shown on banknotes of Bank of Russia of 500 000 rubles of the sample of 1995 and 500 rubles of the sample of 1997 and modifications of 2001 and 2004.
In 1919, Sergei PEC with his wife Iraida Ivanovna and their son Boris went to Murmansk and until 1938 resides at the address: embankment of the red Sports., 14, square 1, working in the Murmansk office of Zhilstrojj, head of the Department. August 30, 1937 Sergey PEC arrested by the NKVD, shipped away to Leningrad, where on 10 January 1938 by the Commission of NKVD and Prosecutor of the USSR condemned under article 58, paras. 6-8-10K death and shot down on 15 January 1938. Fully rehabilitated on 21 March 1989.
...The memory of Sergey Avgustovich the PEC for many years will remain in Arkhangelsk. And today, picking up a 500-ruble bill, we know that the name Pez is invisibly present in it.

Хлебопек и судья

Baker and judge Frederick A. PEC (30.05.1824–28.03.1909)

Continued the work of his grandfather – all his work is somehow connected with bread. Making bread since ancient times was considered a respected affair, as it spiritually and physically cleanses everyone who is involved in it. The process involves all 6 elements: earth, wood, water, metal, fire, air. So the bread, go through all the transformations, is the perfect product that rejects any evil. In the middle ages, the bread oven was allowed only to men, and a woman was considered the object of the wiles of the devil. Frederick A. PEC has been an active participant in the public life of Arkhangelsk: 1863 – he was a judge of the verbal vowel merchant ships and craft Council of bakery shop; 1865– member of the city police Department, in 1872 awarded the gold medal in Stanislaviv the ribbon for wearing on the neck – for service in the police Department; in 1867 Frederick was elected Head artisan bakeries. Friedrich Andreevich was an active participant in the social life of Arkhangelsk: since 1863 he was a judge; 1879-1887 – Vowel of the city Duma; since 1889 – member of the Arkhangelsk city Council. Having two houses to Trotsky Avenue No. 102i one on Uspenskaya street, on may 30, 1879 Friedrich Pets married Elizabeth Vilhelmovna brown (1832-1910). The family had 11 children.

One of their daughters, Ernestine Elizabeth(1851, Arkhangelsk – 1929, Hamburg), named in honor of his grandmother, Ernestine Blumenroeder after the death in Berlin of her husband Geppe Nielsen Schmidt(1828-1897), according to his will received 106.897 rubles and owned by the firm “Geppe Schmidt” with your children: their son Ernest, daughters Esther, Paula and Louise. The Affairs of the partnership managed to Ernst Schmidt and his uncle, Bruno fridrikhovich PEC by proxy family. Ernestina fridrikhovna was engaged in social and charitable activities in Arkhangelsk – the female Trustee society of the poor consisted of half of women with foreign surnames. Then she went to Hamburg, where today lives her great – grandson-Sven Rick Fisher, engaged in a long and serious pedigree of our family. His materials, along with the research of Colonel Arnold Petz, I actively used in this work.
Granddaughter of Friedrich Andreevich, Elsa Brunovna PEC being a landlord (two 2-storey and one 1 - storey house: apartments-6, tenants-33, horses-3), during the 1st world war worked as a nurse in the hospital and was awarded the silver medal "for diligence" on the Annensky ribbon. In 1931, she was arrested, but released. He served in the Archangel Avtoportreta by the controller.On June 22, 1938 Elsa PEC was arrested again by the NKVD and convicted. 8 October 1938, the "Troika" with the NKVD in Arkhangelsk region on charges of "counterrevolutionary agitation" to death. Shot. Elsa Brunovna was fully rehabilitated in February 1956.
Brother Elzy PEC, Boris Branovic PEC, lived 30 years in Pyatigorsk, Russia, working as an accountant Ventresca, together with his wife, Androsova Vera V. was arrested and the "Troika" of the NKVD of the USSR sentenced Ordzhonikidzevsky edge 22.9.1937 years for "counterrevolutionary agitation" and shot. Rehabilitated Boris Branovic PEC 15. 01. 1989.

Granddaughter of Friedrich Andreevich, Elsa Brunovna PEC being a landlord (two 2-storey and one 1 - storey house: apartments-6, tenants-33, horses-3), during the 1st world war worked as a nurse in the hospital and was awarded the silver medal "for diligence" on the Annensky ribbon. In 1931, she was arrested, but released. He served in the Archangel Avtoportreta by the controller.On June 22, 1938 Elsa PEC was arrested again by the NKVD and convicted. 8 October 1938, the "Troika" with the NKVD in Arkhangelsk region on charges of "counterrevolutionary agitation" to death. Shot. Elsa Brunovna was fully rehabilitated in February 1956.
Brother Elzy PEC, Boris Branovic PEC, lived 30 years in Pyatigorsk, Russia, working as an accountant Ventresca, together with his wife, Androsova Vera V. was arrested and the "Troika" of the NKVD of the USSR sentenced Ordzhonikidzevsky edge 22.9.1937 years for "counterrevolutionary agitation" and shot. Rehabilitated Boris Branovic PEC 15. 01. 1989.
Today, Bratislava is home to the granddaughter of Boris BRONOWICE, Marina S. Shapiro – Toe with his son Michael, which tells about the life of his family: "My grandfather, Boris Branovic PEC, was shot in 1937, in Pyatigorsk, as an enemy of the people (documents on his shooting and recovery, we received only at the end of 1991). Grandmother was left alone with two children, my dad was 14. Lived them hard. With 1941 until the end of war my father, Sergei and his brother Vadim were on front. After the war, dad was sent to study at the Leningrad military Academy. But 1949 was excluded as the son of the enemy of the people, without the right to study and work. My parents have already returned to Pyatigorsk with me. Lived in dire poverty. Dad arranged for temporary work, led the photo circle, then drove the pioneers to the mountains, then led the watch of physical education at the Institute for other people's documents. After some time, it still was accepted to study in medical school, where he graduated with honors.
Several times he tried to go to medical school, but even his documents did not take. And only in 1958, when he was 35 years old, he entered the Institute and was one of the best students. My parents divorced when I was 6 years old. But dad loved me, and we spent much time together, and most importantly understood each other. He was a man with an innate inner culture, had a living mind and a good heart, such people never raise their voice, under any circumstances they can find a zest in life..
I loved my father, and that's why I thank you for writing about his family. I also (probably like everybody) life was not easy. The school graduated in Pyatigorsk with a gold medal. Immediately after school he entered the MIPT. After graduation she worked in Moscow. My husband, Victor Shapiro, too, graduated from MIPT and a PhD. He is a man of exceptional ability, but a Jew. And after graduate school, he couldn't get a job for six months, because anti-Semitism in socialism, as you know, didn't exist. We did not have an apartment in Moscow, and we rented different housing. I worked in a closed enterprise, and my husband finally got a job in some small firm, a bad job. After 20 years of marriage, we split up, my husband immigrated to Israel. There went my eldest son, Matthew, in 1991, when he was 21 years old.
In the same year I went to Czechoslovakia with my youngest 10-year-old son, Misha. By that time, I had already worked in the field of computer software, and my project was bought by a Slovak firm. Now the sons are independent. I am retired, but I have my own small firm, which brings a good income, but requires constant work. However, I travel a lot, been to different countries and still wonder how it happened.
I could never have dreamed of such freedom and such opportunities.”

на секретной службе

Her Majesty's secret service.

(*The secret Intelligence service (ICU), often known as MI6, provides her Majesty's Government with global covert capabilities to protect the national security and economic well-being of the United Kingdom, and collects foreign and foreign intelligence for the UK.
Our distant relative "Harry" (Henry) Lambton Carr was one of the creators and most respected veterans of the SIS – Secret intelligence service of great Britain. For many years, he has been the face of British intelligence and an expert on Nordic ICU issues. We don't know whether today in honor of him a memorial plaque on the building of the headquarters of the British intelligence service at Vauxhall Cross in London, but Harry Carr is certainly worthy of this honor.
He was born in November 28, 1899 in Arkhangelsk in the family of Archibald Carr, Manager sawmill English firm Stuart & K. Archibald, his wife Ella (*nee Schmidt, daughter Ernestina PEC) and their children Edward, Henry, Ella and Gladys lived in a large house on Mosey island, where in addition to the tennis court was about half a dozen horses, pigs, sheep, goats, chickens, and even 3 bear. Adults and children actively engaged in sports: sailing on Dvina, playing tennis a lot, and in winter hockey, skating and cross-country skiing
Among foreigners in Arkhangelsk at that time, it was customary for children of a certain age to send them to study in their parents ' country of origin. In 1911 Harry Carr went to study in England and was educated in Hertford, 20 miles from Central London, Hejliberi (Haileybury College), where he was the pride and captain of the undefeated College teams in Rugby.
Harry was able to return to Arkhangelsk only when the British government sent the Northern Russian expedition corps (NREF) there in August 1918, where he served as Lieutenant Harry as an interpreter at the headquarters of commander General William Ironside. When the war on the Western front ended September 27, 1919, the evacuation of the NREF, family Karrow left Arkhangelsk together with the English troops.

1918 year. Arkhangelsk. Lieutenant Henry Carr (3rd from left) at the headquarters of commander William Ironside(far right).


Returning in England, Harry Carr on recommendations former English Vice-Consul in Arkhangelsk George W. Weisman was sent on service in the English exploration SlS. In March 1921, in London, at the Ministry of foreign Affairs, he took office as head of passport control in Helsinki, where he remained in that capacity until 1941, when Finland declared war on England. Helsinki was at that time the center of anti-Soviet activity. Savinkov, Kutepov, General Anders, Stepan Bandera, such famous personalities as Riley, Lockart and Paul Dux, were Harry Carr's closest colleagues. He was secretive and reserved person, whose work was known only to his closest colleagues.
Harry Carr established during this period, good contacts with the Finnish intelligence. The advantage of it was that he spoke fluent Russian and Swedish and was a very good tennis player. Carr correctly assessed the situation during the Finnish-Soviet war of 1939. The hour come for him in December 1940, when Harry Carr got the information (*for which he is guaranteed a place in the history of SiS) on the plan of Nazi Germany to attack the USSR in 1941. Using Churchill, these figures were on the table, Stalin in the Kremlin. James bond is resting!
In 1941, Harry Carr was transferred to Stockholm, where he served in the British diplomatic mission, the center of anti – Hitler intelligence until the end of the war, for which he became CMG-knight of the order of the SV. Michael and St. George, having received it from the hands of king George VI, which in 1945 was a rare honor for the scout. In London, he returned to head the Russian-Scandinavian Department of British intelligence. Under his leadership, special units focused on the Soviet Union were established in all Northern European capitals. During this period, he worked closely with Kim Filby, who is known to be a traitor. In 1950, Carr coordinated the work of British and American intelligence in Washington. Among the many conferences of British and American scouts, which was attended by Philby, one remarkable-in February 1951, where Harry Carr arrived to coordinate the operations of ICU and CIA in the Baltic States. As the traitor Philby recalled, " the visit ended in complete failure. Carr and his colleagues at the CIA have accused each other, and quite rightly, of lying during the conference." Although this statement is often referred to by Philby, it is nothing more than misinformation. After retiring, Carr asked a CIA officer who was present at the conference to Express his opinion on Filby's statement. Both agreed that the atmosphere of the meeting was very cordial.
In 1955, Harry Kara was sent for three years the first Secretary of the British Embassy in Copenhagen.
When in 1961, Harry Carr retired, he had received offers to write her memoirs, from which he always politely refused.
In 1988, Harry Carr died in a private sanatorium in Hindhead, Surrey surrounded by memorabilia of his life. From his Russian childhood with him has always been paintings, icons and pictures, among which his favorite Norwegian girl (who later married a British Admiral) and Troika pulled by three Teddy bears, which his father kept as Pets. There were also his school photos and his rugger (*Rugby) cap from Haileybury; plenty of tennis trophies won by Harry during his stay in Finland; the book of historian Oliver Warner about Mannerheim with an inscription, and the book of Finnish authors who were dedicated to him personally.

Meticulous sense of security, Harry was proverbial. The recorded comments of his tape to Spycatcher were poisonous and he was relentless to the traitors Philby, Donald McLean and guy Burgess. Especially Harry hated Kim Philby, a betrayal which led to the deaths of many, famous for the Karoo people. These traitors have seen late, realizing that socialism in the USSR is not built the one they dreamed of in Cambridge. In Russia, Filby drank like a horse, his accomplices did not lag behind him.
The obituary of Harry's death, Kara published by leading British newspaper, about him in the West, written books and articles. The author of one of them noted that the London home of British intelligence Asa Harry Carr was full of things reminiscent of his childhood and youth in Arkhangelsk.
Surprisingly! In our genealogical tree have PEC and Ernestine PEC – grandmother of Henry and Teddy Carrow and they themselves, and the profession, Henry is designated as a diplomat. About his work in SIS none of us knew, even Arnold Petrovic PEC, who was in England visiting Edward Carr with his wife and daughter and correspond with him (*these letters in English and Russian are in my archive), and he did not even mention the profession brother. Here are some phrases from Teddy's letters:
The Friary
Old Windsor, Berkshire
SL 4 NS 2
Dear Arnold! I still need to thank you for your letter and for the documents attached. Please forgive me for not answering for so long. I think you know what I'm almost 95 years old and now I am very quiet move! (*Edward Lambton Carr died at the age of 98 on 16.03.2001). I was very interested to read the story of the PEC family. I am sorry that there is no more opportunity to speak Russian. With Yura (*Yuri Georgievich PEC) I always spoke in Russian by phone. My wife and sons don't know a word. I and himself very much forgot. As I promised, I'm sending you the details of the Carr and Schmidt families. I'm sorry they're in German. I got them from my cousin Sven Fisher, the great-grandson of Martha Schmidt. He lives in Hamburg and often flies to Russia and even Siberia, but he does not know the Russian language. Yet he does not fly to Arkhangelsk. We read in the Newspapers that you have a terrible cold (*05.03.1999), at least in Moscow. Arkhangelsk frosts I remember, but then I was a boy and it was absolutely pleasant. There is a lot of rain in England. I'm also sending you a copy of my grandmother Ernestine Friedrichovna PEC's photograph. Thank you for sending me the details of the PEC family. I remember the Ville and ADU PEC (*William and Adolph, sons of Rudolf PEC) here in England when they came to visit Edmund and Esther des of Fontaneau. I'm sorry I'm so bad at writing in Russian. Unfortunately, you do not have practice today. My brother died already ten years ago (*Henry Lambton Carr died 19.03.1988 year), and here, in our village no one says La Russe. Sometimes I correspond with Eugene Fraser (nee Scholz), makes up stories of the book "the house by the Dvina". She lives in Scotland. From it I received this book in Russian (translation). I think, that now I would not learned Arkhangelsk. We left there in August 1919, when I was 15 years old, and I have not been there, only in Latvia, Estonia and Finland. When we moved moseeva of the island to the city and lived on a side street near Trinity Avenue, my mom would take us to our old great-grandfather Friedrich A. the PEC. Grandpa Fritz was very fond of us. In his house there were always many children from other families PEC, it was noisy, but my grandfather liked it. I remember a very delicious cake and chocolate in the cups. We still have a silver plate, donated to her mother's silver wedding by her mother – grandmother Ernestina. The Ernestine and Geppe Schmidt had 5 children: Ernest (married Lucia Lindes, they had 6 children, at the beginning of the 1st world war he was exiled to Yeniseisk, and died in Arkhangelsk in 1917), Esther (married Edmund des of Fontanese); Ella (our mother, married to Archibald Carr) and Paula (married Herman Hoevelaken). Gappe Schmidt himself, our grandfather, died in Berlin and was buried in Denmark. To school in Arkhangelsk I didn't go. I remember that we came to the house Russian teacher Theodore S. Chistyakov. Perhaps he was a good teacher, as I can still write in Russian after 84 years! (It doesn't matter! )
My cousin Edwin Schmidt has left Arkhangelsk with us and had.a job in London before I went to Germany. With this letter, I'm sending you details about the families of des Fontaine's and Schmidt. I wish you the best and most importantly health and happiness. Edward Carr".

ангелы исчезли

The angels disappeared, and the crosses were separated

Two sons Andreas and of Ernestine PEC, August and Friedrich, were linked not only in life (commercial interests and social life), but also after it: on the walk of Pecev for Lutheran cemetery, their monuments and monuments of their descendants were located opposite each other, and monuments line Aug were all of white marble, and the lines of Friedrich – of black polished granite.
Over well-groomed graves sadly bowed stone angels, specially ordered abroad. But I never saw the complete defeat stood in the cemetery angels disappeared, and the crosses carried off and sold as non-ferrous metals, nearly all the monuments mutilated, dumped in the mud or removed from the base and lying half-buried in the ground, the plate is dropped face down, shattered, or broken to pieces. What had to be monsters, so to desecrate the memory of people who never wanted and don't make Russia the evil!
Cemetery mutilated by local vandals, and this was done with the obvious connivance of the city authorities and not adolescents, and adults, and created the Lutheran cemetery in Arkhangelsk it was in 1793, and until 1917 was in order. In Soviet times, the cemetery several times equated with excavators and buried at this place again modern Arkhangelsk. (*20 years ago in königsberg, I saw on the old German cemeteries ugly picture of the monuments were dug up, knocked the German legend, put another plate and transported to the cemetery of new settlers).
That is the picture I saw of flora V. Ambrozewicz, née Lovelace. Her grandfather, Herman wilghelmovich, Hoevelaken, managing Kem sawmill and in 1938 the NKVD executioners, was here thrown into a common grave. Descendants of the Russian Germans, who once lived in Arkhangelsk, cleared the site in front of the former necropolis of the Shergold family. Necropolis washed, on the walls hung signs with the names of immigrants from the German settlement, laid paths, broke flower beds.
It took six years to create the memorial. The action was partially financed by The German charitable organization "house of the Motherland", sending three thousand euros.The names of the Russian Germans – those whose gravestones were found in the cemetery, and those who were shot without trial and buried in a common grave – were carved on the walls of the necropolis. On plates of a memorial from our sort names of the architect of Arkhangelsk Sergey Avgustovich Pets and the General our Patriarch – Saxon Baker August A. Pets who lived in Arkhangelsk till 1819 are beaten out.
Now visitors at the entrance meets a sign with the inscription:"a Monument to the memory of immigrants from Europe, the will of the fate of those caught up in the Arkhangelsk region from 18 to 20 century."
At the end of August 2004 the memorial was opened. Flora V. with pride and with tears in his eyes he looked at the monument, it was surrounded by many like-minded people. Creation of the memorial United not only descendants of immigrants from the German settlement of Arkhangelsk, but also other citizens. Now every spring the Russian Germans of Arkhangelsk go to the memorial of their ancestors.

медали и орлы

Medals and eagles of linen cloths

In 1843, fast on the river Lapinka, 25 miles from the city of Veliky Ustyug, Arkhangelsk merchant Peter Karlovich Lyurs, married Carolina A. PEC, with partner James by Gribanova founded in Krasavina mechanical flax-spinning factory and a linen factory. Managing Director of the enterprise Lyurs invited his brother-in-law Carl Andreevich PEC (1827 - 1893) – fifth son of Andreas and of Ernestine of Parev.
In 1848, at the famous Irbit fair in the Urals paintings factory Lyurs were instantly sold out. Krasavinsky factory was the first in Russia, using the experience of leading in the textile industry and textile machinery of England and to use mechanical spinning machines and looms. Krasavinsky factory widened, increased production of linen fabrics, bathed the new equipment. And what if the exhibitions did not participate, the factory is everywhere accompanied her success. In 1867, the beautiful paintings were awarded a Gold medal at the world industrial exhibition in Paris. In 1876 in Philadelphia at the world trade and industrial exhibition products factory was awarded a bronze medal in 1878 and a silver medal at the world exhibition in Paris. And for the quality of products factory received the highest award of Russia - the right of the state emblem of the Russian Empire on the product twice: in 1870 at the trade and industrial exhibition, held in St. Petersburg and in 1882 at the all-Russian art and industrial exhibition in Moscow. Since then, the labels of the factory products, all its promotional booklets, forms of business and private correspondence of the owners, its representative offices and offices in different cities of the country and abroad were decorated with two double-headed eagles.
Good command of Krasavino with lepadella Carl A. PEC. And he was in Krasavino Trustee Arkhangelsk merchants of the 1st Guild, "Clark sons". And everywhere had time and knew his business well. In 1874 Karl PEC with his wife and children joined the Archangelsk merchant class of the 2nd Guild. His family had 10 children.

немецкие погромы

The German pogroms

The second son Karl Andreyevich Rudolf Karlovich PEC (14.09.1858-1932) was the most prominent figure in Arkhangelsk, and, perhaps, the most enterprising and secured from all Arkhangelsk Sands.
He was a shareholder of several companies: "the Stella Polar" brewery Sebald in Veliky Ustyug, the trading house "Amosov, Gernet and Co", the owner of which he became in 1912, transforming it into a joint-stock company "Rudolf PEC and sons." In addition, he built his sawmill there and in Mymax, three 2 – storey houses for himself and the sons of Wilhelm and Adolf.
At the age of 26 Rudolf married his distant cousin Dorothea Vilgelmovna, Hoevelaken (1857 -1915). In the family were born five children. Rudolf Karlovich was elected Vowel of the city Duma, and from 1884 to 1888 he served as a friend of the Director of the Arkhangelsk city public Bank. By decree of his Imperial Majesty of 17 January 1912. Rudolf PEC was awarded the title of personal honorary citizen of Russia.
In 1912, for his silver jubilee, Rudolf and Dorothea PEC with his daughter Lucie has made a tour of Germany: Hamburg, Berlin, Baden - Baden, Bavaria, the Alps. People lived well in this blessed country. Germany, created largely with the help of Russia under the benevolent neutrality of Alexander II, was, if not an ally, then a very close state for Russia, it has always been a friendly country. Such she and was until 1914 year.
The first world war and the ensuing second world war is complete madness, precisely because Russia was at war with the German Empire. It was a totally insane, totally incredible war, it was a war that wasn't supposed to be. Russia before the revolution was economically healthy and wealthy, it is a European, civilized country, is rapidly moving forward, what its undoing. Followed by: 1st world war, February, October and the subsequent turmoil continued in Russia to this day.
Since the beginning of the war, 300,000 Germans have served in the Russian army. Despite this, "internal Germans" are declared enemies of the Russian Empire. On February 2 and December 13, 1915, "liquidation Laws"were adopted. German land ownership in the strip 150 km from the Western border and in the black sea region are eliminated. In the future, it is planned to extend this law to other areas, up to the Urals. After the defeat of Prussia the armies of Samsonov and Rennenkampf in 1915 in Russia, a wave of German massacres. Here Prince Obolensky, the mayor of Petrograd, says Prince Troubetzkoy, that would be nice to have a good German pogromchik: "Concerning the Germans, radical measures are needed. It is necessary to take away any property – houses, estates, trade enterprises and capitals". The same opinion and "Union of the Russian people", demanding to save Russia from foreigners. How this can help the country to get out of the crisis is unclear, but these people are not alone in their opinion. It is forbidden for a long time German speech, even in Church, German children are not allowed to go to school. Complete insanity! Violators are subjected to significant penalty to three thousand roubles or three months ' imprisonment. The performance of music by German composers is considered to be a non-Patriotic act. The settlements, which bore the German name renamed. Petersburg renamed, accurately demoted, in Petrograd. Scientific society excluded from its membership of scientists of German origin; terminated business cooperation with the Germans; the boycott of German shops and stores in Moscow is becoming a ubiquitous phenomenon. Moscow workers demand dismissal of the German employees. The consciousness of the layman is gradually imbued with the idea of a hidden German threat emanating from the German neighbor, the German employer, the German, in General as an internal enemy. The ground for mass psychosis matured-it was only necessary to"bring a match". Pogroms are accompanied by arson. On the night of 28 may in Moscow, is 150 fires.
Our cousin Nina Edmundovna Lindes-Pilecka describes a pogrom in Moscow 26-29 may, 1915, to witness which she was herself: "...great multitudes of people, carry a portrait of the king, singing "God save the Tsar!” In another place banners break the window with the singing of “God save the Tsar!"...we can't drive. And the crowd is kind of amazing, all, all glasses or keep lornette, or pince-nez on his nose, or binoculars, a telescope, a word, a miracle! It turns out that just as the night began to crush in Moscow, all German stores and businesses, and we hit the crowd at the shop “milk & Co”. Then it was even worse – in the shop factory “Zindel and Co”, the largest textile company, took away the matter. From the second floor pieces of velvet, silk, lace were spread down. In the music store, “Zimmerman” were thrown from the second floor pianos, and they, as living beings, with a groan broke on the pavement. Said that the pogrom was organized by the Union of the Russian people, far-right party, with the connivance of the police, and used punks, hooligans! I stayed then in a luxury hotel on Petrovsky lines-and it's like our Foundry Avenue, in the sense of selling books. When I went out in the morning, the whole, the whole street, so 50 centimeters was covered with torn books, and some were digging them with sticks in their hands..." At the conclusion of the authorities, the riots were attended by about 100 thousand people. 40 Germans were wounded, three killed. The anti-German press campaign is gaining momentum.
People in the German settlement of Arkhangelsk thoughtful, although Rudolf Karlovich PEC felt fine: a sawmill, a house, a large garden with a greenhouse, where Dorothea Vilgelmovna even growing pineapples and grapes (the heat from the boiler enough), the best horses in the city, respect in the society. The October revolution, the "Soviet audit" in the province, searches and arrests of wealthy people approved the family's decision to leave Russia.
On April 5 and July 28, 1915 the Arkhangelsk merchant society welcomed appeals of the Moscow merchant society and hastily the organization Amateur Russia created in 1915 led by the editor of the magazine "Historical Bulletin" B. B. Glinski : “ the Germans... before the war flooded our country with spies, covered with a network of colonies and through its commercial and factory enterprises transferred our money to themselves, enriching Germany and pillaging Russia” and calls “to the full the fight against German trade with sessile to friendly boycott of German goods”, to take all measures to facilitate the transition of ownership in Russian hands. Head of the Arkhangelsk merchant society H. N. Manakov spoke “for the evacuation of those exporters who are fed on German money. Unless they cared about the interests of Russia, since they only yesterday received the Russian citizenship…”
The discussion of this issue at meetings of the society have met with strong opposition from the merchants of foreign origin. Speaking on behalf of Lutheran, Walter Karlovich PEC said, in particular: "We have settled here since the time of Peter the Great at his invitation and now, as truly Russian people, we wish to be useful…»
Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, a large group of Germans who did not have Russian citizenship were deported from the city.

белый север

white North

With the arrival of the Northern troops of the Entente Rudolf Karlovich PEC transferred the main part of capital in foreign banks, and his son Wilhelm, after sending his wife Alice des Fontaines with her daughters Renate and Eleonora in Hamburg, went off to fight in the army General Yevgeny Karlovich Miller, who said: "the Orthodox faith, Motherland, family — these are the three pillars on which the Russian people were building their lives, their country. And it Soviet authorities declared a merciless war. In my soul now live three feelings-boundless hatred of the Bolsheviks ruling Russia, hope that I will have to participate in the overthrow of their power and faith in the coming revival of Russia."
During the war in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk has accumulated a lot of British military goods. The British sent an expeditionary force to protect their stores of uniforms and weapons. The war with Germany has not yet ended, and the Germans could strike at the Murmansk from Finland. The British and took to help the Russian allies push the Reds for Petrozavodsk and Vologda. The troops of the White North were already shelled and acted confidently on all fronts. In Pinega guerrillas were so fiercely adjusted to Bolsheviks that the commander of the 8th regiment decided to post the brochure on the humane relation to prisoners. White guerrillas bore the brunt of the struggle.
They went on reconnaissance to the rear of the red, and in the fighting in a fierce fighting with bayonets. By its qualities, the Northern army approached the old pre-revolutionary army, the difficulty was the lack of officers. In the second half of June 1919, the governments of the United States, France and England decided to withdraw their troops from the Russian North. General Miller tried at least to delay their withdrawal, asked the allied command to supply the white army with weapons, ammunition and food. Miller received a telegram from Kolchak, which gave him every right to decide the fate of the troops. In response to an offer by the allied command to evacuate white troops, Miller refused to take out Russian soldiers and officers, making a very risky decision: to stay in the Northern region “regardless of the withdrawal of the British.” Leaving, in the eyes of Russian soldiers and the population, the British spoiled and burned airplanes, drowned in the Northern Dvina cars, shells, ammunition, food, justifying the fact that the property will fall into the hands of the Bolsheviks. As a result of this policy, the Russian army lost stocks of military equipment and food. 27 September from Arkhangelsk sailed the latest foreign ship. Allies have provided Russians themselves deal with his the fate of. Care allies caused a sharply negative attitude of the officers, the British were accused of treason. Trying to organize counteraction to forces of red Army, in Arkhangelsk hastily pass the next mobilization of prisoners of war. To the front are thrown, the city militia, intended for almost all who could bear arms. Many have agreed to wear a green cap and overcoat English sample, girded cartridge pouches – Bandolera with a solid supply of rifle ammunition.
There went representatives of the city Duma, Union of the intelligentsia, Zemstvo leaders, who could write leaflets and to speak to the soldiers. The city urgently organized the collection of parcels, Newspapers were full of thank-you telegrams from the front for this help – evidence of the unity of the front and rear. Miller's regiments liberated from the red a huge area in the basins of the rivers Pinega, Mezen, Pechora and already walked on some counties of the Vologda province. The left flank of the northerners were bound to Pechora, and the right to the border with Finland. However, in the early 1920 red threw the liberated forces from other fronts for the army of General Miller. Things got worse, the discipline of the troops fell. Miller's army retreated to Murmansk, throwing boats, planes and tanks. The men fought desperately, but the tremendous numerical superiority of the red, their heavy artillery and betrayal of unreliable parts did their job — the front was broken.
Unfortunately, there was no idea in the White army, for which the people would have followed, the idea of the Orthodox monarchy was compromised by the liberals before February 1917. But the Reds fooled by the Bolsheviks, the idea of a worker-peasant Paradise on earth (first in Russia and then worldwide) was.
By that time Wilhelm PEC was in Karelia on the instruction of the command, it was too late to go North: the local peasants looked at the white wolves, and Arkhangelsk and Murmansk were already red. But Wilhelm Rudolfovich and his two friends were lucky enough to cross the Finnish border on skis. His path to the family in Hamburg was full of hardships.

красный архангельск

Red Arkhangelsk

In 1920, in the Arkhangelsk province again came the Soviet power, and with its coming began the massacre of those who were not with her, and wealthy people lost their factories, courts, and a large part of the houses. The charges against the "Germans", as well as the Russians, were applied standard: service in the white army, counter-revolutionary activities. Immediately after the capture of Arkhangelsk was arrested and sent to a Moscow prison Gustav-Georg F. Lindes. His fate is unknown.
During the interrogation in gubchk in the case of trade Union Rudolf Karlovich PEC showed that before the revolution of 1917 had two houses in Arkhangelsk, was a member of the Board of the partnership he created “Rudolph Toe“. For many years before that he worked as a timber mill Manager P. Amosov, was a companion of this enterprise. In his own joint-stock company, his comrades were two brothers: Augustus and Walter. Then Rudolf Karlovich was convicted "... as a member of the industrial Union under the power of whites, who made donations to the 5 million Fund of the fight against the Bolsheviks", but was released by lucky chance and went to Germany to his son William. At the end of the 20s, the archangelite Church of St. Catherine, which was visited before the revolution, including a significant number of Russians, by up to 1,000 people, was closed down. A letter from a former resident of Arkhangelsk A. brown, who managed to leave for London in August 1920, reproduces the General situation in the city. Almost immediately after his arrival abroad he was reported by his relative A. Lurs in Hamburg: “ Shortly before our departure the repression has become particularly violent. The names of those who were shot were announced." Among them, he named Walter Petz, S. Alexandrov and others. Many inhabitants of the German settlement and just General acquaintances were arrested: V. Witt, A., Scholz, E., Pilak, B. Shergold... Telling your recipient about the unexpected death of Edgar K. PEC, the author of the letter said philosophically: “This wonderful death saved him from the miserable existence that life is not called”. He also said that “none of the foreigners did not want to stay here for the winter.”
Walter Karlovich PEC (17.07.1874-1920) – the third son of Charles A., was married to Anna Sergeevna Soborski. Together with his brother Edgar Karlovich (1863-1920) on the island "Forest cat" (Small Habarka) against the Straw in 1908, they build a sawmill and open their company "Brothers Pets", which took a strong place among the timber industry of Arkhangelsk. Traced close interaction of their firm with the firm "Rudolf PEC and sons", which ensured both the success of firms in the forest industry of the North. Edgar Karlovich in 1896 enrolled in Kem 3 merchant Guild, then became a "selling farmer", as my great-grandfather Ingvar PEC (*it's easier with taxes), had his home in Arkhangelsk, in Finland, street No. 8, adjacent to the house of Rudolph. Edgar and Walter died in 1920, Edgar from a heart attack, and Walter, arrested on June 1, 1920, and convicted by the Arkhangelsk Gubchek for "anti-Soviet agitation, counter-revolutionary activity and service in the white army" was shot among the first 50 hostages from the merchants, clergy, intellectuals and officers of the Royal and White army. Walter Karlovich PEC was fully rehabilitated on June 2, 1992.


Brazil, Brazil

Daughter Of Rudolf Karlovich PEC, Gertrude (21.05. 1889-7.08.1959) married the lawyer Vyacheslav Yakovlevich of Leuzinger (1888-3.03.1938). Vyacheslav graduated from the legal faculty of St. Petersburg University, where he studied many prominent Russians: Alexander Kerensky and Vladimir Lenin, composer Igor Stravinsky, poets Alexander Blok and Nikolai Gumilev, writer Michael Zoshchenko, artists Nikolai Roerich and Mikhail Vrubel, from the present – Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev. Vyacheslav and Gertrude loved each other since childhood, but his father Vyacheslav, James I., Leisinger the mayor of Arkhangelsk and one of the first professional photographers of Russia, did not allow his son "to be unequal, the party with the daughter of milionia.
Had Rudolf Karlovich to explain to Jacob Ivanovich, that he is wrong – children are unable to live without each other (*1938 In cursed year Vyacheslav died in the dungeons of the NKVD, without admitting any guilt. 02.01. 1956. he fully rehabilitated). They had two children: daughter Natalia and son Leo, a well-known yachtsman of Russia, master of sport since 1947, when to this title was an honor and very difficult, repeated winner of the Championships of Russia on sailing.

To call in the red army the lion has graduated from the College of hydro melioration and worked as a foreman in "Darowski". Then came the war. Decorated. After the war, Leo V., he worked as an engineer, then chief engineer of the Arkhangelsk. "Water," the Director of "Vodokanal" and the Deputy head of municipal administration of the Arkhangelsk oblast Executive Committee). And all these years – sailing race together with his wife Helenenau Tamara in the same team – a beautiful, bright life!To call in the red army the lion has graduated from the College of hydro melioration and worked as a foreman in "Darowski". Then came the war. Decorated. After the war, Leo V., he worked as an engineer, then chief engineer of the Arkhangelsk. "Water," the Director of "Vodokanal" and the Deputy head of municipal administration of the Arkhangelsk oblast Executive Committee). And all these years – sailing race together with his wife Helenenau Tamara in the same team – a beautiful, bright life!

Yacht club of Arkhangelsk Leo Leitzinger he headed until his last day. Daughter Natalya and Galina, whose parents often took with them in the boat in training, has long worked with engineers in the timber industry, today, they are pensioners. Now in family already are growing up and great-grandchildren. Here I would especially like to thank Natalia Lvovna Zelikow – Leuzinger, which exclusively cares for the memory of our common ancestors. Her photo archive is unique, and in this work (*and especially on our website) is widely presented, as well as many of its other materials.
... The average daughter of Rudolf Karlovich, Lucius (18.09. 1892-1924) married Alexander des of Fontaines. Two girls were born in the family-Erica and ASTA. Lucie died five days after birth asty in Velikiy Ustyug. ASTA took into his family, Gertrude, and Eric brought up the youngest daughter of Rudolf Karlovich Alina. The Germans in Russia, their relatives in trouble never gave up. And this is not an isolated example. Further it will be shown how in Veliky Ustyug in 1917 the cousin of my grandmother Alexander Aleksandrovich Pets was missing. His four children and their mother took Arnold Khristianovich PEC to their house, they lived there on an equal basis with everyone. Very often Germans, even at live parents, took on education of children from large, not very wealthy families of the relatives – it was in the order of things. And my grandmother Lydia Pets, as a daughter was brought up in Arkhangelsk aunt Emily PEC and Matilda Clafton, until she received a teacher's education and married in Kemi.
In our archives I found a letter asty Alexandrovna Von teenes Arnold Petrovich PEC, some parts of it I took the liberty to show here: "...Mama Luna (Lucius) endlessly, deeply and utterly loved your Sasha. He was an interesting man, loved music, played the violin well, was a great athlete, went on a boat on the Northern Dvina and in the White sea phenomenally. He founded his entire sporting life in Arkhangelsk after 1919. He was a smart, charming man. Mom Luna adored him, but... five years after the wedding, he was somewhat cold to her, to blame would attach to it, it happens in real life. He was deeply in love with a sweet, charming woman the wife of someone from Petsev (who?). Family secret. Gert's mom refused to talk about it. Maiden name of the woman he had loved Alexander des Fontaines – Sokolin, the name of the Gal (the mother of Tamarack). At this time, the mother Luna was pregnant. All the doctors banned her second birth, said that it could be fatal for her, but she wanted the child to be born. Could this be the son? And Sasha will once again love her as much as he loved. She believed in it and decided to give life to the child, although all persuaded her not to do it, all but Sasha. She was born the daughter of ASTA. Mom Luna died five days later, she fought with death, because she was told that Sasha goes from Arkhangelsk to Veliky Ustyug, where she was in the country, and it gave her strength. Yes, I was born in Ustyug.
On the fifth day Sasha arrived, Lunya said goodbye to him and passed away. This little daughter was in fact Alexander Eduardovich to anything. By the time (soon) his beloved woman separated from her husband by the PEC (named by my brother, Lev Leitzinger told me, cousin Hertha's Rudolfovna, so maybe the son of Walter Karlovich, think Richard). And Sasha des Fontaines married a second time on Gale Falconer. They took the name Sokoliny and remained a Falcon, yet lived at Home, so it was much quieter. Alexander's daughters took matters into my own family sisters of the deceased Policemen of Rudolfovna. Senior Eric took Alina, lived a family with grandma Slaughter (*Nelly Adolfovna, the former governess of the family of Rudolf Karlovich PEC, which is still quite young he brought from Hamburg), and me – Geert R. and Vyacheslav Yakovlevich took home from the hospital, was taken to Arkhangelsk, reared, trained, cared about me as about my kids.

Before 6 years I didn't even know that the documents they're not native. These were people of amazing spiritual generosity, kindness and spiritual education. What I've become in life, I owe it to them. My father is Vyacheslav Yakovlevich, Leuzinger, and Alexander E. – just a friend of mine, who twice came to Arkhangelsk and came to visit us. Sometimes he wrote letters to Erica, never to me. All my life – from childhood to the present day to the end of his days, I thought, and I will assume his father Vyacheslav Yakovlevich of Leitinger, and his alone. He died tragically, was in the night from 10 to 11 December 1937 he was arrested, declared tardaguila, "enemy of the people" and died in prison in March 1938 (*after being completely healthy). He was the best lawyer in "Eksportles" has struck a trade blockade, was able to organize the timber trade with Norway through the Consul Viklund – it gave the country a currency, and gold that was then necessary as air.
I don't think Alexander Eduardovich his father, but Tamarack (*Tamara des Fontaines, ballerina Childeater, Melbourne, Australia) I consider my sister. Always mentally treated her, though, and saw only 2-3 times. She's a good, good man, this is how I remember it. And aunt Galya I loved, she nice, charming woman. This is a paradox. But you can not do anything, Alexander E. betrayed me when I was a defenseless baby and they took me to wonderful people, best of people – they are my true parents. So my relatives Patsy and Leuzinger…»
Alina Rudolfovna PEC was born in 1900 and before the revolution was considered the most attractive bride of Arkhangelsk, had her own house and a gorgeous horse riding, donated by her father. To all this Alina had a beautiful appearance. She worked as a teacher, January 2, 1938, was convicted by a "Troika" of the NKVD in Arkhangelsk region "for anti-Soviet activities" to 10 years imprisonment, 6 of which she "served" in the area of Puksoozero, and after his release lived in the family of her niece Erica, which she had replaced the mother. Alina R. PEC was fully rehabilitated in 1960.

...And in Hamburg, where Rudolf Karlovich with his second wife Nellie a Adolfovna Seidenberg, the former governess of his children, escaped from the Bolshevik hell, at first all goes well; son William, working first shiphandlers, i.e. the agent for the supply of vessels, now has his job, sold a house and a country Villa, close friends and relatives, in many ways left Russia.
But suddenly overturned: translated from the Russian capital requiired in repayment of the debts of tsarist Russia I. family saves only sartorial ability Alisa Eduardovna.
In 1928, Wilhelm dies, followed by Rudolf Karlovic and the family remains without male support. Nelly Adolfovna goes back to Arkhangelsk and will live with a foster daughter Alina and Erica des Fontaines. And in the eyes of emigrants from Russia in Germany is the formation of Nazism, "Drang nah Austen", "carpet" bombing allies who destroyed 70% of Hamburg, when many families were left without housing and livelihoods. In 1942, Eleanor PEC married to a Brazilian businessman Walter Klada, which the Nazis are unable to call in the army, even with "total" fascist mobilization. In 1943, under the bombing, the mi was born their daughter Gisela, and in 1947 Nora and Walter go to Brazil, where they have gives birth to the Xia son Arnold (Arnault – Brazilian style).
Today Gisela, Spolidoro (by her husband) is a Professor in the Department of German in high school, Her daughter Christina married Ronald Freund and has three sons, Werner, Stefan and Christian. The eldest son of Gisela, Guilermo (William) lives in America, and the second, Fernando (Ferdinand) in Rio. Gizela Arnault's brother, an energy engineer by profession, works as a system Manager in America, has sons Eduardo and Wagner, and with his daughter Tamara is constantly involved in the new York marathon. Not weak!
In July 2003, the Goethe Institute in Munich and Leipzig conducted a workshop for teachers of German from all over the world on the theme "West and East Germany" Here Gisela met S. K. Trifonova, teacher from Arkhangelsk, who told Natalia, Leuzinger email address of Gisela... Correspondence and meeting relatives after 88 years in Arkhangelsk. Week of Russian hospitality: a visit to the reserve Malye Karely, a steam room with a samovar and gramophone, with songs and cakes; Museum of local lore with exhibits from the" German settlement "and things from the house of PEC: children's books, wedding wreaths Rudolf PEC and Dorothea Guvelyaken and the script of their silver wedding, the menu "hen party Gert PEC and other cute trifles of the family, a visit to the Former Lutheran cemetery and" Mansion on the Cathedral " (Museum of urban life); walk along the reconstructed old street and a photo in memory. The whole family accompanied our dear guests with the hope of a new meeting.

немцы великого устюга

Arkhangelsk 2007 year. Bottom row right to left: Gisela and Arnaud Claude you, Natalya and Galina, Leuzinger and their children and grandchildren.

The Germans Veliky Ustyug

Situated at the confluence of two rivers – Sukhona and the South, giving rise to a mighty water-way – the Northern Dvina, Veliky Ustyug is famous with 1212года. Contemporaries called Ustyug best of the County-level cities. The abundance of ancient churches and monasteries gave Ustyug a kind of historical flavor. Through Ustyug went large passenger ships on the route Moscow – Vologda-Arkhangelsk. Convenient river routes, the availability of cheap raw materials and goods that are in demand in the market, the opportunity to profit and to invest the capital attracted in Great Ustyug enterprising people, including foreigners, among whom were Christians A. PEC (1819-1887).

Arriving in Veliky Ustyug, at the invitation of Nicholas I of the merchant's Guild Ilya Gribanova, he's about 30 years as first he and then his son Vladimir Lenin the business Manager and confidant, taking all of their business Affairs in the city, Nikolsk, Totma, drawing on the help of their sons. Also had Christians Andreyevich and its deal. In the city he had his house on the street Пушкариха10, and with it the facility for processing of flax, a paint shop, shops with leather goods and foodstuffs. On the Serum river near the village of Savino he built tanneries and candle factories. Led Christians PEC trade in bread and linen for the domestic and foreign markets. Products industrial institutions X. A. PEC (salted meat, soap and candles) were repeatedly shown on national manufacture shows. In 1877, in Ustyuzhenskiy County he owned more than 69 acres of land. In those years, in Veliky Ustyug lived several families of Lutheran religion. On their money close to home X. A. Pepper in 1871 was built and consecrated a small wooden "about twelve Windows" with double frames of the Church (destroyed in 1930 by the Bolsheviks) behind the iron fence, in which all the rituals were performed: weddings, baptisms, confirmations.
In the early 40-ies of the Christian A., married Charlotte A., Roters (1819-1887). Their family had 12 children (9 sons and 3 daughters).
The Germans, who lived in V. Ustyug, did not close in the circle of their families and their own interests, actively participating in the social life of the city, in various charity events, elected Vowels of the city Duma, jurors, were members of different charitable societies. Christian Andreyevich PEC was not only a Vowel of the city Duma, but Also the Mayor of the Great Ustyug two terms in 1870 – 1876, his hard work bringing a lot of benefits to local self-government. When it appeared in the city rented by the citizens of the Telegraph, was rightly revised the taxes and fees on urban land, capital intended for charitable purposes, different contributions increased by 10 thousand rubles in order contained the urban garden became more clean streets. After the great flood of 1873 his concerns was re-fortified the banks of the Sukhona. The flood victims were immediately assisted. At the initiative of the mayor has opened a subscription, and collected 3,000 rubles on the reconstruction of destroyed houses of the poor inhabitants. At the Alexander Nevsky Church A. Christians staged a craft shelter, where orphaned children were prepared for independent life by teaching bookbinding, Chebotareva, woodwork and other crafts. Everything you need for a shelter he bought with his own money. Until the end of his days he was a Trustee of the shelter, then his place was taken by son Alexander.
Alexander Khristianovich (1848-1916) was the third son of X. A. Petz and was married to his cousin Dorothea Alexandrovna (1853-1915), the eldest sister of my great-grandfather Ingvard Petz. They lived in the second part of the city, in a one-story wooden house on Kurakinskoe street (now street Maxim Gorky). In the family were five children: son Alexander and daughter Amelia, Dorothea, Maria and Frieda (*her children and grandchildren now live in Brazil). Alexander worked as an agent for Russian foreign trade Bank in the city of Kotlas and was married to Emilia Vilgelmovna, Roters. They had four children: Edgar, Gustav, daughters Olga and Herta. The fate of Alexander Alexandrovich is not quite clear. According to his daughter Olga, he was arrested after the October revolution and went missing. Photos of almost all of Ustiug Pecev taken at his wedding in 1902 – amazing shot!

Alexander Khristianovich-continued the work of his father. In Ustyug district, he owned 738 acres 1037 yards of land, forest cottage, and a steam flour mill in the village yurets Palermo parish. In 1901, on the Bank of the Sukhona river (in the second part of The city), his sawmill began operation. The building of the plant was a large barn, stretching along the shore. The company was well mechanized: there was a steam engine, boiler, two gang saw mills, lath and other machine tools. Round wood delivered on a sukhon. For this purpose, we used our own steamships “Favorit” and “Concordia”, built in an economic way in the estate of “Savino” his brother Arnold Khristianovich. Sawmill manufactured roofing wood, floor boards, rail and other products on orders and for sale. Products Perovskogo of the plant used whole Ustyug and shipping. All sales operations were carried out very quickly, without any formalities.

Ernest Khristianovich PEC(1854-1917), possessing land in the village of Denisova, Palermo parish, his family had lived and worked with his younger brother, Arnold, was captain and owner of river vessels.
Berend (Boris) Khristianovich, who was married to Bertha Wilhelmine brown, inherited the estate of Savino and since 1895 has been a Trustee of the Northern society of foreign trade in Kotlas. The family of Berend and Bertha had five children: son Boris and daughter Theresa, Edith, Martha and Frida. Theresa B. was married to Dr. Boris Veniaminovich by Slepynin. They had three sons: Boris, Kiril and Vladimir. Boris Borisovich married his second cousin Clara Edgarovna PEC. They had a son Boris and a daughter I hang Lucy. This family is in the middle of the 1920-ies went from Great Ustyug to Leningrad and settled in the apartment, which they lost to Harold F. Lindes. Boris PEC worked as chief accountant at the beer factory “Red Bavaria” to death in 1937.
All establishments present in the city in the early twentieth century, supplying the necessary products first of all the city and County, the rest of her was true outside of the region. Products Ustiug enterprises was quite high quality, in demand and successfully compete on the market. There was a great demand in the city the products of the factories that produced mineral water. One of them belonged to our kinsman pharmacist William F. Roters. The plant was located on Cathedral street (now Krasnoarmeyskaya street). Its products were fruit and berry kvass, lemonade, celery and other waters. In this institution there are only three people.
In 1877, in the town of Veliky Ustyug was opened brewery. It was established by the Bavarian citizen, a professional brewer Ludwig Georg Sebald. After the death of Ludwig, the company was inherited by his sons Georg, Carl and Nicholas. In 1903, Georg paid the brothers their share and became the full owner of the plant. About 30 people worked for Bavaria, the annual profit was more than 55 thousand rubles. The firm flourished. On the streets of the city in the busiest places and then came across the beer shops of zebald, where they sold honey drinks lemonade "Sparkling", Bavarian, Plzen, March, Munich, export beer, and beer lovers, enjoying a drink, played Billiards.

Especially men like porter – highly foaming dark English beer with significant alcohol content. Beer George Sebald also supplied Kotlas, Nikolsk, Cherevkov, Sol'vychegodsk, the Toima, Podosinovets, Ust-Sysolsk, the station Luza and other places. During the first world war, beer production decreased significantly, and in 1916 the factory produced only fruit water. In 1920 the plant was nationalized and in 1922 the couple Georg and Sophia Sebald left Russia and lived (* the couple Deinlein, also refugees from Ustyug) in Those the suburbs of Nuremberg. Their great-granddaughter Dr. Sigrid Maldonado writes from the United States: "... for me, the Great Ustyug, where my great-grandfather and great-grandmother lived, has always been of great importance. There my great-grandfather Ludwig Sebald was the owner of the brewery. My great-grandmother is buried there. In Velikiy Ustyug up their children, including my grandfather's brother who was called “the Bavarian 3ебальд”. He and his wife Sofia, née Roters for my mom and her sisters were George and aunt Sophia."
In July or August 1914 my grandfather was interned in Wesenberg (Estonia) and sent deep into Russia, but he was lucky enough to get to Ustyug, where his brother lived. In October 1914, my grandmother, Alida E. Johanson, left Wesenberg and married with her children. In Ustyug, the whole family was to be registered weekly in the local police. They lived in the house of my grandfather's brother, Georg Sebald. With special pleasure my mother recalled the evening when uncle George and aunt Sofia came to visit: lying in bed, my mother and her sisters have their own kids uncle and aunt wasn't/ listening to adult music. How wonderful it was to fall asleep to the music! Uncle Georg played the violin, and aunt Sophia played the piano... my grandmother was a pet teacher somewhere in 1897 or 1898. When the first world war, my grandmother Alida Johansen took refuge in the city and her children began to teach the youngest daughter of Pecev, Frida. After all, then German children were not allowed to go to school…»
As such, there was no German settlement in Ustyug, the Germans settled in different parts of the city, most often buying houses from local residents. They bought the land in the County. The estate usually included: forest cottage, arable land, hay and so-called uncomfortable land, which was used for the construction of houses, barns, stables, barn. Here is a list of some estates:

1 Savino – at different times its owners were P. K. Luers, J. A. PEC, Berend Khristianovich PEC. 2 "Es'kino" – A. H. PEC. 3 "Pertino" - Franz Frantsevich Roters. 4 "Syvorotkina" – Glaseri. 5 plot of land in the village belonged to Aikawa Param. All of the estate was was municipalized in 1918 and was destroyed, and about the wanton destruction of estates PEC and Raters in Nesterovskiy parish in June 1918, even reported by local newspaper "North–Dvina region".
According to the census of 1897, the entire population of Ustyug was 11137 people, 40 of them foreign subjects, and in 1910 only Germans were registered 88 people. Of these, four families were registered in the merchant class of the city (G. H. PEC, A. H. PEC, A. F. Roters and E. M. Roters), the rest were in the petty bourgeois society and among them my great-grandfather Ingvard-Nicholas PEC and his sister Emilia Alexandrovna. So in the late 19th – early 20th centuries in the city lived and worked as a Prussian subject, musician and photographer Otto Kramer, Bavarian musician Ludwig Preuss, a Latin teacher at the gymnasium Edgar Heine, brewer Gustav Offer, the building master Gustav Beije. Pharmacist I. Berg with 1858 year handled photography and contained pharmacy. Having left Ustyug, he sold the pharmacy to Fyodor Karlovich Glezer, who received from her an income of up to 600 rubles a year. In 1907 F. K. Glezer opened a printing house in his two-storey stone house on Uspenskaya street, which successfully worked for ten years.
The commercial, social and charitable activities of the Germans in Veliky Ustyug contributed to the development of the economy and culture of this city in the North of Russia. Back in the XIX century in Russia, the issue of the structure of reasonable public entertainment attracted General attention. In large and small cities are opening public theatres and clubs, there are various companies, organizes festivals, performances, musical evenings.
Veliky Ustyug is no exception. In his clubs, local Amateur artists quite often arranged concerts. Especially happy to Velikiy Ustyug inhabitants attended performances of the group of fans singing and music, created in 1911, “for distribution in Velikiy Ustyug musical and vocal education, as well as to deliver their members aesthetic enjoyment and developing their musical tastes.”
The founders circle were the couple Georg and Sophia Sebald, Roters, E. N. Zelenkevich, O. M. Tsvetaeva, F., And Heytmann, V. Glubokoe, etc. This society had its own seal and a distinctive badge. The choir was ruled by the crowd favorite O. M. Tsvetaeva, orchestra – Georg Sebald. In the program of the musical evening included works by Russian and foreign classics, sang songs, romances, arias from operas by G. P. Zhilin, I. K., Eisenberg, Duo Georg Sebald and Sophia, Roters fans and other musicians. The audience enthusiastically embraced all the musical numbers, rewarding the artists with thunderous applause calling for an encore and without end. The same circle of Amateur singing and music organized in the city's literary and musical evenings dedicated to Pushkin, Gogol, Lermontov, Turgenev and other famous poets and writers, whose books can always be purchased in book and paper shop “Idea” A. S. Schreiber in the Shopping alley.
More about Veliky Ustyug and family PEC says Wilhelm Karlovich Shlau interned with the outbreak of the first world war from Courland to Great Ustyug (*Shlau V. in the war In Russia. great Ustyug. 1915-1918 years // Baltic Yearbook of the Germans. T. XXVII. 1980) : "...the three of Us became a bit crowded at Costming, and on their advice, we turned to their German neighbors, Param in whose area, in addition to their house, there was a small Lutheran Church, built by someone from the previous generations in their family. Patsy took us to himself for all these years struggling and tried to help us all they could. Their ancestors came to Arkhangelsk from Kiel. (*in fact from Weißenfels), and the father of our host in the city was already mayor. The owner himself, Arnold PEC, owned not only the house, but also the steam mill, and sawmill, and a tugboat with barges, walking on local rivers. And behind the Ustyug he had Savino's estate.
Arnold PEC was a man of joy, humble, calm and reliable. His son Peter, a faithful assistant to the father-in navigation almost did not go from the boat to shore. And the soul of the entire house was inimitable Mrs. Bertha PEC, née Raters, a native of Arkhangelsk, where she studied German in a Church school. In the family, they mainly sounded only Russian language, but for family holidays, the family held German domestic performances, and when Mrs. Burt with her sister, Mrs. Sebald played the piano in four hands, the beat certainly was counted in German. And Christmas was celebrated in the German way. Of the four daughters of Arnold SB PEC two married their cousins Glezerov – they were both in the war. One of these daughters and her two unmarried sisters lived in a parental home where their lame uncle /Ernst lived. The Sands gave us a large room separated by a partition, and in the fall, when my father arrived, another room opposite. The brother of our host Behrend PEC, the Director of a local branch of “the Bank for foreign trade”, was the estate of Savino, picturesquely situated on the banks of the Sukhona, resting in a dense forest, inhabited by crows and woodcock – the Raven boys often sat on the railing of our porch. Still before me there are wonderful views of the area. On Sunny days I woke up for five hours – through the shingle roof the sun so heated the house that it became impossible to sleep. However, in the evening, at ten, was already cool. Unique was a bright night without turning on the light, we could read o'clock to eleven! Berend was married also to an Archangel, from the family of Browns, their son studied in our gymnasium. The sister of three of these brothers Pecov was married to the pharmacist Theodor Glaser, their three sons, two village owners, one surveyor, were in military service. In the city lived two brothers of Mrs. Bertha PEC – the owner of the chemist and engineer, who was also married to one of the Browns. The husband of Mrs. Sebald, came to Ustyug from Bavaria and opened a large brewery “Northern Bavaria”. Fearing that he has not taken this plant, Sebald adopted Russian citizenship.

More about Veliky Ustyug and family PEC says Wilhelm Karlovich Shlau interned with the outbreak of the first world war from Courland to Great Ustyug (*Shlau V. in the war In Russia. great Ustyug. 1915-1918 years // Baltic Yearbook of the Germans. T. XXVII. 1980) : "...the three of Us became a bit crowded at Costming, and on their advice, we turned to their German neighbors, Param in whose area, in addition to their house, there was a small Lutheran Church, built by someone from the previous generations in their family. Patsy took us to himself for all these years struggling and tried to help us all they could. Their ancestors came to Arkhangelsk from Kiel. (*in fact from Weißenfels), and the father of our host in the city was already mayor. The owner himself, Arnold PEC, owned not only the house, but also the steam mill, and sawmill, and a tugboat with barges, walking on local rivers. And behind the Ustyug he had Savino's estate.
Arnold PEC was a man of joy, humble, calm and reliable. His son Peter, a faithful assistant to the father-in navigation almost did not go from the boat to shore. And the soul of the entire house was inimitable Mrs. Bertha PEC, née Raters, a native of Arkhangelsk, where she studied German in a Church school. In the family, they mainly sounded only Russian language, but for family holidays, the family held German domestic performances, and when Mrs. Burt with her sister, Mrs. Sebald played the piano in four hands, the beat certainly was counted in German. And Christmas was celebrated in the German way. Of the four daughters of Arnold SB PEC two married their cousins Glezerov – they were both in the war. One of these daughters and her two unmarried sisters lived in a parental home where their lame uncle /Ernst lived. The Sands gave us a large room separated by a partition, and in the fall, when my father arrived, another room opposite. The brother of our host Behrend PEC, the Director of a local branch of “the Bank for foreign trade”, was the estate of Savino, picturesquely situated on the banks of the Sukhona, resting in a dense forest, inhabited by crows and woodcock – the Raven boys often sat on the railing of our porch. Still before me there are wonderful views of the area. On Sunny days I woke up for five hours – through the shingle roof the sun so heated the house that it became impossible to sleep. However, in the evening, at ten, was already cool. Unique was a bright night without turning on the light, we could read o'clock to eleven! Berend was married also to an Archangel, from the family of Browns, their son studied in our gymnasium. The sister of three of these brothers Pecov was married to the pharmacist Theodor Glaser, their three sons, two village owners, one surveyor, were in military service. In the city lived two brothers of Mrs. Bertha PEC – the owner of the chemist and engineer, who was also married to one of the Browns. The husband of Mrs. Sebald, came to Ustyug from Bavaria and opened a large brewery “Northern Bavaria”. Fearing that he has not taken this plant, Sebald adopted Russian citizenship.
Still here lived a handsome man, their rich relative James PEC ... in the Spring of 1916, evicted from SALIS and my father. He moved to his son-in-law Mazing in Karkus, but he was allowed to live only North of the latitude of Nizhny Novgorod. Ustyug is higher, so my assumption was correct. Our father came by a steamer from Vologda – we spent the summer vacation in the estate of Arnold PEC, which turned out to be very successful, as his father was able to settle in the village, in a clean peasant hut.

His passport was taken away, he was under police supervision, but in Ustyug he was allowed to go alone, without a guide, and in Ustyug there was almost no supervision. / Small retreat: my parents did not know how to write in Russian, so my mother and I wrote in French, and my father used Latin until one day they received a notice that censorship is not going to hire a special person who knows Latin for our sake. Mrs. PEC offered to settle my father, too, in their house, everything was going very well. …
The Sands provided us all: we ate with them at the common table, became quite their own in their family circle. After the summer holidays, we brought our maid – a sweet Agnia; soon Rotraut was already freely chatting in Russian with his imaginary older sister. On Sundays, dad was home a prayer, and he often had spouses Tebaldi / Lutheran parish of Ustiug was to be the administrative pastor Königsfeld in Yaroslavl, but it is usually only once a year came to Ustyug serve its parishioners. Since then my father came and until 1918 he served ustyuzhskaya part of the parish pastor Sochi.
However, I've twice had occasion to perform pastoral duties. The first time PEC has been asked to prepare for confirmation of my student in high school, berenda PEC Jr. German he knew no matter, but engaged willingly, and we with him a few weeks understood the essence of Lutheranism. On confirmation Berend made a great impression on pastor Königsfeld, he used to deal with confirmants of very modest knowledge.
In the autumn of 1917, when my father went to Solvychegodsk, Ernst PEC died, and the brothers of the deceased asked me to take over the duties of pastor. I had to take part in everything: when the dead body was put in the coffin when he was buried in the cemetery of the convent in Aikawa, Ustyug /there Pecam owned cemetery plot/. In a word, conducted the whole funeral ceremony – of course, in German. During the funeral the choir sang the Russian nuns, beside me stood the priest and waved his censer: the locals did not feel themselves bound by the narrow framework of any one religion.
... Soon I removed to get the police of his father's passport – supervision ended. 27 APR, new style was born, our Wilfried: extremely tough kid shouting so loud in the delivery room said: “Again, the Germans screaming!"On may 24, my father baptized him in the house of PEC. Sands took such a touching part in our lives, and we invited all their relatives and Dr. kyune to the christening. The godson's parting words were: "Be strong in faith, be strong and courageous.” For my wife this day remained the happiest in her life...".
Arnold Khristianovich PEC (1860-1941) was engaged in shipping on the Sukhona and Dvina. In the area of the estate Savino he organized a small shipyard and in 1885 built the first steamship “Concordia” and “Favorite”. In 1890-e years was built the steamers “Navigator”, “Carrier” and another “Concordia”, which was sold in Arkhangelsk to the owner Postnikov. All these vessels had a wooden hull. Since the beginning of the XX century, the shipyard began to build ships with the so-called composite hull (iron Board and wooden bottom). Since 1911 steamships A. X. PEC began to do with the metal body. “Dove” and “Severo-Dvinsky pool”, built in such a way, and worked up to 1950-ies, but under other names.

Arnold Khristianovich and Bertha of Franzini, Raters had.five children: Peter's son and daughters Alma, Charlotte, Bert and Flora. In addition to their children, the family had three adopted, without a father, children of Alexander Alexandrovich PEC. Place in a large house enough for all, but boring has never been. Family relations were calm and friendly, and until 1925 the family lived in this house on Uspenskaya street. The fate of the Great Ustyug in the revolutionary period is similar to the fate of many cities in our country, when all industrial enterprises were nationalized and the houses and property of most merchant families were requisitioned. Began the seizure of valuable objects from the temples, the destruction of those who opposed the new government. Shot the editor of the newspaper "the Wave" of social-revolutionary Peter Zepalov, waiting for their fate in Ustiug prison Pitirim Sorokin, one of the editors of the Central Newspapers of the socialist revolutionary party "Business people" in the future, the famous American sociologist and cultural anthropologist. Unemployment and labor exchange, the society of militant atheists and the dropping of bells, the closure of parish churches, fires of icons and books, the destruction of churches, mass repression.
After 1917, various institutions were placed in the PEC house, and the family began to leave. The first went to daughter Charlotte with husband Eduard Glaser and children. Then Alma and her husband Leo Glezer and his sons Peter and Alfred moved to another house.
In 1925 Berta Frantsevna and Arnold Khristianovich with unmarried daughters Berta, Flora and adopted daughter Elena left in Moscow region to Charlotte Arnoldovna. In the old house, now on Sovetsky Avenue, there were only Peter Arnoldovich with his family and younger children Alexander Alexandrovich with his mother and aunt Emily. In 1927, remaining asked to vacate the last room basement. Most of the furniture was confiscated, with what remained, moved to Alma Glaser, where they lived until 1929. In December 1929, under the cover of night Peter Arnoldovich and Larisa Pavlovna Ptsy with his son Arnold secretly went to the Kotlas and then to Leningrad, where for many years lived on the Stone island. Alma arnoldovna and his family moved to Moscow, where they were sheltered by relatives on line Glezerov. The longest remained in the Great Ustyug children of Alexander, but they left the city no later than 1933.
The family of Arnold Khristianovich PEC until 1941, lived in the suburbs together with his daughter's family Charlotta Arnoldovna Glezer, often changing place of residence. But when the Nazis came to Moscow, all residents with non-Russian names in 24 hours, was deported to Kazakhstan in unheated shelters, and so many people died from cold in transit, and almost all the rest found in Kazakhstan last resort.
The great grandson of Christian Andreevich, Arnold Petrovic PEC, who kindly provided the author with many information about the family of Paul and PEC, was born on December 15, 1921 in Veliky Ustyug. In 1929, the family moved to Leningrad. In 1940, A. P. PEC graduated from high school and passed exams in shipbuilding Institute, but to learn it had not. In the early days of the great Patriotic war he went to the front and participated in the fighting on the Volkhov, the Karelian, the 1st far Eastern front, ending the war in Manchuria. Since 1947 Arnold Petrovich goes to the Military Academy in Leningrad, in the years 1953-1960 serves in the air defense forces in the far East, 1960-1972 years — senior teacher of the military school. Since 1972, retired from the Ministry of defense. Lives in St. Petersburg with his wife Evelina V., and a daughter Helen. Very nice, intelligent and hospitable people. At the Institute of genealogical research Arnold Petrovich was engaged in studying the history of foreign families who connected their fate with the Russian North.
Exclusively thanks to the efforts of Arnold Petrovich, we learned more about our pedigree. Although my grandmother Lydia Nikolaevna PEC, the granddaughter of Christian Andreevich, told us sometimes something about her father and grandfather, about the "German settlement" in Arkhangelsk, but especially did not spread. In those times (after the war) to speak about this should not. Therefore, our gratitude to Arnold Petrovich is endless. It searches and materials and formed the basis of this work

России- православную монархию

Russia-Orthodox monarchy!

The second son of Christian A. PEC – merchant of 1 Guild Gustav Hristianovich (1842-1919), the most enterprising of all his children, was in St. Petersburg Director of the company "Riting" and purveyor to Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, the Palace of which often invited the whole family of Parev.
Attitude from the office of the court Of Grand Duke Vladimir
A. Gustav Hristianovich PEC:
Office Manager
his imperial Highness
Grand Duke
Vladimir Alexandrovich
May 10, 1894
 No. 418
St. Petersburg
his imperial Highness
Grand Duke VL.Scarlet. Oswego-
rummaging that You are in
St. Petersburg, deigned
to Express a desire to see
You tomorrow, may 11th at 10 ½ hours
Reporting this, I have the honour
I humbly ask You to welcome
tomorrow to the Palace Him. Vys. to
appointed time.
Yup. office Act. stat. Council / signature / (Sokolov)
His High Alertness G. H. PEC.

Vladimir Romanov (10.04.1847-04.02. 1909)-his Imperial Highness, adjutant General, General of infanteria, Senator, member of the state Council). The third son of Emperor Alexander II, Grand Duke was known as a famous philanthropist, assembled a valuable collection of paintings. In his study Vladimir took writers, artists, entertainers, and business people of St. Petersburg, including the supplier of his court, Gustav Hristianovich PEC, whose great-grandfather August A. PEC arrived in Russia not knowing the language or customs of this country. Of course, the Germans in Russia have never been lost. From the 12th century they settled in Russian cities, conducting intensive trade with Novgorod and Pskov merchants. Not knowing the Russian language, the questions were pretty quiet in General, were dumb – "the Germans."
The first Russian ruler, who established close contacts with the Germans, was Yaroslav the Wise, who married his sons to the Germans. Under Ivan the terrible in Moscow, on Yauza were German Sloboda – Kukui, becoming a “city within a city”. Peter I, who was called a disciple of this settlement, invited trade, military and scientists from Germany, who served in Russia “on contracts”, not forgetting their own interests and looking to a huge country.
... In the intrigues of the St. Petersburg court Germans quickly understood, military and strong-willed qualities, activity and devotion to the throne quickly made them important figures in politics, army and administration. Russian Germans stood at the head of the Office of His Majesty and of many ministries, they were generals and admirals, governors, commanders of armies, guards parts. When Nicholas I, wishing to reward the General A. P. Ermolov, asking him what he would want, he replied: “Make me a German, Sir.” That says a lot. There was the continuous twinning of the Russian tsars, Grand Dukes and duchesses with the German reigning houses of Mecklenburg, Brunswick, Hesse-Darmstadt, Holstein-Gottorp, Oldenburg, Leuchtenberg. German blood was gradually replaced Russian blood in the veins of kings, turning them into a Russified Germans. But not blood after all, determines the attitude of the person and upbringing and way of life. A large number of Russian scientists, military figures, art representatives belonged to the German nationality. Among them Franz Lefort, J. and D. I. Fonvizin, Munnich, B. H. and Osterman, A. I., scientists Miller G. Kh. and Richman, G. V., navigators I. F. Kruzenshtern and F. F. Bellingshausen, the generals Barclay de Tolly, Bennigsen L. L., Johann Korff, Carl Jessen, Ferdinand Wrangel, B. A. von Glasenap, Otto Kotzebue. From more recent figures of note academician Boris Viktorovich Rauschenbach was one of the founders of the Soviet space program.
... In the Palace of the Grand Duke were often held balls, receptions, musical and literary evenings. Until 1917 this Palace was one of the centers of secular life of St. Petersburg. It was even called “Small the Imperial court”. Sorting out the archive of our family, suddenly I saw a picture of 100 years ago: a beautiful and cheerful young people in your wedding day 16.9.1907 of the year – Lieutenant of the life guards Semenov regiment Nikolai von Essen and Raisa PEC.
One of the Grand balls at the Palace of the Grand Duke and met the two daughters of Gustav Hristianovich with shiny guards officers, Raisa with Nikolai Karlovich and Anna PEC with the staff captain of the 1st guards artillery brigade, Nikolai M. von Essen, belonging to the German branch of the Hanseatic sort, the beginning of which is lost in Westphalia in the 12th century. Alexander von Essen, Swedish major-General in 1655 went with the Embassy to Moscow to Tsar Ivan. Over the last 250 years, this family has given 18 generals and the famous Admiral of the Baltic fleet Baltic nobles von Essen, many of whom were military, and served in Sweden, and in France, and in the Holstein. A lot of background Assenov was active in military service in Russia, Lieutenant-General Reinhold von Essen, noted in the letter of Catherine II to count Rumyantsev for heroism, was knight of all Russian orders.

The closest relative of the guards, intermarried with Parami, Nikolai Inc. von Essen, who served 35 years in the Navy, from Midshipman to Admiral, a companion and follower of the Admiral S. O. Makarov during the Russo - Japanese war he commanded the cruiser "Novik" and the flagship battleship "Sevastopol", and from 1909 to 1915годы was commander of the Baltic fleet, a lot of times he was awarded the highest medals of the Russian Empire.
And all members of this glorious family was distinguished by his loyalty and courage, so in the period from 1794 and 1842 nine representatives of this family was awarded the order of St. George of various degrees.
Father Nikolai Karlovich von Essen, Karl Karlovich (major General retired), in the years 1877-78 he served in the Semenov regiment, then adjutant to the Commandant of the St. Petersburg administration. He married Sophia Ivanovna Moldakova, the daughter of a rich merchant Ivan Agafonova Moldakova from the Finnish (now Kareli) Sortavala. In the book, Uuno Kettunen "the History of Sortavala, 1932" we read: "...the merchant Ivan Moldakul during the visit of count (*) Berg and Senator Nordenham) became the chief representative of the city (responsible for reception and selection of housing for them). The examination vessel was painted, streets were cleaned and paved, were covered with sand yards, the road from Vaccoli sweeping brooms... Tables Laden with food and drinks. There were smoked ham and ham, Lubeck sardines, Dutch herring, Swedish cheese and confectionery; salmon and grayling were bought from Ladoga fishermen; chickens and crayfish were brought from Vyborg; jams and oranges were delivered from St. Petersburg. For cooking used spices – nutmeg, Kannel, peppers, cardamom, vanilla etc.; from drinks, but rum and vodka was a selection of wines and champagne coffee and cigars... Reception given the broken dishes cost 337 silver rubles …»
For wedding photos we see Nikolai Karlovich with the order of St. Stanislaus 3rd degree, which he was awarded for participation in the 8th company captain Nazimova Moscow in the suppression of the December armed revolt of 1905, where he received a gunshot wound to the right hand. Once again, the Semenov has proved its loyalty to the monarch. The rebellion, called by Soviet historians the "first Russian revolution", began after The physical elimination of VK Pleve, resulted in a wave of violence, theft, robbery and murder. Across the country there was an outbreak of strikes, riots and bloody ethnic clashes. Trotsky and were preparing a mass uprising against the "dictatorship", due, according to the organizers escalate into armed clashes. However, these plans were thwarted by the Semenovsky regiment. But the commander Semenov, General Georgy Min was basely assassinated by SRS 5 shots in the back in front of his wife and daughter on the bench Peterhof station.
(*Semenovsky regiment, the oldest regiment of the Russian guard, formed by Peter I in 1687 from the "funny" troops located in the village of Semenovsky near Moscow. In 1700 the regiment received the title of life guards, i.e. he was attached to the Emperor Peter III, Paul I, Alexander I, II and III, Nicholas I and II. Alexander Suvorov, for admission to the regiment, was a private 7 company, where he received his first soldier the order to be proud of life. Semenov regiment was one of the best in the Russian army, participating in almost all the iconic battles and battles with courage and bravery. The Semenov distinguished himself in the wars with Sweden, France and Turtsiia: Narva, Lesnaya, Poltava, Gangut, Austerlitz, Borodino... Welcome to the regiment was very strict about the candidate gathered detailed information, and only after studying them he was taken to the regiment).
...A strong influence on the life guard had a war. He went to the front the best forces regiment, who was always at the point of attack in the offensive, covering the rear during the withdrawal. By February 1917, compared with July 1914, in Semenovsky regiment remained less than half of the officers. Nearly one third died in battle, others were transferred to command and staff positions in the guards and army units. The same pattern was observed in the guard (the guard in the senseless slaughter of the war no doubt has cost Russia the loss of the monarchy).
Despite Kerensky's order No. 1 about the equation in the rights of officers and soldiers and creation of soldier's election committees, discipline in a regiment was supported strictly. While other parts of the eyes apart, the Semenovtsi were fighting at the front in the old way. And Nicholas von Essen by this time a Colonel, Deputy commander of the regiment, for active participation on the fronts of world war 1, for his actions and personal bravery marked 5 gold medals and medals: St. Anna 3rd degree (with swords and bow) and 4th degree with the inscription "For bravery", St. Vladimir, 4th class (with swords and bow); St. Stanislaus 3rd degree (with swords and bow). In addition he leads in his native Semenov regiment and the work of the regimental historian, Director of Museum and archives, is working on compiling a Biographical dictionary of the officers of the Semenovsky regiment, printed in the historical collections (e.g. "Synodic L.-G. Semenovsky regiment").
...And in 1917, Semenov (and other guards regiments) remained faithful to his country and, after receiving an order, would obliterate in the Bud Bolshevik vermin, as в1905. It did not happen, although the writer Alexander Kuprin warned in April:"Bolshevism must be torn from the root, before it is too late." Unfortunately, Nicholas II failed to put the country in the hole before the abyss of the liberal Bolshevik tragedy, which was bloody played out in Russia. But the former interior Minister Peter Durnovo warned Nicholas to go to war on the side of the Entente, convincing the king that the war could lead to the death of the monarchy.
Well, the Provisional government only pushed the country to revolution. The famous "Order № 1", designed to democratize the army, in fact, led to its collapse. Arising thanks to the innovations of soldiers ' power, according to General Brusilov, was the prosperity of the "trench Bolshevism."
Emperor abdicated not only for himself but for the son-heir, without having the right according to the laws of the Empire. In the muddy Wake of the revolution of the links and city suburbs there are people with a revolver in hand, with a glass in the other, with "budyenny helmets – Wootton" on the head and rushed to restore order, everyone in their own way. Those who did not accept Marx's ideology – to the wall, wavering – in the camp for reformation in the new faith. Started Mnogomernye 20-30-40 years…
Renamed by the Bolsheviks after the October revolution a "Regiment for the protection of Petrograd," and in 1919 – in the "third Soviet" Semenovtsi in may 1919 he was sent to Gatchina district against forces of General Yudenich. In the same month in the district Vary do not come to terms with the Bolsheviks, headed by V. A. Zaitsev, and N. K. von Essen, all three battalions of the regiment, shooting their Commissars, organized defected to the White Army, with which communication was established by Nikolai von Essen. That night, when the regiment moved to the side of the Whites, he toured the headquarters of the battalions and passed the time in coming Talab regiment of the North-West army of Yudenich. Here's how that moment was described by the warrant officer of the regiment, a native of the soldiers I. E. Kudryavtsev: “the October revolution we all watched as adventurism instigated by the Bolsheviks, of Lenin and other leaders of the working class believed the agents and spies of Germany. For the most part, the officers of the regiment, with the same opinion went on to Yudenich.”
In the troops of Yudenich and Semenov regiment regained its glorious name, again and again proving in the battle of steadfastness and loyalty to the Fatherland. Part Semenov fought on the southern front of the Civil war – in part of the 1st Composite guards regiment of the Volunteer Army of Denikin. Different was the fate of the Semyonovsky back Home (approximately 28% of officers). After the war, in Petrograd continued to live some officers of the guard, including those who fought in the White army. Gathering together in small companies in the apartments, they recalled the service in the regiment, the days of his glory, together visited the services in Vvedensky Cathedral, but in 1931 in the falsified case of the Leningrad counter – revolutionary organization, many of them were arrested and shot-the Bolsheviks took revenge for 1905.
And background Esseni in December 1920 he left Russia for good. They accept Estonian citizenship and live in Tartu until 1939. Here Nikolai Karlovich co-authored with Baron Georges Wrangel released in 1934 "Genealogical reference book of Baltic knights" (more than 100 pedigrees). But it is, so to say, hobby, officially von Essen to feed the family works in the office of a Shoe factory. His wife, Raisa Gustavovna, after graduating from The Tartus Conservatory, leads the Department of musical criticism in the Russian newspaper. Her sister Anna and Nikolai Mikhailovich von Essen live in Tallinn, where Nicholas works as Director of the factory "Franz Krull" (*today the plant "Engine", ruined and bankrupt).


Immediately after the war, thanks to the efforts of the Swedish background Essens, both families moved to Sweden in Uppsala, where today lives the only one of them – Irina N. von Essen. And her cousin, the only son of Anna and Nicholas Mikhailovich background Asenov, Vladimir, 22, was killed in 1944 in the Balkans, commanding a reconnaissance company of the Wehrmacht.
... The Orthodox monarchy is the best form of government in Russia. Our kings and emperors did not care about personal benefits, but about the power and prosperity of the multinational state of Russia and the history of the Russian people is the triumph and brilliant results of the reforms carried out by the autocrats. If not for the mistakes of some members of the Royal family, not the conspirators and the coalition with their race for power in Russia today the rules would be the Emperor.
... The eldest son of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, Kirill Vladimirovich was born in Tsarskoye Selo in 1876. After graduating from the naval cadet corps and the Nikolaev naval Academy, having gone to the Navy from Midshipman to rear Admiral, on January 1, 1904 he became the head of the naval Department of the staff of the commander of the fleet in the Pacific Vice Admiral Makarov, next to whom was at the time of his death on March 31, 1904 in the explosion of the flagship ship "Petropavlovsk". The Grand Duke, despite heavy wounds, remained alive. Later, for courage he was awarded the Golden arms. In 1909-1912 the Grand Duke served on the cruiser "Oleg", the last year — the commander, and since 1913 — in the guards crew. The mayor of Petrograd, Mr. A. Balk, testified that on February 27, 1917 the Grand Duke offered the military Minister General Belyaev and commander of the Petrograd military district General Khabalov his Guards crew to fight the riots. When his proposals were not accepted, he, together with his uncle, Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich, had developed a plan to save the throne of Emperor Nicholas II by partial concessions to the moderate wing of the revolutionaries. Since the appeal of the provisional government of February 28, 1917 proclaimed the inviolability of the autocracy, the Grand Duke on March 1 arrived at the Taurida Palace to give at the disposal of the only functioning in Petrograd state body — the Duma its Guards Crew. At the same time, together with Grand Duke Pavel Alexandrovich, he participated in the preparation of the draft Manifesto, which they wanted to hand over for signature to Nicholas II. When on March 8, 1917 the provisional government gave the order on arrest of Nikolay Aleksandrovich Romanov and his family, Kirill Vladimirovich in protest resigned. Soon he illegally left for Finland which then still remained as a part of the Russian Empire where at it the son Vladimir was born. Here was calm and close, if suddenly turned up would be able to come back and lead the country. Then lived in Germany, Switzerland, France. During the Civil war in Russia 1917-1923 Kirill was looking for possible ways to restore the monarchy. For this purpose he met the General Mannerheim, sent the representative to Yudenich, conducted negotiations with some German generals. After the execution by the Bolsheviks in 1918 in Yekaterinburg Nicholas II and his family, as well as his brother Mikhail Alexandrovich, Kirill Vladimirovich was a senior member of the dynasty and August 31, 1924 as a senior representative of the dynasty proclaimed himself head of the Imperial house of the Romanovs. While in exile, Kirill helped the unemployed, took care of Russian refugees. The hatred of the Soviet people, he strictly condemned, giving advantage of people's labor. "The divine Providence, the throne of the kings, the work of the people — these are the forces that will lead Russia back to the bright days. It is not necessary to destroy any institutions called by life, but it is necessary to turn away from those that desecrate the human soul," he wrote. "I have repeatedly confirmed that my faith in the Russian people is unwavering," he said in 1931, " I have always been convinced that communism will heal itself, and its ruins will grow new living forces of the people, who will take power into their own hands. These forces will put Russia on the path of rebirth and create a great future for it. My task is to help identify these Russian people's forces." Kirill died on October 12, 1938 — the effects of wounds received at the death of "Petropavlovsk". Together with his wife, Empress Victoria Fedorovna (born Princess Victoria of great Britain, Ireland and Saxe-Coburg-goth Victoria-Melita), he was buried in Coburg (Germany) in the family tomb of the Dukes of Saxe-Coburg-Goth. On March 7, 1995 their remains were solemnly reburied in the Grand-Ducal tomb of Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg.

Заложник ЯК-острова

The heir of the "Kirillov" line of candidates for supremacy in The Russian Imperial house was his son Vladimir Kirillovich, recognized in this capacity by the majority of the members of the Romanov house who lived at that time, and today his grandson-the heir to the crown Prince Georgy Mikhailovich Romanov 25 years. He is young, handsome, full of ideas and plans. He has a fine education, high historical mission, desire to return to Russia: "... I perceive the title as a duty of service of Russia... we hope – that our state will define the relation to the Imperial House as to historical Institute. After all, in almost all countries, including in Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Albania, reigned dynasties created the conditions for their return and a modest but decent living. I am convinced that the monarchy is the most appropriate state system for Russia, which was formed as a monarchy and remained it for over a thousand years. The period of the Republic brought to our country civil war and genocide, collapse of economy and territorial disintegration. But our family will never agree to restore the monarchy against the will of the people. Although, in my opinion, the monarchy is quite a modern system, which does not contradict democracy, freedom and well-being, but is the guarantor of these values... the Emperor-Martyr Nicholas II, his family and their faithful servants were the victims of political repression. They were shot on the verdict of the Ural Council. This sentence recognized the right of the Central Executive Committee. And so far it has not been legally abolished. We – the citizens of the Russian state, and our conscience can't accept the fact that our relatives, who also revered the saints, from a legal point of view remain for the state, "crowned robbers and executioners." As long as the Royal family is not rehabilitated, we have no guarantee that this horror will not repeat not only for us, but also for each of the citizens of Russia."
"...By the middle of this century, Russia will dominate Europe both politically and economically and financially, "independent French economist Edmond Teri wrote in his book Russia in 1914. Economic survey.» Before the First world war, Russia was 28 percent ahead of Argentina, Canada and America in the production of staple foods combined (*today we buy almost all products abroad), and how much coal and oil were produced, metallurgy was developing with leaps and bounds!. Its factories could produce everything from samovars and bicycles to submarines and aircraft. Literacy in Russia was 70 per cent, and by 1922 there should have been no illiterate people left. Bread cost 3 pennies a pound (pound of 409.5 g), sugar – COP. 12-17 lb, meat and 15 kopeks a pound... Professional worker received per month 344 of the ruble, the doctor is 240 rubles, teacher – 210 rubles, engineer– 200 rubles. What else!
During the Stolypin reform peasants to emigrate to Siberia, free of charge was given as much land as you can handle. They were allocated a Bank loan for 51 years at 2%, and the state partially covered the loan! Farmers are so rich that they could write a tractor from America! (*Is it possible to compare with "democratic" reforms of the present day, when a citizen taking the credit, such as the apartment, satabase for life and pays the amount with extortionate interest, in fact, becoming a slave to the Bank?!) P. A. Stolypin, whose ideas are so needed by Russia today, said: "the State can, the state is obliged, when it is in danger, to adopt the most stringent, most exclusive laws to protect itself from disintegration... Opponents of statehood would like to choose the path of radicalism, the path of liberation from Russia's historical past, liberation from cultural traditions. They need great upheavals, we need a Great Russia!»
The population of Russia under the monarchy increased by 3 million 174 thousand people a year. People had hope, that's why they gave birth! (*What is the increase today if the mortality rate exceeds the birth rate for years?!) Until the XX century human society was divided into classes, each of which had its purpose and duties. This is recorded in the oldest sacred books of mankind, created long before the birth of Christ. And all ages the strict hierarchy was observed. However, in the XX century the age-old laws of human existence were violated, and the world is flooded with blood. The consequences of red terror are particularly clear in our time. According to the calculations of D. Mendeleev, the population of Russia by the middle of the XX century was to be half a billion people. But the population of our country today is just over 140 million. (*Today the state power should not only control and re-nationalize many branches of the national economy and economy of Russia, but also support the ethnic population of the Russian people. We need a moral ideal, not chaos and permissiveness of modern democracy).
Today, the monarchical idea is growing in popularity; the only way for Russia to end the transition period with minimal losses is the restoration of the Russian monarchy as a system of organizing power. The monarchy is a stability of power system, it is a refusal of convulsive searches of the next "successor". The President, even elected for two, even three terms, is a temporary, "Caliph for an hour", he is concerned only with the welfare and future of his family, and he basically does not care about the country and the people living in it, he thinks:"the next behind me will come, let him understand." The monarch cares about the country he is going to give heir. He can't ruin it, or his son won't get anything. Restoration of the ruling dynasty, related ties with all monarchies of Europe (great Britain, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Norway), will allow to realize "diplomacy of monarchs", more effective, than usual and will essentially raise prestige and the status of Russia, and also will allow to formulate idea which will unite society and will prompt it on revival of the country which is exhausted since 1917 from Bolshevism, and since 1991 – from liberoids. RUSSIA – ORTHODOX MONARCHY !
Hostage Yak-Islands
Alexander Andreyevich PEC (1821-1866) was the founder of our Kem branch. In Revizsky fairy Tales in Arkhangelsk on November 18, 1857 recorded: "Alexander A. PEC 37, merchant III, Guild, announced a special capital in 1849, his wife Emilia, 34 years; children — Vladimir 2 years; Daria — 5.5 years; Matilda — 3 years; Emilia — 6 months" (*my great-grandfather Ingvar-Nicholas would be born after 4 years).
In 1862, Alexander A. received an invitation from a wealthy Vyatka merchant Mikhail Kardakov to take the place of supervisor of his future sawmill 9 miles from the city of Kemi on the Yak-island, as Kourdakov received the right to harvest timber in state forests Kem basin. They immediately started logging and acquisition of equipment for the plant. By 1865, the plant was mainly built, and the steam engine was delivered to the Yak island.
In July of 1866 a steam sawmill Michael Kondakova was brought to bear. In one stone building were installed a steam engine at 90 horsepower, and the second hole with 5 boilers. In the wooden building there were 3 sawmills and several edging and circular saws. It was the first-class enterprise in which, "on revocation of technicians, the machine device belongs to number of the best in Russia".
The emergence of the new enterprise was met with hostility by the competitors and the first British company "Onega forest bargain", to exterminate the Northern forest from 1750-ies of the XVIII century and tried to start the commercial development of the forests of the Karelian Pomerania in the early 50-ies of the XIX century.
Officials of the Arkhangelsk chamber of state property was on the side of "Onega bargaining" and constantly repaired all sorts of obstacles Konakovo. So, please Kondakova of permission to sell timber in the same navigation has been buried in the wilds of bureaucratic correspondence. The Director of the Forest Department loshkariov realized the absurdity of this red tape (the plant was built, deposits made, etc.) and the Telegraph reported the resolution Konakovo to sell lumber. However, in response, he receives a detailed report from Arkhangelsk chamber that the plant is actually built, but Konakovo sent the attitude that he proved their rights to the plant, the Forester proposed to account for Board, etc. In a regular relationship (24.09.1866 years) Arkhangelsk bureaucrats triumphantly reported that the resolution Konakovo on the export of timber can be given, but the navigation is over. Indeed, the navigation has ended. All the factory products have Kondakova remained dead capital, and in the winter had logging. And here, not taken all these troubles, he died at 46 years of living a faithful assistant Kondakova Alexander A. PEC, the Manager of the sawmill, the first in the Karelian Pomerania. Financial difficulties Kondakova benefited from the owners of Onega and Arkhangel plants. Bills Kondakova were bought and contested, and he was in debtor's prison and, finding no protection in the spring of 1868 he died. The decision of the Senate, the sawmill was taken over by the Treasury, canned and over time have come into complete disrepair. Currently, the Yak-island population collects from the forest, survived the Foundation for the sawmill, a piece of the Foundation of the boiler house and swimming pool for fresh water (to feed the boilers), which the people of Rabocheostrovsk called "Jordan". The family of Alexander the PEC, left without a breadwinner, was in an awkward position, and care was taken by the merchant of the II Guild Teodor Iogannovich, Hoevelaken, married to two sisters of Alexander: first, in the Charlotte-August, who died in the first year of marriage, and then Yulia Andreevna PEC. (*The grave of Theodor I. Hoevelaken remained in Arkhangelsk).

(*They have lived and grew up in Arkhangelsk, my grandmother Lydia PEC, and when she married, Kem supply came from Arkhangelsk dowry for niece from aunts, and every thing was the label: "Lydia PEC". Grandma remembered them until his death). Emilia Alexandrovna PEC was buried in Hamburg, and Matilda Alexandrovna – in the area of Berlin Babelsberg, where her daughter took her after her sister's death. IDA Robertovna herself lived to be 93 years old, but, unfortunately, we have no information about her descendants.
Henry Meyer – ELTZ writes in his work, which was led by IDA R., Hiller (Clapton) in 1968, long-term correspondence. She was 90 years old, and she presented him with a notebook of memories she had written at an advanced age. And here are excerpts from this notebook:
” ...My mom ( *Matilda A. PEC) often told us that you have pure blood, but then we didn't understand what it is. It was like all Germans are married to each other, the children born ill, blind or deaf. Some themselves were to blame, because, that so they lived. Old men warned young people, those who wanted to marry: "don't always need to eat from the same pot!” In General, family archangelical were healthy and viable and gave the world a surprising number of able-bodied individuals. Many of them lived to a very old age.
... From James William happen all those living today Claptone. He was born in 4,12,1833. James was originally engaged to his cousin anetta Elizabeth Clafton. But she soon noticed that James pays more attention to her sister Adelaide, and asked him to marry her sister. The wedding took place in 10.9.1861.he worked in the Commission on hemp and flax on the Arkhangelsk stock exchange. He was talented in many ways and created a significant fortune. He knew a lot about construction. Under his leadership, was rebuilt marine officers ' school. He was in charge of building a house for his cousin Robert. Both the construction site was called the yards and were located in the neighborhood. Later, James bought from Robert is located here rope factory. To the possessions of the James belonged to the fields, where among other was planted barley. Cakes of barley enjoyed much success in Arkhangelsk…
... William Clifton had six children. His oldest son, named after his father, was baptized by William. At the time of the death of his father, young William lived with his wife in Onega, where he worked with his brother-in-law Hellebrandt. His wife's name was Nellie, Gellibrand. By his father he moved the little house and rope factory in Arkhangelsk under the condition that William will take care of his mother and unmarried sister, Annette Elizabeth. But William wished to remain in Onega and gave up his inheritance. His wife gave him three children: Katerina, who was called Katia, studied languages and the work of Telegraph. In St. Petersburg, she received a place of private telegraphist mother Empress Maria Feodorovna, who was a Danish Princess. At the same time, Katya had to learn Danish besides Russian, German, English and French. In the court Kate had authority, received a large salary and many gifts.
Alice was very short-sighted, worked in the Duma of St. Petersburg. She did such a brilliant career, like her sister Kate, but was kind and sweet woman. After the revolution, both sisters announced that they were British subjects and, still unmarried, left for England. Their mother had already died by then.
Lernard, they called him lenny, gave his mother a lot of trouble. School he was given. His uncle, Gellibrand took him out of school and left to work in the firm. But being childless, Hellebrandt not know how to handle kids. Gellibrand, Leonard paid a good salary to support his mother and sister Leonard. But Leonard made money with his friends. Uncle, quickly flew into a rage, sent Leonard to Australia, where he had commercial relations. Being still quite immature for independent living Leonard there, and probably fell. About once a year he wrote to his mother, who did not know the conditions in which he lived.
... Robert Clafton, my father was born on 25,10,1835. He went to Church school in Arkhangelsk, then found a place in the firm “Gribanov, Fontaines Ko”. To obtain the necessary commercial license, Robert took Russian citizenship. He made trips deep into Russia. Goods were transported to Vologda, where they were stored until spring, and then they went to Arkhangelsk down the river on the barks. Robert often accompanied these transports. Loaded barges carried only by the current. If the current was weak, and the wind was favorable, then such a journey could last for a month.
After his father's death, Robert accepted his father's inheritance, rejected by brother William, and related obligations. In place of the small house Robert built a large in 1869 He commissioned the construction of his cousin James, because he could not care about this in connection with their travel. The necessary funds were presented by the chief Robert Gribanov, who highly appreciated it. Subsequently Robert created ia the basis of this considerable fortune, but lost most of it because he had to vouch for his brother-in-law – Heinrich Kellerman. Very comfortable at that time house, from one end belonged to his mother and sister, and from the other – to him /Robert/, who then thought about marriage. He married only in forty years /1875 – 1876/ on my mother, then 19 year old Matilda PEC. Her father, i.e. my grandfather Alexander A. PEC was infamous, because he loved to kiss the bottle. Marriage to Mathilde was not accepted by the family and communication, including business with the neighboring yard stopped/ James/. When James visited the silver wedding anniversary of Robert and Matilda, it was an outstanding event.

Robert and Matilda had two daughters, Emma and I – IDA. I was born 24.09.1877 propulsion Mother promised, that I will visit ecclesiastical school in Arkhangelsk. But the school has already been closed by the Russian authorities. And I attended a ” Кleppschulе”. It was a private training organized by Julia Mayer, who was called aunt Julchen, with the support of her sister Emmilia Mayer, aunt Emmy, who was very popular in the city. But it did not give the right to attend high school. That's why I switched to Russian school. More thanks to chance, I became a kindergarten teacher. At first children of relatives with whom I had to play and speak German were collected. Then children began to come more, and groups were organized. When pastor Krause organized the kindergarten, it was copied from my place. To get an official permit, I had to give a few trial classes in the Russian men's gymnasium.
I got engaged to a 34-year-old Benedict/Benno/ Hiller who soon married me. As Hiller was a native of Riga, we moved in 1923 from Arkhangelsk to Riga... In 1939 my mother Matilda Aleksandrovna Clapton, buried in Hamburg aunt Emilia Alexandrovna PEC and moved to Berlin.
...With age, Annette Elizabeth was, like many other archangelica large originally. Making daily walks with the General Alma Mochalova (*the wife of the General-the major Nikolay Illarionovich Mochalov), they walked not near each other, and one after another, talking in German, and very loudly. When they went for a walk, at home it was called: "the train left!"After the 1st world war Anneta did not get permission to leave. She felt very abandoned at that time, as many of her relatives and friends have gone abroad. She got sick and lost her hair. Soon after that she died in Arkhangelsk.

Гордый ингвард
Там, где сосны

... Archangel means earth angel, located at the mouth of the Dvina river, where the river breaks into several sleeves and forms many Islands. Near the Archangel, the river makes a bend on which the city is built so that the streets in it are also curved. The river, first street, has a large bend, the second Trinity Avenue, already a lot straighter, and St. Petersburg, the Avenue is almost straight. But between these two streets, starting from the town hall, there is another short street – Pskov Avenue. The last so-called ” new streets”, Novgorod and Kostroma a lot shorter than the first. So, following on them, end of the city, you can reach your goals faster. The city is a "sixth mile" and villages. On the high Bank of Dvina there is a house of Peter I,protected by an superstructure and often visited by tourists, Although it is a big question whether the house was built by the king himself.
The large island of Solombala was connected to the city by a floating bridge every spring. Here was the port, where foreigners for many years led a lively trade, mainly trading in timber, grain and other goods.
Archangel lies on the right, high Bank of the Dvina, although every street has a storm drain leading to the river. On such drains water to the city didn't arrive, and it was necessary to carry water buckets / only then carried out a water supply system/. The residents had to walk on the water. From the rich to do, there was a wagon or sled, on which was a barrel. The poor drove the water on the sled or carried in buckets. The clothes were rinsed in the river.
In Solombala, separated from the town by the sleeve of the Daugava river, there the shore was low, and each year the river was out of its banks and flooded the entire island, the Water flooded the basements and lower floors, bringing a lot of damage. I have twice had the opportunity to survive the flood in Solombal. First time with the Schmidt family.
Ms. Ernestine Schmidt-PEC went on the boat and handed out bread and produce to the poor. Her daughter Paula is my girlfriend and I rode a boat to Mymax. It was interesting, though eerie. The path ran through the forest. Water climbed so highly, that small poles, camped on the edge of sidewalks, were almost not are visible. The second time I lived with my cousin Tilly, Guttormsen. She lived on the ground floor.

We got out the window to the boat and sailed along the street. During the ice drift to the city could not swim. The break-up was so intense that ice formed whole mountains. Before the debacle they made a bet / lottery/. For money it was possible to predict when the ice drift will begin. The one who predicted the correct hours, receive the money.
... Germans - that is a common name for those archangels who gravitated to the German school and Church. Some of them were non-Russian, but not of German origin. Most of them accepted Russian citizenship and was loyal to the Russian government. Pastors and teachers were for the most part from abroad. Once the German pastor began to pray for”our German Kaiser Wilhelm II". Soon our Church employee went to the Governor and complained. So we got rid of this disrespectful pastor. If someone needed help or someone was collecting that money, the Germans always gave the largest amount. For example, we didn't have an electric tram. The money was given for this purpose by the Germans. Mayor William Hoevelaken, our distant relative took care that this tram let to line. As same all were happy, when our Urban Head the first have driven on it on city,
Not only men, but also German women worked for the benefit of the city. So ladies Shergold, Paehtz, Surkov, etc. took care of one orphanage in Archangel, and on the other in Solombala. When the city was to be held a lottery in favor of children's shelters, they all worked in different parts of the city with cards and tickets. The ladies visited the shelters on a weekly basis and made sure that everything was in order. The case involved young people.
Of course, that the Germans cared about themselves, about how to preserve the German language and not to forget it. In the old German school, where my parents studied, were specially assigned to the ladies who spoke with the children at recess in German, English, French. All subjects were taught in German. But it was forbidden, and eventually the school was closed. Later it was opened again, but it was allowed to teach only in Russian. Unfortunately, I had to go to school when the German school was closed. So I went to a Russian gymnasium with my sister. Very rich parents sent their boys to St. Petersburg in German Annenschule and Petricola. There they lived in boarding houses…»
Unfortunately, to find the entire book of memories of the cousin of my grandmother until I can not. But they also give us an idea of the life of the archangels.
The elder brother of my great-grandfather, Vladimir A. PEC at that time lived in St. Petersburg at the Bypass channel 99, and was an employee of the plant "Astra". She was married to a Mrs. Oblak, had a daughter Willie. We have no other information about him and his family.

Proud Ingvar

The youngest son of Alexander-Ingvard-Nikolai Alexandrovich PEC (1861-1918), my great-grandfather, had to go to Germany to relatives, where he lived, studied and even served 7 years in the Reichswehr. Was already rich bride Louise Inguard. Man is proud, he didn't want to depend on her money and went back to Kem to earn some status. First translator port (knew 6 languages), and then moved on to the sawmill on Popov island assistant upravlyayuschego from his cousin William Hoevelaken. In January 1888, Kem, the city Council has passed Popov island rental Arkhangelsk merchants Shergold E. I. and A. Surkov. On the island of merchants, built the 8-frame saw mill: steam-engines - 8, sawmills "Bolinder" – 8, edging and circular sawing machines – 18 pieces, lathes machine tools— 3 pieces, benches— 4 pieces, in Addition to the sawmill on Popov island had a school, a first-aid station, telephone, two clubs (popular and "noble"), a residential building. In December 1888 here began sawing logs coming to the plant rafting on the river Kem. Two years after the opening of the sawmill, 13 foreign vessels visited its berths and the number of them grew every year.
Deep-water lip of the White sea, on the shore of which the plant is located, made it possible to dock and large-tonnage ships. Huge stocks of wood in the region and good cheap ways of an alloy of logs promoted fast increase in volumes of production of timber – the world famous "the white sea Board differing in special durability. At the beginning of XX century over 100 thousand logs were sawn every year at the KEMA sawmill. Expanding business, the owners of the enterprise has created a joint-stock company "Association KEMA sawmill plants," sawmills", the main shareholders of which were German and Dutch merchants E. I. Shergold, E. E., brunt, E. Lindes and VV Hoevelaken. The plant's products are mainly exported in England, Belgium and Germany.
Our great-grandfather Ingvard PEC, the Commissioner for logging, riding his" Serko "with a ready-to-use rifle" Mauser " behind, went to the villages, agreed with the peasants on the felling and rafting on the river Kem sawmill. In the summer of 1888 in the village View-the river (near Avneporog) Ingvar saw 15-year-old beauty karelka Elena Prohorovna Popov, a native of D., Panozero, and asked will she marry him. She kind of jokingly replied, "Why not". Ingvar left, but left the uncle of Helen the sack of flour semolina, to have a baby niece. There is love at first sight—a year Ingvar came back to her, wearing her gold ring and said, "Les, now we're engaged!""That ring I as bewitched, — she said many years later his granddaughter Anfisa Semenova, — but if I then at least knew something about Louise."
Young soon began to live in his house in the village of Podujatie, each with its own bathroom, was a servant, economy. At the age of 18, Elena PEC often goes to Church and begs the Lord for children. Interested priest poduzhemskogo parish father Gabriel (Yashin) asking a woman, gives her advice: "To have children, you do not need to sleep in different rooms, and with her husband." The husband was told everything, the servant was immediately dismissed, and 8 people were born. First born girls, copies of Inguard, relatives loved them very much. For the holidays in the carriage Hoevelaken children Podujatia carried on Popov island. A large two-storey Manager's house can accommodate all the relatives. (*More recently, this house was a nursery, and his wife Alexandra Kostina drove there the great-grandchildren of Inguard). During the summer, all Hoevelaken and Gerrity had fun on picnics to the waterfalls will be Squeezed and VOCA through Podujatie. Ingvar surprisingly was hospitable, simple people. Put used in your carriage in Kemi poduzhemskaya attendants, and he goes to the village on foot. In 1897 his great-grandfather wrote a petition to the reckoning with his family to the peasants Poduzhemskaya parish Kem uyezd, and the exception, therefore, of the burghers of the Great Ustyug. He was now permanently live in the village of Podujatie and be responsible for the rent of the waterfall Wgmy (passing the waterfall rafting, salmon fishing and pearl). In the minutes of the General meeting of shareholders of the partnership KEMA sawmills for 1901, for example, expenditure for the rent Ugmi determined in 300 roubles.

Where pine trees stand giants, where mighty rivers flow

Podujatie is an old village, a fabulous place. From Kem historian G. S. Sannikov find one of the first mentions of the village. This: "This" Aksinya Fedorova S. podujatie from the Solovetsky monastery on the grounds in Kem parish" from 21.09. 1571года: "lo, I Aksinya Fedorova Fedorova daughter son Andronov from Podujatia, gave I to the monastery of Solovki, the grandfather and the father his th Fedor Fedorov son polacca land, fishing at sea and in the river, and saltwater rivers, and places, and with the marine parnami and do in the grandfather on its Fedorov, father Fyodor, Yes brother Simon, but for their souls eternal funeral."

(*Until 1764, many rivers and Toni – fishing spots in the bays and gullies of the White and Barents seas, belonged to the Solovetsky monastery and Trinity-Sergius Lavra).
4 may 1910 for the priest of the Annunciation Cathedral of the city of Kemi father Vasily (Melentiev) wrote: "Podujatie by the number of yards is one of the biggest villages of Karelia... the Local Karelians — the people sharp-witted, well speaking in Russian... the village has a parish Church, school and parish Board of Directors..." . Poduzhemskaya Edinoverie parish consisted of the village of Podujatie, which until February 12, 1892 (DK decree No. 1426) was part of Kemsky Cathedral parish. Initially, the village had only an old chapel, built at the expense of the Solovetsky monastery. In 1892 propulsion she was converted in the Church of the Transfiguration, and the Edinoverie clergy was in Kemi in common faith Baptist Church, by order of the diocesan authorities, moved to the village Podujatie. The order was due, on the one hand, the lack of co-religionists in the town of Kemi, on the other — the desire of the inhabitants of the village of Podujatia.
On August 28 at the favorite Podujatie celebrated the feast day of the Dormition, which was held in the town "Taival". Even on the farm this day was declared a weekend. There were guests from other villages, the fishermen brought salmon, women used to make fish soup and fish, baked from cloudberries, cranberries, blueberries, then brought hot ones. During the feast, lots of singing and dancing. The youth with the pleasure of dancing the modern dances, the waltz and the Foxtrot, and the elderly prefer more relaxed dancing, such as "utukku". Was the glade of games: rounders, leap frog, in the winter tobogganing. Someone drove the pole in the center of the clearing and attached to the sled. The merry-go-round turned out, entertaining both children and adults. On the day of Ivan Kupala broke birch branches, made them brooms, which then steamed in the bath. Brooms throwing in the river, wondering at the same time: if the broom drowned, threw it had to die this year. Life around the icy sea has made the people industrious and honest, patient, and intrepid, accustomed to look boldly into the face of death. In Podujatie people were open, helpful and kind. They could not indifferently pass by someone else's grief. Farming here has been a little scarce land yield is rich in furs and game of the forest, Kem-the river was full of red and white fish – and the inhabitants largely live, winter is long cold, summer is short and bright.

In Podujatie lived a wealthy life, but spacious, home built solid, more wealthy people – even two-storey houses. On the ground floor kept firewood, hay and barrels of berries, salted fish and mushrooms. Kept in the village poultry, pigs, sheep, goats, horses and cows. The shortage of hay, the cattle fed white reindeer moss, macerating it in Navara from the entrails and heads of cod. Flourished carpentry and carpentry, spinning and weaving, made from birch bark baskets, purses, pesteri, baskets, salt shakers, wood – spinning wheel, churn and much more. A small boat – the boat could make almost every owner, but was in Podujatie wizard, famous in the entire North region, able to build even large, durable and beautiful ships – Kochi, able to lift up to 2-2,5 thousand pounds of cargo (*Koch – the traditional Pomor ship (prohibited construction by Peter I was well adapted to swimming in ice). Their services are used not only coast-dwellers – the inhabitants of the neighboring villages, but ceresana, Valsugana, masenza, residents of Solovki and Arkhangelsk and even the British and the Germans. Pole masters did not use any drawings or plans, and were guided by the work of traditional skills and innate flair.
Grisha Semenov told how his father built the Norwegian sea ate: " the woods he found craneway strong spruce, with small dense ring, have made her keel. From smooth, sturdy and smooth pine father made boards for the sides and two of them dried. Then soaked in the river, dried, wet again, so they are easier to profile, planing by hand. This Board then you'll never dry out and the leak will not. Pine resin ground, ate this faithfully served his father for many years in Murmansk…»
In Podujatie on the regular calendar superimposed calendar field, where the wealth of the future catch was judged according to the lunar phases. There was a sign that the fish is well caught in the morning or evening dawn before the birth of the moon. Or this: “a Lot of ash – a lot of salmon”. (*Until now, when Pomor says "fish", he means only salmon). "The sea is our field", — said the coast-dwellers, and the failure to catch meant how would a poor harvest of bread, since all their life was based on catching river and sea fish – cod, salmon, herring and to a lesser degree, navaga, flounder, coruche. It was not easy to get fish-nurse. Residents of Kemi and Podujatia was not satisfied with fishing in the White sea. Being in Murmansk, they saw that in certain periods of its banks shoals of capelin, followed by the – cod, haddock, halibut and catfish. Sailed Pomors “by faith” according to old superstition, relying on memory and the correct signs. Only a few had inherited notebooks (lots), where dangerous chalk and thresholds, convenient and safe havens were noted. Eight hundred miles of the shores of the Murman coast – just a stone covered with moss. From the ship the immigrants from Europe to see the bleak desert. Along the shore are scattered in different distances from each other rare fishing "encampments". They are empty and boarded up tightly in winter, but in summer is full of life. From ancient times to the Murman coast from Cape Svyatoy nos (river Iokanga) to the Kola coast-dwellers lips were 40 such encampments: Varzino, Kharlovka, Zyp-Navolok, bell, Teriberka, etc. with the huts (mills), mud huts (Skei) for salting and storing fish, with barns for the storage of gear. Cod, haddock and halibut caught tiers, huge hook gear up to 12 miles long. Having good vessels, gear and fishing experience in the White sea, Pomors managed to adjust fishing in the open Barents sea at a distance of 3-5, and in quiet weather 15-20 versts from the coast. The first time the cod was manufactured only in the summer, after the ice cleared the White sea. Fishermen on boats came to Murmansk and were engaged in catching two-three months, and in August-September left in the villages. Noting that in the spring months, beginning in March, there is accumulated more fish than in summer, Pomors started to leave the fishery “land”, with the expectation to come in encampments on the eve of the run. Fishermen who went on the spring fishery, called “Veshnyaki”. In early March, when the North is raging blizzards, from the white sea villages, touched in a way Industrialists, carrying Luggage, clothes and provisions on small sleds – every year went coast-dwellers earn their daily bread – cod through the Kandalaksha and a Coke to the sacred places of the fishery. The Kola Peninsula inside is almost deprived of population, housing is rare. Therefore, all the way through the snowy desert Industrialists have to spend the night in the open air, warming only by the fire, and a lot of “hangers – twists ” frozen on the Murmansk track. Finally, they reach the Murman and his opinions. The mill is made of imported tesa and equipped with a large Russian oven. Right and left are bunks. Placed here for up to 30 people, and even immediately dry gear, clothing and footwear – the stuffiness is terrible.
Going to places tarred in the naval campaigns Pomeranian Libertines. Work in Putin without shouts and without looking back on time. Here get severe hardening future sailors – Plovers. The Outpost had no power: no warden in tsarist times, nor a policeman in the Soviet era. Complete freedom of action in Manila, the people in this distant region, and vodka with brazenly to drink relish in bad weather, to break away, as they say, it was possible to complete the program. Some encampments, caught in convenient places for fishing and trade, over time, turned into large villages. Those were the fishing villages of Gavrilovo and Teriberka in Murmansk, the Varzuga and Kuzomen ' on the Terskij coast, famous for salmon fishing and the annual Nikolskaya fair, which the fishers took fish, furs, and walrus ivory.

Hunted Karelia – Pomors on seals and seal near the island of Necheva and the Holy of the Nose and throat of the White sea, the white whale, a sea hare, walrus, and polar bear on Vaigach, Kolguev, Svalbard and other polar Islands, where they had to spend the winter in felled in haste huts, long awaiting the approach of the herds of seals. To pass the long winter evenings in the artels invited storytellers of epics and storytellers who received for their art a certain share of production. There was a case in Podujatie in the mid-19th century. Our relative Grigory Semenov was hunting with the gang in the New Earth and strongly quarreled with his friends, and they left him alone with a small supply of provisions for the winter. Sailed in the spring of fishers saw on the Bank runs their countrymen, whose heart could not stand joy – and then he died before he could tell us how he managed to single-handedly withstand the terrible winter. Hunting is a risky business. In the Church before leaving, she ordered a prayer for health, baked and given a special food “uzhnu” and “temnyk”. Very often came from the field sad news: the jammed ice that swept into the sea, that was missing. Danger lay in wait for the hunters every step of the way. But the coast-dwellers, fearlessly exploring the wealth of the Northern seas, in the XIV -XV centuries were even in Greenland. They wrote a glorious page in the history of the Northern navigation.
In the autumn, in the period Margaritinskaya fair fishers came to Arkhangelsk from all camps, and some of them came this time from Norway, where they annually took bread, hemp products, cereals, bartering them for salt, cod, Altesino, reindeer skins and more. That just was not fair! Sacks of grain and flour, new sleds, wagons, wheels, harness, arc, tubs, barrels, gangs, buckets wooden, basket-plethi goetia of pine and birch bark, Sabanci, baskets, spinning wheels, brushes to wash the wool, sharpening, blades sharpening KOs, forgings miscellaneous: tongs, knives, diggers, spades, pitchforks, scythes-pink, sickles, axes – you name it. There are vegetables, meat, butter on the sidelines of the trade rows. In early October, Pomors returned with the purchased goods to his native village.
... Austere beauty of Podujatia and its environs — granite rocks, swamps, forests. But forget it, looking at the daring beauty Kem, carrying its many waters in the White sea. Stone ridges and rocky Islands make the river rush from side to side, wriggle, split into sleeves.
Governor A. N. Engelhard in 1897 got to Poduzhemye in the boat: "steering and rowers in the boat were only women; courage and dexterity with which they operated the boat, amazing — at the slightest mistake the boat could hit the rock, and then, of course, goodbye: swim out of this riot is impossible. As awkward as I was in front of the women to refuse, but another time unnecessarily I will try to avoid such visits…»

Went early legends about the huge waterfall Uima. Forever raging, foaming, impetuous, he broke into splinters the beam 8 inches thick, and came close to him, felt the shaking of the earth. Nevertheless, salmon rapidly ran up to this threshold, and where she can not swim, jumped over obstacles. Noise Uzmi was quite well heard in the 1.5-2 km at the far end of the village of Podujatie. And the vision of the waterfall was well out of the village. For strength and power held Ugamsky waterfall first place in Karelia (known worldwide Kivach was only 6). Travelers who visited white sea Karelia, admired the waterfall Ugma, which, according to M. N. Maclay: "... in its beauty and picturesque location will not yield known Kivach and Imandra in Finland..." vividly described Ugamsky waterfall I. V. Olenev in 1917: "Whole hordes of seething waves in a chaotic demon right naskakivaya one another, sometimes highly knocked up, scatter the clouds of diamond spray and silver foam, and rushing down with great rapidity, as if hurrying to get away from this terrible place. Two round black granite rocks, surviving by some miracle, among the rapids, see fabulous bands, and it seems that these rocks bounce in place under the pressure of the restless element. Circle the earth trembles and spreads such a roaring noise, that for ten steps you only see the open mouth of your interlocutor, but can't hear his voice no matter how loudly he may scream... Engineer, manufacturing measuring Uzmi on behalf of the Arkhangelsk merchant VV Hoevelaken, the working force of the waterfall was estimated at 150 thousand horsepower. Generally Ugma by the force of the falling water and the General impression is hardly inferior to Imatra…»
In 1915 Petrozavodsk-Murmansk railway crossed the Kem river. But, contrary to popular belief, the locals wasn't happy about it. On the contrary, the builders were not allowed to stand or take from them such money that they moved out themselves, did not sell them products and even sometimes did not let on the construction site. In General, fought for every square centimeter of land, which they wanted to take away. Northerners felt trouble, they were afraid that citizens will only bring harm, and benefit from them won't be. And what is poduzece were right. A General Pavlov immediately bought the waterfall will be Squeezed. His calculation was to tame the waterfall by building a hydroelectric power station and a paper mill on it. This deal was legal until 1917, but did not happen. Podujatie got a temporary reprieve.
But in 1932, at the threshold Squeezed came the prospectors. They began to drill the shore and the isthmus between the river and the reach above the falls, to ascertain the nature of the soil. Has done several wells already and was going to complete the work, when suddenly on the outskirts of the nearest to the river wells scored the fountain, and from far he heard a strange humming, which happens when boiling water. Ran the drillers saw the following scene: in the growing hole wildly spinning dirty water. Tried to plug a well bags with the earth, but water swallowed them and threw out in the river together with a stream. Two days later, the jumper settled, but while holding on. The river gnawed through the tunnel and throwing multi-ton lumps of earth and stones, rushed to the bypass Uzmi, through the neighboring VOCA threshold. So ceased to exist beautiful Ugma, which gave the name to the village! Where was the terrible falls, barely rippling the dirty trickle that could not replace the old giant. From a thick layer of silt was visible sunken driftwood logs (they counted about 50 thousand). Fishermen do not even have time to remove the 32 instance of the breeding of salmon, which were kept in cages on the doorstep. The most important trouble for the residents was the lack of drinking water. Terekhov, head of the party that created it, couldn't watch poduzeca in the eye. Those almost with his fists rushed at him:"Damned! We have sporty the river-go now the water line for mud pies!"Two years went poduzece clean water downstream, the salmon fishing is temporarily stopped, and the fish a long time were not found downstream. But the dam has not withdrawn from their intentions. The force of the river has not dried up, she just chose an easier path. Therefore, it was decided to build a hydroelectric power station. But the war with the Finns, and then the Great Patriotic war, and then years and years of recovery.
In 1957 my aunt and Anya Semenova examined obsolete direction Usmy already parastasie forest, he honed over the centuries the rocks, bumping sometimes into the funnel-boilers with a depth of 2 meters and up to meters in diameter, drilled in the granite bed of the waterfall wildly spinning boulders. And VOCA-threshold is slightly higher Uzmi, rattled with redoubled force, and then he became the most powerful in Karelia.
And again today is a terrible VOCA before my eyes, and not faded in the memory the impressions received then. A "Secili" we got a salmon with uncle Kolya Semenov (husband of Anna PEC) and Athos Antonov. Rush on the river huge, slippery heavy logs, they have no number. And to meet them salmon makes for Wocaw Kemi your heavy unprecedented rise. The power of procreation drives the fish up against the cool stream of water, jumping salmon in hours and days almost sheer jet waterfall to get to the happy place where you can sow a new generation.

Grandma asked us of the old riddle: "there is No wings and fly, no legs, and catch up" Nobody could figure out what it's salmon, overcoming a large part of the rapids through the air by jumping. Uncle Kohl, a hereditary fisherman, said that if salmon was born in Kemi, then she goes for a walk across the White sea to the coast of Norway. But for spawning would return to his native river. It is a passing fish, spends half of life in the seas. Unlike cod with its millions of eggs, salmon is only 10-20 thousand, fry, she leaves a tiny amount. On the way salmon many dangers, enemies and disease, and catch fisherman plays insignificant role. Salmon lives long, only up to 10 years, if not killed before. Forty-pound fish in the river are not uncommon, and the record weight was 39 kg. According to the observations of fishermen fish salmon between them surprisingly friendly. They are usually in pairs — the male with the female, and such love between them that if the female is somehow killed, then the male tries to kill himself — lovebird they can't live without each other. To spawn females covered dark and pink spots, and the males and at all not to know: the lower lip turns into a hook, scales becomes uneven. Since time immemorial, each spring salmon enters the mouth of a full-flowing Kemi to spawn in its upper reaches, in the lakes from which the river originates. Salmon spawning begins in autumn, from mid-September, and continues until the rivers freeze. Spawning often occurs in shallow areas with sandy-rocky bottom. After spawning of the salmon (more males) is sinking into the sea, and part of it (almost exclusively females) in the river in deep places until the spring of next year and is sinking into the sea together with hollow water. This exhausted from prolonged starvation fish (*it is called valchak) represents a pitiful sight. A disproportionately huge head and the caudal fin – and between them a pitiful scrawny, similar to the strap body. Even the color of the meat becomes dirty gray. Salmon does not stop any obstacles, even granite ridge of Voyage. Here, squeezed in a narrow space, the water boils and roars familiar to on the rocks in summer and winter. Resting salmon behind the large stones at the entrance to the threshold. In deep holes accumulate several pieces.
Athos and I stand on a rock and watch the fish move. Scraping the sides of the sharp stones, the fish moved through a ridge of rocks. Here is one male jumped in the jump through the stone sticking out of the Pitch. Still leap in levels and forward! Still! And then a steep ledge of hanging rock. A bold leap from the water and the fish popping up right on the beach. Wet from the spray of the grass the fish jumps, quickly and easily, and — again in the water. (My younger brother Jacob, gostevali often in childhood in Podujatie, found once on the shore so that's out of the water a fish. Without thinking, he rolled up her sweater and took on ear).
Uncle Kohl with a huge sake in his hands stands on the rocks below. How can it not break into a violent flow! Scooping up a Sak one or a few fishes, uncle nick throws the SAC ashore. We Athos picks up the SAC and Park Kurtkoy (truncheon) one fish after another, put in a wicker basket. For Podujatia the course of the salmon is an important event. Fishing for it is easy, and the catch is good. Salmon has long been a part of the main table. On the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty my grandmother used to make the Royal table of salmon in salted form, than proud of all my life. In some typically national Russian dishes and products considered to be essential the presence of the salmon in the beet soup, Russian pancakes, pies with fish, Russian cakes with buckwheat, meat pies with rice. Fresh pink meat and fatty salmon has always been a favorite food of Pogoreltsev.

Salmon was caught before in all sorts of ways. The most destructive way of fishing is fishing with fences, when the whole river is blocked by a palisade, in the middle of which only one hole is left with a network against it. Salmon, going against the flow, meets the fence, looking for where she would go, and, finding the hole, gets to the network. In this case, the salmon never povorachivat ago: instinct urges her to go forward, up the river, so it only pokes his head into the net, but to break it, of course not.
Salmon always bailed out village, and essentially — entire life. Why, I think, and my great-grandfather Ingvar PEC settled in 1889, this reserved Podujatie. After a long life in Germany, after the most severe German Ordnung (order) and overcrowded population in Germany, after seven years of service in the Reichswehr, this land of blue lakes and empty rivers, harsh rocks and endless forests, unique monuments of wooden architecture – a Paradise on the loose, in nature. In the evening, tired, happy from the abundance of fish and experiences we rowed with mount Athos in Podujatie, and uncle Kohl has ruled the paddle and says that still, a little becomes a salmon in the river, mad alloy is ruining it. In a peaceful location the smell from the river spicy-sweet — rotting snag at the bottom. Pine wood and bark secrete extracts, fit for leather tanning, and how it acts on the delicate fish. And told uncle nick that not only the salmon destroys the alloy, but also pearl fisheries he had killed.

Золото из могил
Ледяные купели
Вяртсиля, Коноваловым
meri mia

It is known that the pearl was painted on the former beautiful coat of arms of the County town of Kem. In 1897 A. Hrebtov wrote: "... pearls are found in all rivers, where the salmon comes...Russian pearls in General, and especially mined in the KEMA County, very good in color, brilliance and shape. The best copies go first of all through the buyers abroad, and from there, the pearl is brought to us under the name Oriental". "Catches" pearl-recognize the peasants were doing at the rapids themselves, and the pearls fished in the summer, during the recession of the water. The largest pearl called “sovereign”, it was supposed to send to Cola, and from there to Moscow. Raw pearls were sold to buyers from Russia and Scandinavia. Cheaper pearls were bought by the peasants for the decoration of elegant women's and girls ' hats, which artisanal drilled pearls and processed them. From the Northern regions of fashion clothes and pearls spread throughout Russia. They were decorated with Royal ecclesiastical vestments, caftans and headdresses of boyars and nobles. Sewing pearls practiced not only in the home, but also in monasteries, and has achieved considerable perfection. Intricate headdress Elena Prokhorovna PEC, my great-grandmother, shone with elegance and beauty of Kemsky pearls. Unlike fishing and hunting artels, pearls were mined alone. I have alloy and pearl gradually disappeared.
(*A good-natured Bumpkin Athos Antonov wife, a crazy, suddenly cut off the sleeper's head with an axe – so ended the life of this fisherman and a good man).

Gold from the grave

Lived quietly, our grandfather Ingvar in the "reserved" Podujatie. Young beautiful wife, easy but responsible work at the mill for good money, friendly relatives Hoevelaken and Gerety, not the last person in Podujatie. Great hunting of any animal and poultry only go outside the village, but the fishing is great. As necessary, and as then took fish in the river. Yes, some fish, Royal— salmon! Village folk worked at his farm. Would come and the villagers: "is There any kind of work, Nikolai?"- "You, poika (guy, Kar.) come back tomorrow morning. Tomorrow is another day, a person is more cheerful!"(favorite saying of my grandmother, Lydia PEC). But once in the door of the house knocked on the door. The threshold on all fours stood a stranger-a man who gave Ingvard a letter. After reading the letter, the great-grandfather turned pale, kissed the children, quickly Packed up and rode off on the horse. He returned home late at night and said to his wife:"but I wanted to go to Germany, but did not catch up with the steamer." This letter was from Louise, and waited for it Ingvard on this ship, Yes, late messenger in the path of the injured leg. For shipping and they received 25 rubles (*cow – great value those days cost 7 rubles). The Lord did not allow children to be orphaned. And to hold and to hold Enguarde was only one grandson, Peter, born in 1915, his eldest daughter Lydia. Ingvard died in the summer of 1918 during a terrible storm. First was buried in granite cemetery island near the village, but in the 60's, before the flooding of Podzemlja (and Islands), water Pushkinskogo reservoir, all the island cemetery was moved to the mountain, to a clearing in a mass grave near the main Poduzhemskaya cemetery where lies Elena Prokhorova PEC, survived her husband for 27 years. A lot of values borrowed from the task force carrying the cemetery inhabitants, the pockets were filled with gold and other ornaments. Offered cheaply daughters of Ingvard — Anna Semenova, but she refused.

Ice fonts

The only son of his great-grandfather Paul PEC (1911-1936), the same Grenadier growth and appearance, as Ingvar, was a supporter of socialist ideas. Rural activist, he traveled a lot through the villages and the harsh winter of 1936, along with the horse fell under the river ice. Somehow getting out of polynyas in ice-covered clothing is 20 miles away where Jogging, I do get to Podujatia, and summer died of galloping consumption.
And here is fate! Paul's son, Nicholas PEC (1932-1957), my senior companion, cheerful, sociable person after the seven-year period worked on the alloy. Then there was the army and the training of tractor drivers in Petrozavodsk. After that, Kohl's, working in Paris Kem boom company, were transported on a tractor different cargo off-road Kemsky district. 15 February 1957 on the orders of chief supply of ORS and some of Gorelenko he tried on the ice of a winter road from Rokkasho lake to go to the village of Masozera, although it was evident that the ice is treacherous. Spoke to nick on the phone that you can't drive on the ice that wants to live. But rested his head: "go, then, and that's it!", and Kohl-the Executive people.
As soon as the tractor and the sled hit a patch of ice, the tractor instantly failed, as told by an eyewitness of the tragedy Grigory Semenov. To pop up, despite the open door, nick was not in time — the broken heart at 25.
If after two girls: sverchkova Elena, who lives in St. Petersburg, and Lydia Nikolaevna of PEC, living in Arkhangelsk. The daughter of Paul Alexander PEC (1936-1998) worked for many years at the telephone station Podujatia. She married a tractor driver Peter Tikhonov. Since 1965 she lived in Kemi in the village of drivers. Their son Ivan Tikhonov and daughter Alina live in Kemi.

"Vyartsilya, Konovalov»

So my grandmother signed envelopes, sending letters to her younger sister Alexandra Konovalova-PEC (1906-1986) — aunt Shura, cheerful, sociable, very located to our family. Shura was born in Podujatie and happily lived there for 15 years, until in 1922 did not Woo her a solid 28-year-old accountant of the sawmill Pavel Konovalov. Shura's mother, Elena Prokhorova, denied it was him but then I remembered that she is 16 years went down the aisle and that Ingvar was also older than her 12 years. And agreed.
As for stone wall lived aunt Shura with its Paul Nikolayevich entire life. Accountant-solid at the time, the male profession was. In 1923, Lena was born to them, named after her grandmother. Serious and picky, remaining in the girlhood, worked as an engineer-economist at the plant "Avangard" and radio plant in Petrozavodsk. In his spare time loved to read, solve and compose crossword puzzles. And has found its appeasement in Zaporozhye. In 1933 born, the beautiful Marguerite, tall and stately, her grandmother Elena. Her life was not always successful and she lived in Estonia for the last years. The youngest son of Konovalovs — Nicholas, from his home in the village of värtsilä, where the family moved after the war, where uncle Pasha, Konovalov worked as a chief accountant at the steel plant, went to the town of Lomonosov, where he enrolled in the merchant Navy, and then 40 years worked as a mechanic in the trawl fleet for the seas and oceans. Now Kolya is a pensioner, lives in Murmansk and nurses grandchildren.

Sea-mia because the nian, sie, milma you nia

The middle daughter of Ingvard — Anna PEC(1904-1989), most of his life lived in Pomuzeme – simple kind woman. She liked the young black-haired moustache Karel with the village by the nickname Raven — Nikolai Semyonov, who worked from an early age in the dry goods store of her father. The wedding with songs and triples lasted for several days. Traditionally, young was sent to bath, and from the changing room, then popped up the black cat.
Not just then Anna remembered that cat is a complicated character turned out to be her husband. But he was a hard worker and excellent master, hands of gold, and carpenter and joiner – what to look for: for farm and custom sewed uncle Kolya fishing boats, snake, tees, even the Norwegian Elah — light and comfortable under sail and oars. And he 15 seasons in the Barents sea retreated to the fishing korshik (senior fishing vessel), and sons Alexander and Grigory Semenov sailed with him Plovers.

Alexander Semenov

Sasha was the eldest child. It is the only one of the children Anne and Nicholas semenovykh, I never saw. After a seven-year Sasha studied at the factory school in Nadvoitsy, was a good carpenter that country life really did come in handy.
In 1963 during the construction of Pushkinskoi HPP on the river Kem from their homes were forcibly evicted the residents of the village of Podujatie. Anything equivalent in return, the authorities did not think to offer them, on the contrary, the eviction of a hurry. People dismantled their homes, transported them to the city of Kem, somehow settled down. And Sasha Semenova, the voice of the blood called to the opposite side, the homeland of our ancestors in the Karelian village of Panozero *. Buying a house and bringing from Podujatia his family, he lived in it the rest of my life working in the woods and on the alloy. At first, the attitude of the village towards immigrants was "cool". All that changed when the villagers found out that Sasha is kind of Popov and his grandmother, Elena Prokhorova PEC and her parents, Akulina Y. Popov and Prokhorov, dear Paozersky the old-timers. But in fact Popov in Panozero from the 17th century and have their ancestors "priest Ivan Ilyin" and "priest Stepan Ilyin" selected in the "Capital book" scribe Ivan Anichkov in 1678. In addition to serving in the Church and to feed their families, the clergy were engaged in agriculture, paying "...all sorts of gifts to the great sovereign" on an equal basis with their parishioners "...from the peasant in a row."
Life in Panozero was subordinated to the established order for centuries, proceeded slowly, hidden behind dense woods and impassable bogs. Here Elena Popova Prohorovna married Ingvard, was born here and my grandmother, Lydia Nikolaevna of PEC, also in 1893 she was baptized in the ancient Church of Elijah the Prophet parish priest Nikolay Grigoryevich Kaporskii. Today, this Church, although it makes a strong impression, noticeably dilapidated, the dome was torn by the atheists under the sound of horn and drum roll in the 30s of the last century and has not yet been restored. Centuries-old trees, a Church fence of mossy boulders, nameless graves of priests. Namolennoe place! But dropped a huge dry spruce near the temple, and about this, well I guess it's not. The fall of the next tree can destroy the building itself. Father Grigory, who comes here from Kemi, agrees with me, promises to cut down threatening trees. And we very much hope that already not for long remained to stand to temple without a dome and Church singing .
The public of Karelia and Finland in 1994, Panozero saved from flooding and the violent destruction – if built Beloporozhskaya HPP. The city of Kem was also doomed to" moral murder " of the planned construction of a Marine hydroelectric power station in the compound of the assumption Cathedral. These two hydroelectric power stations are the initial and final links in the project of the Kemsky hydropower hub of 1961 (where the Kem river was oblyzhno named a non-INDUSTRIAL river), the same age as the "absurd of the 20th century", a plan to transfer part of the flow of Northern rivers to the South, threatening the country with a cultural and energy catastrophe. Though since GOERLO plain large-scale hydropower are considered to be unprofitable! But the Directorate of the KEMA HPP cascade is still trying to attract Western investors to Finance this obviously unpromising project to use hydroelectric power stations as a source of excess electricity sold to the West for dollars in its pocket.
And Sasha Semenov has found its resting place in the homeland of ancestors, good sand he had with his wife Shura on the high banks of the "mother of rivers" Kemi, beautiful fence made them a son, Gregory, handy, responsible person. The average son, Sergey, lives today in Kursk, drives heavy trucks on roads of Russia, but the homeland doesn't forget. The eldest, Nicholas, built a solid house in the village, and his father's house is in order. Like his father, he works in the woods, famously, "walk" on his boat on the rapids of river fishing with his beautiful wife Tatiana, and the farm is so busy. Of course, many things in Panozero are lost irretrievably, but the village still lives according to traditional covenants, and rural landscapes retain their uniqueness and value. And although the danger of dying of natural Panozero persists, panasert able to preserve life on this ancient Karelian land.
(*Panozero-the pearl of the North, the last Karelian village, preserved on the banks of the Kemi river, the only Karelian settlement that has preserved the historically developed layout and building element, a phenomenon in which each structure is an architectural monument. On its territory was found many items Dating back to the stone age. During the Viking age, there was a trade route between Byzantium and Scandinavia. Panozero village was included three times (1996-1997,1998 — 1999, 2000 — 2001 years) by the Fund "World Monuments Watch" in the list of one hundred monuments of world culture that are under threat of destruction and thus put on a par with such monuments as Alexander plant in Tsarskoye Selo, Taj Mahal in India, the ruins of Pompeii in Italy. In 2006, a memorial sign "Symbol of honor"was opened in Panozero. Panozero village was awarded the medal "Europe Nostra", this is the highest recognition that can be obtained in Europe for the preservation of cultural heritage. This year's awards were presented in July 2006. in Madrid, Queen Sofia of Spain. Among other things, this is the first medal "Europe Nostra" received by Russia. Pantera made known to the world thanks to the documentary "Where horse – back and the sleigh," and "Annie from Panozero").

The Anna Rudometova

In 1943, the hungry year, the mother hung on her back birch bark purse with two quarters for milk and measuring a half-gallon jar (barter: half a liter of milk 200 grams of bread or a pack of millet concentrate or pea puree) and is 18 km from Kemi; exchange; and back; all on foot (the cow-nurse saved 8 souls). In June 1944 he enrolled Anna in FZO №7 on Popov island, received the profession of Telegraph operator, more 35 years in the connection, first on the Telegraph machine and Morse ST-35 to Kemi, then in Podujatie on the switch. In 1951, Pavel Pavlovich Kuchiev, the postmaster of the city of Kemi, contributed to the arrival of Anna on the training of heads of post offices and he had sent Anna to this position in the village Rudometova Kemsky district.
Here she married a good man Petr Ivanovich Rudometov. Further work in Hume, Avneporog again Kem. Children born up to 6 people. My brother Alexander praised the hard to reach places of the village, Coconino, where the paternal house of P. I. rudometova he has been, where around lakes and rivers, where Anna Nikolaevna resides in the summer. Children and grandchildren come here, and everyone has enough space and activities in the garden, on the lake and in the forest. Votive cross at the entrance to the village, an old house and barn. The lake is a bathhouse, where everyone likes to bask. Not sauna any, and the real Karelian bath " on-black." In it and steam better and soul cleaner. Warm up and immediately dive into the lake. Ducks fly out of the nest boxes hanging on the trees, Kosachev Lek on the birches near the house, Kapalua (glukharka) will be sometimes on the path, quokka like a chicken "cluck", and even a moose will walk slowly on rocks, sometimes, the deer will be on the ice at the end of the lake. And once a bear with three cubs wandered under the window of the house-pristine nature!
Anna Nikolaevna told me a lot about the life of our grandfathers and great-grandfathers; and we caught a fish with her grandson Misha Fedorov. When he went back to Kem — on clay the way a huge bear footprint imprinted, and next to little bear ran. Will come back to the fishmonger Yes, shineski hospitable hosts Lily and Oleg Fedorov, daughter and son-in-law of Anna Nikolaevna.

Anfisa Nikolaevna Martynova

His father was demobilized in March 44 years and sent to "Sach" salmon for the army. To live with the breadwinner became much easier, and birch bark purse outweighed the mother of 14-year-old Anfisa and now that a measure of bare feet, these 18 km. Where she worked as a nurse in the nursery on the farm for the "wand" (workdays). Weeding, haymaking, and Midge, the face is not seen, stick your head in the water — easier. In 1947, logging, guys-the war killed, and the girls in the woods will fit. Luchkovka and poperechka — saws. Young, fun, two rules have been complied with. And what songs he sang!
In the summer of 1950 Anfisa managed to reach secondary agricultural school for the training of chairmen of collective farms of the Karelo-Finnish SSR in the village Poultry farm near Petrozavodsk, and in 1953 to complete her specialty agronomist. In addition to General subjects and history of the CPSU(b), she studied many useful Sciences — agriculture, breeding, beekeeping, as well as Economics, financial accounting and accounting — the latter helped her in her future life when she worked as an accountant for many years. And German punctuality, passed in the genes from the mother, helped in the work. And her husband-it is Andrei Martynov, initially and lost her accounting job, having gone to alloy. Another good man. And children normal, and grandchildren. It helps me Anfisa, remembers much about Podujatie, about the villagers, about the life of his grandmother Helena Prokhorovna PEC.
She constantly attends the rehearsal of the vocal group "Rusko", where they sing beautiful Karelian and Finnish songs and her school friend, the famous Karelian poet Taisto Summanen Karlovic.
There has long been no Usmy or Wachaga, no Podujatia. This is a consequence of past decisions, when the cost of flooded lands, forests and other types of regional resources were not taken into account in the projects of HPP, "local" interests were ignored. The most valuable agricultural lands were flooded by hydroelectric reservoirs. To this day, the erosion of the coastline continues, the shores are being washed down and crumbled along with the forest. Stocks of valuable fish species, such as kumzhi, tinda, whitefish, salmon, do not spawn, cannot due to hydroelectric dams, have declined dramatically. The fate of many hundreds of people is broken, not all found themselves elsewhere. Anfisa Nikolaevna says: "the Barbarous destruction of a unique village is impossible to forgive. Destroyed not simply settlement, destroyed a whole culture for the sake of low-power turbines HPP. I believe that it was possible to find another place for the construction of a hydroelectric power station, but to restore the village, alas, is impossible.”  Putkinskaya HPP was really low-power, because it was conceived in the years 1933-1937, but it is because of it that Poduzhemia went to the bottom of the reservoir. It was a real tragedy for the residents of Podzemlja who had to drown his past in the bottom of the reservoir. After all, many of them simply did not believe that their home, where for centuries their ancestors lived will go under water... Like Atlantis sank Podujatie. Only we all know where the protected Podujatie. On this spot now stands a monument to the flooded village. And the point with the name of Atlantis to the map is not found. Maybe it was not this mysterious country, because there are no surviving witnesses, not a single manuscript. And the tragedy of Podzemlja remained in the memory of many residents and in the pages of many documents in the archives. But well said Taisto Summanen on the protected Podujatie:
No village,
But to live she has remained
She, as a mother, in your soul alive....

Grigory Nikolaevich Semenov

When the war began, the house of Pogoreltsev took a military unit. For the most part, soldiers just kicked families on the street, and themselves comfortably housed. Naomi remembered how she was standing on the road with an outstretched hand, and walked indifferently past the soldiers and occasionally threw in her palm a slice of bread. Father, mother, grandmother and their six children lived in a small house on the mountain. Lived from hand to mouth (sometimes moss pellets eaten), eight-year-old brother Grisha was swollen. It was forbidden to fish; it became a state (another source of sustenance – hunting was also prohibited). Only berries with mushrooms to collect, and then – once because the mother had to work on the farm from dawn to dusk. (Women carried on their shoulders the entire world, the entire rear, raised the country after the war. And what they earned in your old age? Kopecks! It was just a shameless mockery of a man, what is happening now. The same poor pensions, disrespect for the ordinary Russian man, the death of the village. Land, in which was invested an incredible that it turned into fluff with your hands, now overgrown with bushes).
Then Gregory says: "on 20 March, the father said to swell from hunger, I won't took at the end of may I in the Murmansk fishery. To Murmansk got our team on the train. Coming on a ladder on a motorboat " Lozhkin "which will take to stanovishche, I 3 times whispered in Karelian:" Meri mia silma nian, sie, milma et nia "("the Sea, I see you, and you don't see me"), holding on to an amulet (a sack with the poduzhemsky earth, and in it a cross). Grandmother, Elena Prokhorovna, supplied and taught what to say. Borka Sergeeva, Kolya and Pasha Prokhorov also poduzhemskaya Plovers, sea rocked, they tore, not so much for me, I sing "Katyusha", you know – fasting is not anymore, and wondering all around – the first time since he left home. Helped the amulet-and not just that.
In Outpost Kharlovka (Semiostrovskie) many of the fishers. Even the red area was the site of some films was sometimes a ride. Bath, linen, laid it on the stones – only the crackling went (lice burst), and often combing them with a comb – war! Was I cod fish oil much to drink, directly from a soldier's pot. Well, the fish is always really were, recovered slowly. In the village I loved in the winter to ski, and then the hills in the snow, and ski there. Asked my dad, and he was riveting (*a plaque from the side walls of the barrel) made grooves, and the toes bent, so I was riding with slides on these skis. I wanted to be like dad, wanted to build everything. I look-there is an ax, I hid it in an old tree. I was asked, " didn't you take the hatchet?"In Russian I still badly spoke and I answer:" No, no, I didn't take the hatchet", and in the evening quietly I hammered it i
The Plover is a lot of work: cooking ear of haddock, wash the dishes, fishing gear untangled and dry, wash dishes, sweep the floor, but in the movie we first proshmygnet. In the sea Plovers do not usually take, but I wanted my father on his head. Father took me into the sea, and how flooded the fish in tier – two times more than usual. Since then, without me the fish is not caught. And in the morning want to get more sleep (earlier still fishermen go to sea, and come to the Outpost later) and an evening movie. But my father was very strict in the upbringing, and my place always now was barely. In the wind “ran under sail” and “grebo went” for many, boating is always two: Pavlov Gregory and aunt Claudia. All on grapple obey the father, he korshik, he rules and throws away tier with bait. Tier – this gear like prodolniy: strong rope, and to it through 80-100 centimeters thinner rope imposed on large hooks. The tier consists of bales. The bale length is 300-400 meters. In tier 27-29-31 bales, always an odd number. Hooks were gain capelin or sand eels, and when it was not – sea-worm-Pescarolo. Small fish – capelin and sand eel, usually caught in coastal waters, on the banks of the river Kharlovka “moveanim Seine” with fine mesh. To stick the bait on the hooks – it is Plovers. For bait 1 bale then paid 50 kopecks. Having got and having put a tier in a fir-tree, early in the morning we went to the sea. The shore goes further and becomes invisible. That's reached a coveted position. The anchor sinks to the bottom. Before Vymetal tier father according to ancient custom, refers to the command to "Bless and PrimeSite!"We answer:" Holy fathers blessed, the righteous of God prayed to korshik for a place." Then the father according to its signs and spawns tier. The floats show where sweeps the tackle. Eating goes forward, and the hooks baited one after another leave in the sea, at the bottom they pull the load. Everyone had their own flag on the tier. Putting a tier, waiting for six hours - the time from the beginning of the tide to low tide, and at this time approached the fish pounces on the bait. "Lying down water", pull the tier. The closer he gets, the stronger the boiling water for about eating. Suitable hooks, they cod, halibut, catfish, flounder, sea bass and burbot. The layer is selected, now home to Outpost. Sometimes, the furious wind will rise, the wave is about to turn over ate. Farewell tackle and catch. Well, dad was experienced, always took away ate from trouble and we were not carried away in the open sea. On the shore of the fish was cut; extracted cod liver for flooding fat, the rest of the insides were thrown away. While standing cold, all the fish was to dry – were hung up on poles, laid out on the rocks, and the warming was in Skei (the dugout) and sprinkle with salt. Cod and saithe were solinas and dried, and halibut, wolffish and haddock were sollis. Fishermen were paid then 3 kopeks for 1 kg of caught cod and 7 – 8 kopeks for 1 kg of halibut, flour on coupons was given. In fact, the fishermen had always assumed when Morana (storm), because by that time they had always kept up a strong Braga in 100 liter barrels.
Eat, drink brew and some sleep! Sleep fisherman, awake drink another Cup of Braganca – and sleep again. Well, we, Zooey, the communion to this stuff, carpanese from the barrel of the mug and let her in a circle. On the island of "Jug" was humanily bird colonies – thousands of guillemots, gulls, loons. But dad wouldn't let me climb over their eggs, especially when the rock broke and shattered soldiers, by order of the commander polezshego for fresh product. The officer received 25 years in the camps (not even a penal battalion), and adult fishermen climbed now with a safety net.
Cooked I soup, wooden ladle in the way, but Only Elisha was sick of hanging around and constantly asks: "Varis, an ear ready?"His village the nickname of "]" – kite, and our – "Varys," that is Raven. The next question I had cracked it with the bucket on the head, split scoop. Fishermen ask: "Where is the attic?"You can't lie. I said that the scoop was broken on the head Gaucci. The fishermen long afterwards laughed: "Varis] a broke!"that is, the crow of the kite beat. And dad didn't get angry. Only] was then the hero when Dashing on the rocks of the Three Sisters crashed several boats with fishermen, but Only to barely threw a huge wave on a ledge the height of a 10 - storey building. Just popped up on a rock and tied eat. The rope was removed and Only tears there, and the fish and eat the rock and left. I went to Murmansk with my dad for years. Liked me sea and, apparently, I him. When set on ate the motor, became easier.. However, these were lousy engines, fuel oil, stopped often and always at the crucial moment. And to start the engine, should have been a blowtorch to heat red-hot ball (for injection). Once we select the layer, and the motor is stopped and the engineer Fedka Artemyev, it can not run, and dad asks: "Well, when, well, when will launch?"And Fedka and skazani in the hearts: "Go on ..., Mikuli – uncle, can't get the motor to run!"Here dad in the arm came from the depths of the sea burbot, he Pedicu burbot in the face and otovaritsya. He then dived back, and the motor is then started immediately. All the good things come to an end - in the 50s, the minesweepers began to tear the tier trawls. Because of the big scandals fishing for the tier stopped. To 8th grade I studied in Podujatie, helped his father on the farm and on the river. Anything caught salmon used, - poaching. Night. Two boats, a net between them. Quiet rowing oarlocks wrapped hay. Rare car on the road sometimes illuminate the river headlights, lay down on the bottom, as if floating deck. And Sasha – that has jailed for poaching is two years, so he took the salmon from the cages is not the case. Once our three network supervision from the river took out and hung to dry in his yard, and I hopped a fence, they were removed and in a bag. He then asked: "You, Grisha, their took?"I, of course, refused. "Ah, the timing was! Then in the summer I worked on alloy, winter riding from Podujatia carried light loads in the distant Kem village. 3 year army. And again, in the winter-cargo transportation, in the summer — rafting".
The virtuoso hook and logs, Gregory was told that once the rafters almost pulled over to VOCA threshold, the motor broke down, people began to throw boots, but miraculously managed to start. (God forbid to get - bones will not collect! Living there is not floated). Was well aware of Gregory carpenter and joiner's business, learned from his father. On retirement, he came out with a hydroelectric power station, settled a house and a bathhouse on the river, just at the place where once roared VOCA threshold. Well says Gregory about the fishery on the Barents sea. Thin expert and connoisseur of nature, the beautiful soul of man.

Evgeniya Semenova-Fedoruk( 1933-1963)

She lived a very short life. Seven-year plan in Poduzhemskaya school, courses accountants, then she's an accountant at the farm "Poduzhemskaya". Marriage. She left with her husband in Kutuzovka village near Kharkov, where the farm also worked as an accountant. In February 1963 gave birth to the twins van and the girl Wife, and she parted with her due to medical errors.
Husband Ivan Fedoruk did not take children from the hospital; then they were brought up in orphanages. In Podujatie visit my grandmother visited, but living here would not. With the beginning of "perestroika" communication with them was cut short, we don't know why.

На пути варягов

Pavel Semenov (1940-1998)

My age and comrade. All my life I worked as a driver in Podujatie and Kemi. Not an easy have him fate. His daughter Evgenia Gecko (Semenova) writes about it:

I sat in the car of your.
When the hay mowed in the meadow
You're still in my memory.
And forget I you not can…
Puda kept three teeth,
Admiration is no secret.
Her teeth strong, as nut,
And your smile — the Hollywood laugh
Haircut fashion, flared trousers.
On Esenina than something look like
Did not have time to finish singing, and the song is not the same,
And the silent harmony — singing without you.
And 22 grandchildren and 32 great-grandchildren Anna and Nicholas semenovykh alive and well today in Kemi, Pansare, Kostomuksha, Kursk, Kharkov and Petrozavodsk. Life goes on!

In the way of the Vikings

Catherine Nikolaevna PEC (18951949) the second oldest daughter of Ingvard continued the tradition of PEC, working in Kemi at the bakery. At all times, the profession of a Baker was respected by people.
And her husband Theodore A. Kostin (1899-1943) a respected man – a master at Kem timber mill worked. Kids they had four: Zinaida, Alexander, Valentine, and Julia.
Son Alexander fought; in spite of severe injury and a poor hold with your left hand, was the captain of a tugboat in the Lesozavod and Kemsky on your boat carrying heavy purse to the forest.
He lived in Rabocheostrovsk on Pionerskaya street, where to this day his wife Nadezhda Fedorovna lives with her son Vasily. Kostenich daughter, Zinaida Fyodorovna Zaitseva, now living the city of Volkhov, told me that she after the main work, in time of war, fled to the sawmill or in Kem port for loading lumber on a foreign court. This heavy additional earnings brought in семью200 grams of bread. It's hard to imagine now, but it was. And back in 1946, Zinaida Fedorovna's husband took her to the city of Volkhov. And they drank with Matthew S. here dashing postwar, but lived together, knew how to enjoy life, to be content with little. On the shores of the ETS of the Volkhov, remembering Rurik, Vikings and Novgorod pirates in the Old Dubovyky they built the house, the site was helpful for a large family. And home kept animals. Matvey Sergeyevich was able to educate not only five of his children, but also artisans, teaching them a difficult blacksmith skill. Now many of their children are already retired. Even step-son of Zinaida Fyodorovna Vladimir, musician, honorary Metallurgist calls her "Mama zine". It is very telling. Her house always smells of cakes, it is our North hereditary.
All children Zinaida Fyodorovna "in the business". Reasonable beauty Tamara Matveevna works in the city hall, Valentina Matveevna and grandson Vladimir businessmen, Sergey and Natalya worked at aluminum plant. Alexander, born in Kemi, is a master Builder, wood painter, musician-artistic nature. Live together together and rest together, all help each other.
Rejoices the heart of a 90-year-old Zinaida Fyodorovna, looking at the now grown grandchildren and growing great-grandchildren.

потомки булавинцев
вкус жмыха
Божье провидение
часть 3

Ordnung uber alles

According to the metric certificate issued by the Archangelsk spiritual Consistory, my grandmother Lydia Nikolaevna PEC was born on may 30, 1893. On may 31 the sacrament of baptism made by the priest Panasenkova the arrival of Kem County Arkhangelsk province Nicholas G. Kaporskii in the presence of parents and witnesses: panasenkova priest Nicholas Kasperskogo, wives Gradislava Nikanorovoj and peasant girls Greenshanks Fedorova Kirillova. To 8 years old Lydia lives in Podujatie, fluent in Karelian and Russian languages, and in 1901 she is driven to Arkhangelsk, where until 1911 she spent in the house of Emilia Alexandrovna PEC. All her life she remembered their aunts "aunt Til" and "aunt Emma" (Frau Mathilde Clapton and Fraulein Emilia PEC), which raised her very strictly.
"Ordnung ist das halbe Leben!  The order is half of life!"If the children walked on the street and were late, for example, for lunch on the 1st dish, then the 1st and will not get late for the 2nd, will not get the 2nd, etc. Talking at home mostly in German (*and in old age grandmother remembered a lot of German poems, sayings, songs). She was taught by home teachers, who prepared the girl for admission to the Archangelsk diocesan women's school in 1904, where she studied until June 1912, receiving secondary education and specialty home teacher and primary school teacher. (*Diocesan Gazette, No. 19, p. 255 of 1911: "The list of female students of the Archangel Diocesan school in the academic year 1910/1911, with the approval of his grace No. 3199 of 22 September 1910. Pension with a fee of 200 rubles. I V class. Lydia PEC"). Are spiritually strengthened, have given General and vocational education, mainly the daughters of Orthodox priests: "the pupils were prepared to educate people in his native land"... When the pupils of the Diocesan school dismissed for the holidays, they were given a ticket, which, at the end of the holidays, the local clergy had to witness with the Church app print that "Predyavitelya this all the time on holiday behaved well-behaved and attended Church services".
Grandma summer is always come to Podujatie. Remembered a good swing on the banks of the river were very popular among young people. Once rocked it with my friends and some kid was standing next to the swing and, giggling, peeping. She is a very "supportability" and she swung with all her might kicked him from the height of their shoes right in the face, "no small" not killing the insolent. And the men of the village said,"I did the right thing." The certificate of completion Lidia Nikolaevna school we see good and excellent grades in the Law of God, the Church Slavonic language and literature, Church singing, crafts, nature, knowledge, health, math and other General subjects that witnessed on June 12, 1912, with the application of the official seal signatures of the Chairman of the Council of the school of the priest I. Popova, Director of the school, the inspector of Archpriest A. Kirillov, priest, A. Timonov.
(*Diocesan women's College: Opened on 21 October 1863 by decree of the Synod of 12 March 1863. Abolished by order of Argubright from March 4, 1920. 1885 training – with a six-VII teaching repetitive class with practical exercises in model school diplomas. Originally intended for the education of girls of the clergy, School trained primary school teachers and parish schools who completed the full course received the right to teach as home teachers.. The teaching of General subjects was conducted on a reduced program, the focus was on needlework and practical skills. The number of vospitanie in 1912 – 315 (yoselevich – 28, children of foreigners – 2. Completed full course in 1912 – 41 (in parochial school teachers received 14. The school was held at the expense of the diocese).
With 1.8.1912 for 1.9.1915 years Lidia is a teacher Kem primary school. In 1957, I visited this school, built next to the assumption Cathedral, looked at the old photos taken in the classroom, talked with her first student kukshiev Pavel Pavlovich, the head of the post office of the city of Kemi, who in those photos was a thin boy. And next to the students – a young beauty teacher Lydia Nikolaevna PEC.
Loved grandmother to talk to the with among acquaintances, ask about life-life. Once in Kemi she was talking with a friend on the ancient times. They were approached by an old man — "the man of God Nikita" trading, however, pies on the streets. Shaking hands, he began to thank grandma for the school, because no one in school did not want to take, and my grandmother took in 1st grade. And thanks to the school he is now "and pies can even trade!"How grandma could forget Nikita Orlov! For seven years he studied in 1st grade. Once in the presence of the inspector of the district on the question of the teacher: "What birds fly South?"the children have all the birds listed, and Nikita are all hand drawn. But grandma asks him, knowing the boy something breccia. Puzzled, the inspector looks at the teacher, and the grandmother was allowed to answer. "Hares fly South!"solemnly he said Nikita under the loud laughter of the class. Laugh much even strict supervisor confirmed -. On the reverse was the whole school. And learned from her grandmother Nina Gromozda. Five years in the first grade, then to have turned 15-years old married from the Desk of the 1st class. Many curious cases were told by the grandmother, and many pupils remembered her.
In 1913, Lydia PEC married a native of the town of Mezen Unknown Orthodox priest Yakov Dmitrievich, a descendant of don Cossacks who were exiled according to the legend in 1709 by Peter the great for "Bulavin rebellion" to the far North – in Pustozersk.

Descendants Of " Bulavintsev»

Suppression of "Bulavin rebellion" Peter led the first in person. Burned villages, and on the don, floating rafts hung. But when the Cossacks gave up on the "Royal mercy", Peter ordered Prince Vasily Dolgoruky "not to increase the severity of the desperation of the rebels." And the surrendered Cossacks were" sent by a convoy " to the hidden place of Russia – Pustozersky Ostrog (*in 40 versts from the present city of Naryan-Mar). When the "Bulavina" arrived at an Empty lake, already there since 1671, contained the participants of the peasant war of Stepan Razin, and on 14 April 1682 on Good Friday were burned in a single wooden frame of the famous Archpriest Avvakum, Lazar the priest, deacon Theodore and the Solovetsky monk Epiphanios in "zapaceste Scriptures and the great Royal house of blasphemy".
For nearly three centuries Pustozersk was the administrative center of the Pechora region with churches, customs, prison, Fort, shops, barns, etc., there was a Voivodeship, lived serving the deported people. The population was engaged in fishing, fishing of a sea animal, hunting for fur animals, waterfowl and partridges. Contained cows, sheep, horses. On Pustozersky Epiphany fairs there was trade between Samoyed (Nenets) tribes and Russians. Furs, game, venison and fish Samoyed exchanged for bread, fabrics, metal wares, tools, household and household equipment.
In 1780 Catherine II established the city of Mezen; there from Pustozersk transferred Voivodeship and military garrison and many of its inhabitants, with them and some of our ancestors. The other part Koshev left in the Shenkursk district of the Arkhangelsk province, where in 1862, was born, our great-grandfather Dmitry V. Koshev. Here he finished Borecka rural usmles, at dismissal from the society 28.6.1892 year was ordained to the deaconate, and the next day (amazing case !) 29.6.1892 year, his grace Alexander, the father of Demetrius, he was ordained priest to Ust-Tsilma common faith of the Church. In Ust-Tsilma our great grandfather served for 6 years, and in 1898 the Arkhangelsk Diocese was sent to baptize the Samoyeds (the Nenets) in Televisionon the arrival of the Pechora district of the Arkhangelsk province.
The daughter of Dmitry Vasilyevich Natalia was adopted in Arkhangelsk Diocesan school, and the sons of Jacob (my grandfather) and Basil first in the spiritual school, then in the Seminary in which he studied the Holy and righteous John of Kronstadt, on full state support. (*Now the Primorsky state University is located within its walls. In 2003, there was consecrated the temple in honor of the famous native of the Arkhangelsk region).
After Seminary father Yakov Zhukov served in Kemi missionary priest, whose main task is the moral and spiritual education and bringing local people to the true Orthodoxy. Not just to teach, but to show by example who the Orthodox believer is. He and evoke the trust of the local residents, especially the older generation. Then Yakov Dmitrievich received the arrival. In 1920, my grandfather was priest of St. Nicholas Church in the village of Kovda, Murmansk region, where children Vladimir and my mother Elena Yakovlevna were born. After leaving the North of the White army, my grandfather had to leave the Church. At the "45th sawmill" he taught the children of 3rd and 4th grades and was the Director of the school, and my grandmother was engaged in 1st and 2nd grades. Then Kosevo J. D. was proposed to completely withdraw from school or to go to school in Mezenskaya tundra to the village of Black River. But Yakov Dmitriyevich, even before realizing the situation, began correspondence study accountancy. Having moved to the station Kovda, his grandfather began working in forestry as an accountant, later he was appointed accountant. In 1937, he, a former priest, already the chief accountant of the Prionezhsky salespractice. A year later, according to the article 58-6 him as a "British spy" defined in the Vyatka camps.

The Rod Of The Civil Guards*

My mother's younger brother Vladimir Yakovlevich Koshev (1924 - 1942) was unlucky. He studied in school №2 in Handling finished only 6 classes, when his father (my grandfather) Jacob D. sent "on stage" to "reformation" in the wild Caskie forest. Life has become, and Volodya went to work as an apprentice Turner in a gang "Tekhnoves". In the autumn of 1941, despite the sore heart, he was taken to the defense work near Petrozavodsk. Then went to a guerrilla group, where he commanded his headmaster Plotnikov Mikhail Antonovich. In the winter of 1942, the year Vladimir was sent together with his friend Dmitry Dubrovsky in exploration, occupied by Finns of Petrozavodsk. They gave no Karel, and his Russian, as told after the war about all Anna Plotnikova, the headmaster's wife. She was in the same camp, on the street, Olonets, 2, where the commandant of the camp brought the kids and got to know them. The guys were silent when their 17-year-old, shyutskorovtsev brutally beaten with rods (*the rod is attached to a wooden handle, a bundle of insulated copper or steel wire), and then shot in the edification of others, and the dead photographed on the porch of the headquarters. Somehow Finnish newspaper in Russian "and the word" photographs shot boys hit Podujatie and Semionov got to know them, but to save the newspaper failed.
(*According to archives of scouts and guerrillas taken prisoner, about 300 people were sentenced in1941-44gg to death penalty; 58 Russians and Karelians were executed for communication with guerrillas and espionage; 43 people received life imprisonment; 47 people are recognized as war criminals. Most of these punishments were carried out in Petrozavodsk, where more than 18,000 Russian civilians were forcibly transferred to different camps. Prisoners of war were shot up to the summer of 1944 and by the decision of the official court and by order of any chief of the camp, and even on the personal initiative of any soldier of protection. Have to round up into camps of people the Finns were taken from the property, cattle, and gave them the "liberated brothers in blood." In General, 29.1% of people died from the whole mass of prisoners in Finnish camps. This is one of the highest figures in the world. Flogging with rods on a parade ground was used practically in all camps, more often, than a punishment cell. Until autumn 1943 the camp was subordinated to the civil guards. And only in the autumn of 1943, the Finnish Marshal C. G. Mannerheim, a former tsarist master of the horse and the General was deprived of the staff of the rear parts of the civil guards ' rights to manage prisoners of war and conquered the camp and the hospital commander's office on POWs right at the rate the Supreme commander. From this point of prisoners of war began to turn a human).
Where Vladimir and Dmitry are buried, we still do not know. But tell Vladimir about his repressed father and mother – volksdeutch, would, I think, to save lives.
(*The civil guards (from the Swedish skyddskar-guard corps), a paramilitary organization of the Finnish bourgeoisie and the kulaks in 1917-44. the civil guards worked with the SS).

The taste of the cake

The arrest of the father and the recognition of his "British spy" of course, could not affect the fate of my mother Mishka Elena Yakovlevna. At school she studied well, but the young Communist League she was not accepted because of non-proletarian origin, and she even went to hang himself, "...saw a friend and talked". 2 of course, Petrozavodsk pedagogical College mom tried to deduct, as "daughter enemy of the people", but as times went Stalin's article "son of the father is not responding", and she gave up. In the 37th year my mother graduated from teachers College and worked in school №5 in the street Kuz'mina, and then at school No. 2 the Director Plotnikova M. A. 2 июня39 year she married my father, Bozhko Peter Fedorovich, then a policeman caught up with the late 20-ies in the North, "raskolotka" together with their parents. They lived in the village of Ivkivtsi 7 km from city Pryluky. Lived spravno: 2лошади, 2коровы, a large garden, a piece of wood and piece of the field (in 1959, to me it was my grandfather Fedor: "you have tried!"). On a family photo standing in a row big men workers: grandfather Cyril Savich and his sons – Theodore and Philip; all the hard work on the farm only with their hands. Of course, they were dispossessed in the first place. Grandfather told me that winter in severe cold they are small cattle in the house and nursed. And in collective farm it began to die under a leaky roof, without sight and heat. And were dispossessed of all who had more than one cow, even if the family ran a dozen small children.
Obtaining at least some of the housing in Petrozavodsk even the police chief could not help our family. And went father and mother in the city of Pryluky (Ukraine), where I was born. But even there, housing was hard: we lived with the parents of the father of Olga Davidovna and Fedor Kirillovich in a cramped room. I slept behind a stove in a wooden trough. His father worked at the mill and she was there, there was no work, somehow ends up. With Petrozavodsk mother census Las; and here she received a letter from the teacher of the school № 2 Perova Claudia Alexandrovna, which with the assistance of Director Plotnikov mA got us a warrant for the room on Krasnoarmeyskaya street. The letter was a pass in Petrozavodsk and an invitation to work in school # 2. In August, 1940, our family came back to Petrozavodsk. Mom worked at the school. Father tooril "Onetaste". The war began. Father immediately took to the army. The Bombing Of Petrozavodsk. Evacuation on barges (which also bombed) Onego in the Vologda region. Half-starved life in children's homes Andoma, Vytegra, Top spas. Mother and grandmother worked as teachers, and I was in front of them. May 9, 1945! The war is over! In July 1945, we were loaded into heat, and for a very long time we got to Petrozavodsk, and also brought a goat with us. Then a few years I'll pass in the summer of goats on the Lososinka. I remember walking around in white shorts on Lososinskoe the road without the protection of German officers, and columns of captured Austrian soldiers, wandering from work under guard in the barracks on the street high-rise and nettles tearing at the food with his bare hands.
Petrozavodsk is in ruins. The acrid smell of coal tar from disinfection. Long hours of standing in line for bread, potatoes kerosene. The taste of cake and bran bread is not forgotten to this day. Father returned from the two wars in a ragged overcoat, but alive, in December of the 45th year. Gradually, life was improving, but a very hard way was passed after the war, Russian women — they worked, gave birth to children and, despite everything, raised them decent people. Let's bow to them low for this.

God's Providence is done.

Went more than 300 years after a visit by Peter Holland. Descendants of Baath Gerrit Paul settled in many countries: Germany, Russia, Canada, England, Brazil, Australia. Holland is a quiet, green and prosperous country thanks to the people and clever rulers. In comparison with Russia, there is immediately felt tightness, there is not a single unused piece of land. Around endless dams, canals with boats, barges, sails and masts; multi-colored vegetable gardens with protruding backs, swarming in the land of peasants; pastures with black and white cows; sea tulips, daffodils owls, hyacinths and gladioli; crowded highways and cycle paths; silhouettes of houses, factories, trees, mills. They survived a lot: in cities, villages, fields; part of the silhouette as monuments; the rest of the mills are working as before. Now they have about a thousand left: some continue to work, others have survived as relics — as a sign of grateful memory of the people for their help, the Dutch landscape is inconceivable without them. The memory of the visit to Holland by Peter I survived: in Zaandam (Saardam) the house of the blacksmith Gerrit Kist, in which Peter lived 8 days, visited many famous individuals, including Napoleon and Alexander I, who in 1814 ordered to nail down a memorial marble Board to the house. The poet Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky, who accompanied the future Emperor Alexander II wrote on the wall with a pencil ecstatic poems:
Over poor hut this
Flying angels saints.
Grand Duke, reverent. :
Here is the cradle of your Empire,
Here was born the great Russian…
Long ago already the Lodge was strengthened by a beam design which rescued it from destruction. Today, he covered the walls of solid glass, which allowed us to almost eliminate its exposure to the weather. Now people who have left their autographs on the walls, beams and floors for centuries, do not threaten the monument, although now thousands of tourists visit this Museum. In Amsterdam, unfortunately, the house of the cable car master at the East India shipyard, where Peter I lived, has not survived. But behind Damplein monument to the Emperor of Russia. Peter is depicted as a simple carpenter with an ax in his hands, showing the whole world: "where the source of the Russian fleet came from." Alive the memory of the stay and the training of Peter the Great to the experience of Dutch shipbuilders, experience, coupled with the enormous energy of the king, created in Russia for your stay in fleet.
"Goto Predestination","God's Providence" — the so-called Peter the great its first large ship of the line. It is the Providence of God happened, and Russia, according to Alexander Pushkin, went to Europe
"As a lowered ship
at the sound of the ax and thunder of guns”.

город мертвых
с клеймом
10 лет и 5 намордника

Part three. "...In this skulls pile – our red revenge»

So wrote the poet Anatoly Mariengof in 1919. The events that followed The October revolution led to the death of millions of Russian citizens, as the consolidation of the "conquest of the revolution" from the first day of the new government went on the path of massacres and executions. Lenin immediately said:" ... the notion of dictatorship of the proletariat means ... unlimited, no laws, no absolutely rules not constrained, directly based on violence power." It was Lenin who laid the foundations for a policy of lawlessness, violence and terror. Already in may 1918 he recommends "to carry out ruthless mass terror" (Lenin. Coll. CIT., 5-e Izd., p. 143-144), and on 5 September 1918 he published a decree of SNK of the Red Terror, signed with the Bonch-Bruevich, Petrovsky and Kursk. In addition to the instructions on mass executions, it proposed "to protect the Soviet Republic from class enemies by isolating them in concentration camps." ((Collection Of laws of the RSFSR in 1918 year № 65).

Bismarck once said that revolutions are conceived by geniuses, carried out by fanatics, and their fruits are used by nichtozhestva. The October revolution threw to the surface hundreds of thousands of nobodies that had a instead of conscience and honor the class intransigence and commitment to the chiefs, the same scum as they are. These uneducated people the profession was replaced by capacious concept – Bolshevik. Human life has ceased to be the highest value,justice was abolished, it was replaced by simple and clear as bayonet – "revolutionary expediency". Russia for many years was occupied by the Bolsheviks cannibals, fully confident in his right to injustice! Frenchman EV Bazho wrote from Petrograd in 1919: "... terror reigns here and applies, social freedom is enjoyed only by the Bolsheviks and sympathizers, arrested by all families, the elderly, women, children, prisons are overcrowded…»
Arrested hundreds of thousands, who, not proving guilt, shot, someone is not proving innocence, were released. Full legal occupation troops! Failure was considered as a crime against the revolution, directed and punished to the fullest extent of the laws of the revolutionary war time. The donation was declared a civic duty. One of the fanatical Dzerzhinsky became the head created 20.12.1917 of the year "punishing sword of the revolution" – the Cheka. This Commission was endowed with the right to shoot at will " KONTRA "and widely used this right, letting in the" expense " of hundreds of thousands of bright minds of Russia. "Iron Felix" recognized terror as the most effective means of asserting the dictatorship of the proletariat: "do not think that I will seek forms of revolutionary justice. Now justice is useless." He was echoed with braids smaller rank: "... we destroy the bourgeoisie as a class. Do not seek, as a result of materials and evidence that the accused acted in a case or word against the Soviets. The first question that you have to offer him – to what class he belongs, what is his origin, education or profession. These issues should determine the fate of the accused. This is the meaning and essence of red terror to blame than anything the KGB, not in the excessive jealousy of the executions, and the failure of the use of capital punishment...We were too soft, generous to a defeated enemy!"(November 1918. Martin Lacis-Sudrabs).
"May 1, 1919
Strictly secret
Chairman V. C. K. No. 13666/2 tov. Dzerzhinsky F. E.
In accordance with the decision of V. C. I. K. and Owls. plank bed. commissioners must quickly do away with priests and religion.
Priests should be arrested as counterrevolutionaries and saboteurs, shot mercilessly and everywhere. And as much as possible.
Churches are subject to closure. The premises of temples should be locked and turned into warehouses.
Chairman V. C. I. K. Kalinin
Chairman Of The Owls. plank bed. Commissioners'
State the mass genocide and atrocities of the KGB – these "sanitation revolution" was called righteous vengeance of a once-oppressed people. It was a real war of extermination waged by the government against its own people. In the course of the campaigns of terror of the 20-30s, organized hunger and emancipation, the best part of the nation, its Golden gene pool, was destroyed.
Seeing the collapse, devastation, General anger, hunger, which dragged the country flaming revolutionaries, smart people in Russia did not believe in the implementation of the Communist program. They saw that relying on the most part of a purely ideological and irresponsible people is a cruel mistress over Russia suppressed all human freedom, saw Russia collapsing and impoverished people. Russian writer A. Amphitheatres in the letter to Lenin in the newspaper "Last news" from 03.09.1920: "... I would be boundless to you if You... opened my eyes...: is there a line between ideological communism and communism criminal. If there is, then where she. Do you realize that your idea has dissolved in Communist criminality, like a drop of vinegar in a glass of water, and if you do, how can you, a man of idea, put up with it?... If You do not proclaimed in Russia all kinds of freedoms, not Your Soviet police closed down all the Newspapers, arrested the meeting, shoot, oppress the worker, in chains work, reviving serfdom and the horrors of Arakcheyev barracks?"Lenin's reaction to the letter was not ... German philosopher E. Fromm, returning in the mid 30s from a trip to Russia, spoke about what he saw so:" you need to Treat the whole country!".
... On may 12, 1918 a "Kedrov train" passed through the North of Russia for the so-called "Soviet Audit" of Yaroslavl, Vologda and Arkhangelsk provinces, consisting of the head, a member of the Board of the VCHK M. S. Kedrov, 40 members of the "Audit" and 33 Latvian Riflemen. Guided by "class flair", "revolutionary necessity" and ruthlessness in eliminating "hostile elements of Soviet power", this "Audit"everywhere conducted searches, arrests and executions of" those who disagreed with the General line of the party". In February 1919 he was issued a special decree of the Central Executive Committee establishing a forced labor camp under the leadership of the Cheka, and the first head of the camps became M. S. Kedrov, by that time the Chairman of the Special Department of the Cheka and part-time member of the Board of the NKVD
And everywhere these camps were formed primarily in the monasteries, starting with Pertominsk, Arkhangelsk, Kholmogory, and Solovki in the North and Andronikov, Novospassky and Ivanovskoye in Moscow, strong walls and isolated location which immediately attracted the attention of security officers. With might and main there was an destruction of "reactionary clergy" as part of society. 8 November 1917, the Soviet government seized all monastic and Church lands. Then banned the activities of the local Council. Secret circular of the OGPU from February, 1923 lists in detail the parts of society from which to draw people doomed to physical DESTRUCTION:
These are POLITICAL PARTIES and ORGANIZATIONS, that is, all former members of pre-revolutionary political parties; all former members of monarchical unions and organizations; all former members of the Union of independent farmers, and also members of the Union of independent grain growers during the Central Rada in Ukraine; all former representatives of the old aristocracy and nobility; all nationalists of any shades.
And also THE staff of IMPERIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, that is, all employees of the former Ministry of internal Affairs; all staff of security office, police, gendarmerie and all their secret agents, all ranks of frontier guards, etc.; all staff of the former Ministry of justice: all members of district courts, judges, prosecutors of all ranks, justices of the peace, investigators, bailiffs, etc.; all without exception officers and non - commissioned officers of Imperial armies and Navy.
The SECRET enemies of the SOVIET REGIME recognized: all officers, noncommissioned officers, enlisted men of the White army, Petlyura compounds, various rebel units, actively fought with the Soviets (persons amnestied by the Soviet authorities, are no exception); all civilian employees of the Central and local bodies and departments of the white guard governments, the army, the Central Rada, Germanovsky administration, etc.; all religious leaders: bishops, priests of the Orthodox and Catholic churches, rabbis, deacons, monks and nuns, choirmasters, Church warden, all members of religious communities (all of them were subjected to particularly brutal violence: they were crucified on Church doors scalped, boiled in cauldrons of boiling tar, the communion of molten lead, in the winter, in their underwear, put on the stone and poured water on him – twenty years ahead of the Nazis, podergivani on the rope from the hole in the hole (*my mom is a witness to the White sea), immediately sank – during the years of Soviet power, more than 300 thousand Ministers of different faiths were killed); all former merchants, shop and shop owners, and later "nepman"; all former landowners, large tenants, rich peasants, who used hired power in the past; all former owners of industrial enterprises and workshops; all persons whose close relatives are in an illegal situation or continue armed resistance to the Soviet regime; all foreigners, regardless of nationality; all persons who have relatives and friends abroad; all scientists and specialists of the old school, especially those whose political orientation is not clarified.

City of the dead

With domes torn soul,
In mourning a great power,
Russia dies not by the knife,
From ideas, that splashing around bloody.
Vladimir Turapin.
On September 27, 1919, leaving from the North Russia, the British did not advise wealthy Archangelsk, especially from the "German Settlement", to stay. But the people said, "Not beasts of the Bolsheviks, you know that the blood will not go far, and who we need in the West." They were grossly mistaken. When, on February 19, 1920, the headquarters of the white army Miller hastily left Arkhangelsk on the icebreaker " Kozma Minin "and the yacht" Yaroslavna", then in crowded cabins, on decks, even in corridors could fit only a few hundred lucky: military command, the government and a small number of representatives of haves classes. Headed and supervised the evacuation and transfer of the detachment of the said vessels, rear Admiral Vilkitsky B. A., who also commanded the icebreaking steamer "Cosmas Minin" with a few hundred passengers (more than 800 soldiers and refugees, including General Miller), towing yacht "Yaroslavna", accompanied by the icebreaker "Canada" and having under his command on the way to Norway in the area of the Peninsula Rybachiy another ship "Kildin" and "Lomonosov", which came out with the same passengers from Murmansk. Breaking at the exit of the Arkhangelsk ice fields, the continued pursuit and pursuit with artillery fire from ships of the red fleet, a detachment of Admiral Vilkitsky 26.02.1920 entered the Fiord to the Norwegian port of Tromso. Russians were accepted as brothers. Later in the West were some of the prominent businessmen of the city, as Olsen M. A., J. A. belyaevskaya, and others. But thousands of people were left in a Bolshevik trap. On 21 February 1921 the Red Army entered Archangel. Began the executioners.

... In March 1920, the Plenipotentiary representative of the Cheka M. Kedrov (*1871 – 1.11.1941. Executed under the personal direction of Beria, who feared the revelations of the cedar. In 1953 M. Kedrov was rehabilitated), whose reputation as a brutal fanatic even more firmly established once again in Arkhangelsk.
On the ship "Sosnowiec" security officers at the head of the Cedar "reiseroute" first Kem, Solovki, Murmansk, prison Mudjug and Iokanga. Together with the Chairman of the Arkhangelsk Gubcheka N. Balakirev and his assistants V. Logowaniem and Rebekah Plastinina Cedars leads in the Northern region a truly Soviet system. Throughout the Arkhangelsk are feverish quarterly searches, from 18 to 20 April, conducted mass arrests of "dissidents" with the participation of more than 3,500 soldiers and just party activists. Overcrowded prison, open the second in the Seminary, officers and soldiers of the White army sent to Kholmogorsky concentration camp. Having gathered 1,200 officers in Arkhangelsk, Kedrov puts them on a barge and then opens fire on them. In the "news of the Arkhangelsk province Executive Committee" April 25, an article Kedrov "mass searches", which States that their purpose is to combat the effects of the intervention and liquidation of the surviving hotbeds of counter-revolution. Here is an example of this struggle: "the Detainee, kontrrewolucja Nera Papilova ordered to immediately shoot. On the execution to get to me. M. Cedars". (*Papilov Alexander – Arkhangelsk is the oldest social-Democrat; the vowel of the Arkhangelsk city Duma; Chairman of the provincial food Committee). By early September, the city was called "city of the dead", and the Kholmogory – "the burial place of Russian youth" where security officers-not people's mandate for a brain shot, even children of 8 -14 years.
Shot by the hundreds. In Kholmogory, on the Moss, in the poorhouse Bulycheva, rope factory of Edmund Jakovljevic Clapton (* cable car factory Clapton founded in 1780) is the angle of the Petersburg Avenue and assumption street). Shot usually in fives. People were stripped naked. Shot at the back of the head. Kill human needed one shot being fired. And so every night.
Not always killed at night. Square factory Cleftones shot day and the shooting is usually going to "watch" the mass surrounding the kids.
The systematic extermination of the bourgeoisie took place throughout the spring and summer of 1920. Sometimes there was also an investigation. But the conclusions of the investigators there is often resolution Kedrov: "the Seventh category!", which means a death sentence.
People are starting to understand the meaning of "proletarian revolution" which deprived the state of many lives, ruthlessly destroyed the plans and the old way of life. The Bolsheviks, who seized power in Russia by criminal means and held it by means of red Terror, mass repressions and physical destruction of millions of citizens on class grounds, impregnating society with poisonous ideas of class struggle, dictatorship of the proletariat, world revolution and violent atheism, incited one part of society to its other classes. Fierce, confident in the right to severely punish the so-called "enemies of the revolution" and "labor people", violence and terror-this largely determined then the subsequent history of the terrible Soviet 70th anniversary…
Well, M. S. Kedrov for ruthless struggle against counterrevolution was awarded the order of the red banner, the title of honorary Chekist for №52 and a valuable gift — requisitioned role, on which he was playing music before his arrest in 1939.
These crimes of the Bolsheviks comparable only repression of 1937 – 39. The major thing that affected a large group of residents of Arkhangelsk and the region, was a so-called “case of the Norwegian Consul A. Wiklund”, which appeared on the direct orders of the NKVD Yezhov for 00698 as of October 28, 1937. ” In order to suppress all counter-revolutionary, espionage, terrorist, sabotage activities in the territory of the USSR by the personnel of embassies and consulates “of a number of countries, the people's Commissar ordered his wards:”the use of widespread repression to suppress all relations between embassies and consulates of these countries with Soviet citizens, exposing the immediate arrest of all Soviet citizens associated with the personnel of these diplomatic missions."
The order of the junkie was executed. In a telegram to the regional office of the NKVD in Moscow from 24 November 1937 stated that “in the night of November 23, the operation relations of the Norwegian Consulate. 54 people were arrested during the operation.” In General, more than 60 citizens were accused of involvement in relations with the Norwegian Consulate. Along with a Professor of the forestry Institute V. I. Lebedev, employee of the Executive Committee, by S. P. Puzyrev, E. A. and I. V. Zhilinskii, the son of a businessman M. Olsen Michael Martinovic, known the shipowner I. By surkovym, in the case were Elsa Brunovna PEC, Lydia Nikolaevna Kramarenko, Boris ye Shergold and Edward Gernet, Hermann Wilhelminischen and his son Herman, Alexander Meyer, brothers Victor and Anatoly Brautigam, Boris and George Witty, Arkady and Ivan Almaty, sons of the former mayor, a famous Russian photographer Jacob Lazinger Vyacheslav and Arkady, and many others. All of them were accused of espionage, the vast majority of them were shot or trampled in the cellars of the NKVD.

With the stigma of " English spy»

My grandfather, Koshev Yakov Dmitrievich, the former priest Kondinskogo the arrival of the Murmansk region, and then a teacher, accountant, chief accountant Prionezhsky salespractice was arrested August 8, 1938. To the house No. 40 down the street Krasnoarmeyskaya late at night, spraying pools, rolled up "funnels" with a dress of NKVD. Taking understood uncle Misha Gorshkov and Ivan Ivanov, not wiping his boots, entered the armed men in the open to a rough knock door apartment № 21. Detective Maksimov presented in his grandfather order No. 22 on search and seizure.
Long servicemen "was looking for what I laid not down," he searched the whole apartment in search of incriminating evidence. Finding nothing, apparently as evidence, grabbed the gun of the Central battle No. 62713, a Berdan rifle of 16 caliber, all the ammo, hunting knife Finnish and most of the arrested and took him to the torture house at the Stone forest in Petrozavodsk.
Everything was unexpected that there could gather grandma with shaking hands, he in the road — a change of clothes, a bar of soap, some food. But I think the arrest of the NKVD was predetermined: the graph in the questionnaire, where the grandfather wrote: "the servant of a religious cult before 1920" and "appropriate" biography has been included in the record of a terrible office. After 1917, the person could live until 1938, but the lists of suspicious were made, the turn was — it was called "recreational work of the NKVD." News about executions of relatives, about the monasteries filled with priests, merchants, officers of Imperial army, about unloading of prisons executions quickly reached Kemi and Kovda (on the White sea some 400 versts from Arkhangelsk). Four children were then Unknown D. J. — who will rise?! And in the same 1920, at the General meeting of the village of Kovda grandfather announced the lifting of the priesthood. And this same congregation invited him to become a teacher in the newly opened school in Lesozavod №45. The seer was Yakov Dmitriyevich! Soon the neighboring Solovki flowed to death thousands of prisoners – color of Russia through the infamous Kemperpunkta (Kem forwarding station). A favorite pastime of the Solovetsky security officers became "skating with Sekirnaya mountain." The guilty prisoner was tied to a log and pushed down the stairs. While a person counts 365 steps with ribs, a piece of raw meat arrives on a log to the foot of the Sekirka. And metastasis of Solovki concentration camps spread throughout Russia, and the population has become essentially hostage to Sekirnaya mountain.
Well, August 9, 1938 on Stone bir Kosevo Ya. d. on the first interrogation immediately was charged with spying for British intelligence, why the grandfather did not expect (the warrant was signed by the head of the anti-corruption squad, URCM NKVD. ml Lieutenant Skvortsov GB): "You working all the time well, but you were disguised. Make a statement about relations with the British and tell us about correspondence with them." My grandfather answered that the relations were not recruited was not, and on the advice of his parishioners, the managing Director Rusanovskoye sawmill in the village of Kovda Evseeva A. P. wrote in a 1919 letter to the PE Department of counterintelligence of the army of Miller, which stated that the ideas of Bolshevism, he does not sympathize with them and not preach, and the Church speaks only about the preservation of religion and the maintenance of it. This Koshev Y. D. as to show their loyalty to the white government.
Investigators Anokhin, Shebekino, Terekhov this answer did not like. The middle of 1938 is the most brutal time of interrogation, torture was allowed to investigators indefinitely. To the grandfather applied "the investigative conveyor": 7 days in a row it continuously interrogated replaceable investigators. Three days he stood, then barely sitting on a stool, and leaning against the wall was not allowed, immediately hit with a boot on the Shin or head against the wall. She was beaten across the knuckles with the edge line of the ribs on the teeth. Some teeth have a grandfather still knocked out (but Gennady Kupriyanov, Secretary of the Karelian regional Committee of the CPSU(b) result in 1949году was knocked out all his teeth, so Golden teeth he was given a certificate that is taken on storage). Grandfather did not give to eat and drink, and most importantly — to sleep. "You're not honest about your testimony, so you're not allowed to sleep," investigators said.
Unprepared for torture, a person brought by this method ("stabbing days in a row") to an insane state, forgets that he has a family, forgets the names of his wife and children, he already wants to cut off with an ax, if only the end. While the prisoner is shocked, investigators are trying to get irreparable testimony from him. And the questions Kosevo J. D. the same: "How have you been recruited by British intelligence, who were your resident with mi, as I contacted them, what information they conveyed what they received, who are suspicious in prionezhskiy salespromoting?»
Former Commissar of the NKVD. Stepan Tarasovich, Matuzenko himself in 1939, executed as an "English spy", showed: "... the investigative work was drawn through party organizations civil members of the party, never had to deal with the investigation and forced them by any means of reprisals to give evidence <...> No checking readings on confrontations were not carried out, evidence is often absent." Having worked with a fist and a throat in the first shock week, investigators beat out at Ya.d. Koshev's recognition that he is a spy and the wrecker. In Germany, the Gestapo, just tortured people in those days, but there tried to knock out the prisoner of the truth, the NKVD knocked out only personal recognition in accordance with the teachings of the Prosecutor General of the USSR Andrei Vyshinsky.
At the last interrogation the Sergeant GB I. Terekhov grandfather found the courage to declare that pleads not guilty and demanded a confrontation with the "resident" Bicakova A. M., by Derevyagin V. M. and V. I. Yushkov, but the COP just laughed, it was something done, recognition — torn. Followed approved by the people's Commissar of Matuzenko Ordinance Sergeant GB Terekhov and the chief of Department 3, UGB NKVD Lieutenant Antonov: "... on the autopsy of the Unknown when J. D. with British intelligence (article 58-6) and caught him in carrying out subversive activities in the system of lespromtorg Karelia (article 58-7)".
And here's Case No. 0037, decorated with beautiful handwriting of the investigator I. Terekhov, 15.04.1939 "landscape right" (the"album" is collected together a few cases on the 58th article) was sent to Moscow for consideration of the Special Meeting. I have read personal testimonies on the Unknown D. J. nasty paper written in jagged handwriting mortally tired man. Think grandfather was very lucky that he was not judged by the then NKVD Troika. in structure: the Chairman—of the NKVD Colonel, Matuzenko; member—Secretary of Karelian regional Committee of the CPSU(b) Kupriyanov, and the Prosecutor of the Karelian ASSR, the Michael HIV. In this " Troika "for a short period from July 28 to November 10, 1938 on 2550 considered cases had 2262 execution sentences," spies " – (Art. 58-6) they were sentenced exclusively to execution; they are all shot and buried in the Sands of Krasny Bor near Petrozavodsk. (*Shot lists we have, as the list of "performers", that is, those executioners of the NKVD, who killed in the head of innocent people).
And S. T., Matuzenko may 25, 1939, he confessed spying for British intelligence (article 58-6), "hung" him another article 58-1B (high treason) and article 58-11 (organization of the spy ring). Of course, many readings of the former Commissar was also received "physical methods of influence", but in 1956, the Prosecutor's office refused to review his case: "... Matusenko for the criminal activities of convicted right." G. N. Kupriyanov during the investigation showed the article 58-1A (treason), article 58-7 (sabotage), article 58-10 (anti-Soviet agitation) and article 58-11 (organization group). In 1954 he was left an article 58-10, and in 1956 Kupriyanov G. N. first pardoned (but not rehabilitated — "... for gross violations of socialist legality..."), and then rehabilitated, in my opinion — in vain. The Prosecutor of Karelia G. S. M. lucky — in 1939, he was simply removed from office and departed from the Republic.
The investigator of my grandfather Sergeant GB I. Terekhov, participant of falsifications and executions, from October 6, 1937 to October 14, 1938 personally shot 182 "enemy of the people". Reporting to the people's Commissar about execution of sentences, I. Terekhov each time beautiful handwriting wrote the same phrase: "... made destruction of people by execution of the following persons..." its destiny is still unknown to me.
15 months after the torture dungeon for the Stone forest and to the sentence of the Special Meeting Koshev Y. D. spent in prison: the overcrowding, the dirt, the stench, stool, arrogant thieves, bedbugs...VA cloud, by night a constant electric light in the eye, and most importantly, a mandrel (abstraction under escort to the bathroom) only 2 times a day is worse than any torture (those who have been in Petrozavodsk prison, he understands).
And here is an extract from the Protocol No. 29 of the Special Meeting at people's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR from 5.09.1939. Listened:
"463. Case No. 00371 of the Karelian ASSR, on charges of Koshev Yakov Dmitrievich, born in 1892, a native of der. Semenovskaya Bachatskogo district, Northern Territory, g-n of the USSR, non-partisan.
Resolved: Unknown Yakov Dmitrievich as a socially dangerous element — to enter into a forced labor camp for a term of Five years, counting the period from 9th August 1938. The thing to hand over in archive.
Nach. The Secretariat of the Special Meeting at people's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR /Ivanov/»
The decision of the CCA could not be appealed. "Well, this is a Parasha is possible to serve" — said the prisoners grandfather, although each time seems excessive.
Well, the next stage in the "Stolypin" through shipment in Batlag "reformation" in the ideological Builder of socialism.
(*for reference: Vyatskaya boot camp was stationed in the Kirov region, Ciscom district, p/o Valenica. Production-logging, woodworking, production of sleepers, the construction of a pulp mill. The number of 1.01.1939 year was 20 164 people.)

we fished a lot with my grandfather and Onego, and on Conctere and Padozero. So much he told me not to forget the rest of your life.

10 years and 5 "of the muzzle»

This term (10 years of camps and 5 years of deprivation of political and civil rights, mainly electoral rights, which was then considered the most important element of civil liberty) was received in July 1949 by my uncle Koshev Konstantin Yakovlevich under article 58-10 for agitation against Soviet power. A native of the village of Podujatie, Kemsky district, he had an independent character, and in the social origin of the questionnaire record — "family of a Minister of a religious cult". This entry and determined its fate.
After a seven-year period studied the coast in the workers ' Murmansk commercial Institute, but was expelled just for "social origin". Go back to Kovu, worked as a fisherman, then a mechanic. From 1935 to 1949 he was the minder of the Petrozavodsk fish factory, with interruptions for service in the red army and the great Patriotic war from 12 July 1941 to December 1945. Fought in the Northern fleet mechanic on a submarine. Burned and sank in the Barents sea. In the last battle killed the entire crew, one uncle Kostya long time spent in ice water. In order not to suffer from the wild cold, gradually turning into an ice cream corpse, floating food for seagulls, he wanted to dive to the bottom, but could not — his hands crawled to the lifebuoy, and then his arrived. Frost damage of hands and feet amputated is not given: "Better to die than to be a samovar with krantik!"Humor not lost even on the edge of life. Gradually life returned to limbs, but health was completely undermined, and the rest of the war uncle Kostya stayed on the island Kil'din, earning for war a stomach ulcer, diseased liver and only two medals — count in the questionnaire were taken into account and at the front.
Written off as unnecessary returned Konstantin Yakovlevich on the fish a totally different person — a sobering and not open-minded, have an opinion on any question and not afraid to Express it. In conversations "for life" he spoke sharply about the war, about the country, the price drops fool's day the first of April, when cheaper cigarettes for a penny, haberdashery on a dime, and Opera glasses as much as 40 %(!), about the "owner" (I. Stalin). Followed by a denunciation of "where necessary". And after the war, the "funnels" continuously poked through the streets of the city, and the enkavedeshniki restlessly, on the host knocked and rang the doorbell. In Karelia, more than 700 agents and informers of the NKVD collected various rumors. But many times more had the NKVD volunteers – informers. In 1929, a Leningrad writer M. Coumandin wrote: "the Denunciation? We are not afraid of words. For us, the cause behind this word is more important. To expose the alien, hostile to the tendency to identify the enemy and to strike a counterrevolutionary, but this is the honorable duty to face the working class!»
23 Jun 1949 at 23:00 "funnels" wrapped in poselok Petushki, No. 2. Three NKVD Reidman E. D., Saltykov P. V. and Alekseev, A. E., broke into room Unknown Konstantin Yakovlevich, showed him the warrant No. 51012 for the production of search and seizure authorized by the Attorney KFSSR adviser of justice of II class AA Virolainen. Frightened witnesses Silvennoinen V. P. and K. I. Salassa clung to the side. Not finding during the search of anti-Soviet literature and other material evidence, "funnels" with the prisoner had served at the following address: internal prison of the NKVD KFSSR, Petrozavodsk, ul. Komsomolskaya, 5.
On interrogation at the investigator Urlaeva uncle did not deny that in conversations with his friends on his side sounded sharp remarks about foreign and domestic policy of the CPSU(b), of the Soviet Government and personally to the leader of the Soviet people. But no agitation in these statements was not, especially there was no hostile intent, only criticism!
"Odnako" and on the court together comrades drowned Konstantin Yakovlevich, the race laying different points in their intimate conversations in the Smoking room. It is significant as a witness to Secure M. J. held a propaganda event in mehaha fish. Read it "Appeal of the Leningrad workers on the fulfillment of production plans." After the report of locksmith pots (the smart one) said that the Treatment he endorses and is committed to exceed their production targets. The motorist yunin Pavel Antonovich, playing to the speaker (had on this installation of bodies) told that at first it would be necessary to create conditions for workers. After him Koshev K. I. declared: "... before demanding from the worker, it is necessary to create to it conditions, and that someone eats in three throats, and someone at this time starves, and there is nothing to read us these addresses, and it is necessary to create conditions…»
At trial, the Prosecutor Vinogradov with pathos delivered his angry speech, saying that the campaign is an attempt to prepare a mood that, in future, to prepare the overthrow of the regime, and demanded to appoint his 10 years with confiscation of property according to article 58-10 part I.
Lawyer Krivosheina mostly defended itself, saying that the interests of the country it is also the road, as any Soviet person, and as a true patriot, she can not but feel disgust and indignation in the analysis of this case.
And the court entirely subordinate to the NKVD, knows in advance what the verdict desired.
And here is the Verdict:
"23.06.1949 year were arrested for anti-Soviet activities Koshev Konstantin Yakovlevich... being hostile to Soviet power, for a number of years, he systematically conducted among the workers of Petrozavodsk fish factory anti-Soviet agitation, trivialize Soviet reality, expressed calumnies at the heads of state and dissatisfaction they held events... Koshev said that in the USSR there is no democracy and all the people from the bottom up under the authority of the chief, and he is not subordinate to anyone that American technology is much better than the Soviet, what farms should be put to the leadership of wealthy farmers, that the price reduction is not in the interests of the working class; and slandered living conditions of the workers in the USSR…
Guided by article 319-326 CPC, the court Sentenced: Unknown Konstantin Yakovlevich according to article 58-10 part I of the RSFSR criminal code to subject to imprisonment for a period of ten (10) years from the defeat of his rights, stipulated by letters "a" and "b" of article 31 of the criminal code for a period of five (5) years... the Verdict is final and in a cassation order is not subject to appeal.
Chairman-Korzhitsky. Assessors-Pronina, Moshnikova".
Then the investigator, captain GB Orloev, having considered the materials of the investigation file No. 1670, charged under article 58-10 in the paint, "anti-Soviet" Unknown K. J. decided: "after the sentence comes into force, to send Unknown K. Y. to serve his sentence in the General prison camp", where uncle Kostya and spent more than five years: Nadvoitsy, Sosnovets, Bear mountain…
Stress and poor camp nutrition affected war-torn health. Rare parcels from home it is unlikely that there could help. Remember packing a parcel for uncle like it was dried for him on the stove the cigarette, "Red star"... In 1963, the commandant of the residential zone TL 2201 article Nadvoitsy old security officer major Baranov in conversation with me, recalled Konstantin Yakovlevich: "... the coast Koshev was a mechanic in Sosnowiec. All was messing with their glands. Go to lunch or to eat to gather, and he can not break away from them. Slogger!"Uncle picked up somewhere else and hepatitis while in the hospital in Medgora with a sick stomach... And then, after the arrest of Beria, began to review the cases under article 58.
And here, Resolution No. 11/14 Secret
Of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of KFSSR 13 October 1954
It is issued under the chairmanship of acting Chairman of the Supreme Court of KFSSR Sharov with participation of Deputy. Prosecutor KFSSR Tsukanov:
"... Deputy Prosecutor General of the USSR D. Salin made a protest to the Presidium of the Supreme Court of KFSSR, which asks the Verdict of the Supreme Court of KFSSR from 20.08.1949 year relative Unknown Konstantin Yakovlevich cancel and the thing about it production ceased behind absence in its actions of structure of a crime. The verdict is subject to cancellation on the following grounds: the facts of anti-Soviet statements Unknown K. Ya., committed by them in the circumstances which show the witnesses Secure, Baryshnikov, Matyushkin and others do not give grounds for the conclusion that Koshev K. Ya. in these cases, he acted with counter-revolutionary intent, and on the objective side they do not contain a call for the weakening of Soviet power. Other objective data on Koshiv K. Y. show that he is not anti-Soviet minded person. With 15 years Koshev K. Ya. began his career, in 1938-1939 he served in the red army, in 19411945 participated in the Patriotic war, was awarded. After demobilization from the army he began to work at the Petrozavodsk fish factory, on the production work was characterized positively.
Agreeing with the protest of the Prosecutor, the Presidium of the Supreme Court of the KFSSR
Held: the Verdict of the Supreme Court of KFSSR from 20 August 1949 to CANCEL and charges Unknown K. Y. According to article 58-10 (part 1) of the criminal code of the RSFSR in the absence of his actions constitute a crime production ceased. Koshev Konstantin Yakovlevich from-under guards to release. Chairman-Balls. Secretary — Krasnovskaya".
25 Oct uncle Kostya was released. He returned to Petrozavodsk very sick and soon died at our hands. In polyclinic #1 doctor Maksimenko shrugged it off: "Simult!"It is evident, of course, was that the man from prison, skinny, short hair, and his eyes were yellow where she was looking when prescribed activated charcoal (lay then these pills are in the barn). And when another doctor-Ivanov sent Konstantin Yakovlevich to take tests, it was too late – bile spilled. How he suffered, how is that possible? Yes, in the same zekovskoy the hospital in Medgora attitude to patients by medical staff has always been much better.
Left after uncle no family, no kids, no documents (he had them burned in the heat, when the ambulance did not come, and the pain was unbearable), only the investigative case No. 1670 in the archives of the FSB, and in it the sailor's owner and two certificates medals "For defense of polar region" and "For Victory over Germany". But they are more precious to our family than any order iconostasis.

9 граммов

9 grams of lead

(in memory of millions innocent killed, killed, maimed and almost forgotten).
In the summer of 1989, in the sandy hills of Sulazhgora near Petrozavodsk, the squatter scooped a pile of human bones and shot skulls with a bucket. Prosecutors have established that death is violent, all people shot in the head (bullet sometimes get stuck in the frontal bone); the secret burial of 1937-1939. The remains of approximately 450 people were then manually Karelian members of "Memorial" Cohen Ivan, my brother Alexander, Pertti Vuori, Victor Paso, Michael Orlovich, Tikkanen and Yuri Dmitriev, who did a lot for the excavation and still engaged in this Holy task, and in recent years on the terrible "Cekirge" Solovki.
At the "round table" in the city Council of Petrozavodsk over the place for the monument to victims of political repression I. Cohen offered the hill on the street red is the most appropriate place – next to a prison, where many detainees lived out their last days, and street name correspond to Red from human blood; my brother Alexander has offered to place the monument near the Eternal flame is also a very worthy place.
Protested against these sites of national memory, former kesetovic the head of government of the city Sergey Katanandov, although popularly "poured crocodile tears" at the memorial service. Overnight changed these people their religion, throwing a crucifix on top of the sheepskin. Without any shame, in sight of the whole of Russia, they stand with candles in their hands at solemn services, frantically trying to remember how to be baptized: from left to right or Vice versa.
Protruding "faith" on display,
In blasphemous Parking with a candle,
Thereby, desecrating God's temple.
As they suffer from party tickets in the breast pocket, as these membership cards (“bread book”) burned their hearts as they had to constantly Dodge and lie at party meetings, as it jarred their souls bright and how long did not come true their dream of chewing gum and a roll of toilet paper.
The Lord of Manuel, Bishop of Petrozavodsk and Olonets was offered a place on the margins Zaretsky cemetery. In vain agreed "memorialovtsy" – who see this monument in dense thickets, and it is necessary to constantly as alarm, reminded us all of the innocent destroyed by the Bolsheviks and millions of innocent people!
When asked whether it is possible to put the remains of people with different religious beliefs in one place, his Eminence replied: "the Lord will reconcile everyone in that world!"And I very much doubt that the Snitch and the executioner can be reconciled with innocent killed.
Now a grandfather would be, along with his companions at the torture house buried in sandy trenches of the red forest but it was saved by the Lord from the first of the "Troika of the NKVD of Matuzenko-Kupriyanov-M., and then in the camp from certain death in the logging.
Shocked, I'm standing in the Museum of victims of political repression in front of a showcase with personal belongings shot: Smoking pipes and mouthpieces, women's combs and men's combs, a lot of glasses with a round frame. Here are a couple of empty bottles of vodka thrown by NKVD executioners in a mass grave. Gun shell, flattened pieces of lead — it's the bullets that killed innocent people!

Here are my family, each with nine grams of lead lay in the damp earth.
1) PEC Walter Karlovich. Was born 17.07. 1874 and lived in Arkhangelsk. Merchant and timber industry. Organizer of the national militia in 1919. Arrested on 1 July 1920 on charges of"counter-revolutionary activity". Sentenced by order of the Arkhangelsk Gubchk to capital punishment. Shot 30 July 1920 g. Rehabilitated 2 July 1992
2) des Fontaines George Edmundovich the son of a manufacturer. Shot without trial and investigation in 1920"for counterrevolution and espionage."
3) Meyer, Georgii Maximovich. Shot without trial and investigation in 1920"for counterrevolution and espionage."
4) Marcinowski George V. 11.05.1894 G. R., shot in 1920 on the barge under Kholmogori as a former officer of the tsarist army.
5) Marcinowski Witold 30.12.1899 G. V. R., shot in 1920 as a former officer of the tsarist army.
6) Schmidt, Konstantin Aleksandrovich. Shot without trial and investigation in 1920"for counterrevolution and espionage."
7) Sholts Margarita Adolfovna. Shot without trial in 1920 "for counter-revolution and espionage".
8) Marcinowski Ivan V. 07.10.1889 G. R., shot in 1938 in the "case Viklund".
9), Stop Boris R. (1887, Arkhangelsk — 1938, Arkhangelsk). Unemployed. Shot.
10) Shergold Boris Egorovich (1895, Arkhangelsk—13.09.38, Arkhangelsk). The eldest son of the co-owner of the company " Surkov and Shergold." Shot
11) PEC Elsa Brunovna. She was born in 1886 and lived in Arkhangelsk. Worked as a controller "Avtoportret". Arrested on 22 June 1938 on charges of"counter-revolutionary agitation". Sentenced by the NKVD Troika of Arkhangelsk oblast to capital punishment. Shot on October 8, 1938. Rehabilitated on 28 February 1956.
12) PEC Boris Branovic. Born 12.06.1894 year in Arkhangelsk. In 1929 he was sent with his family to Pyatigorsk with the confiscation of all property. In Pyatigorsk, he was able to get an accountant Ventresca. Arrested 10.09.1937.  A Troika of the NKVD of the USSR sentenced Ordzhonikidzevsky edge 22.9.1937 years for "counterrevolutionary agitation" and shot. A Troika of the NKVD of the USSR on Ordzhonikidzevsky edge convicted of "counterrevolutionary agitation" and shot 29.10.1937 Rehabilitated 16. 01. 1989.
13) PEC Sergey Avgustovich. Was born 19.03.1881 year in Arkhangelsk. Architect of the city of Arkhangelsk. Since 1919 he lived in Murmansk, red Sports emb., d. 14, sq. 1, working beginning. technical Department Zhilstroy. Arrested August 29, 1937 on charges under Art. 58-6-9 of the criminal code of the RSFSR. Sentenced: Commission NKVD and Prosecutor of the USSR on 10 January 1938 to capital punishment. Shot 15 Jan 1938 Place of burial – Leningrad, Levashevo. He was rehabilitated on March 21, 1989 by the RSFSR Prosecutor General's office.
14) PEC Arnold Edgarovich. Born 4.07.1898 year in Arkhangelsk. Shot in Leningrad in 1937.
15) PEC Alexander Edgarovich. 18.08.1899 was born in the city of Kem. He was shot in Leningrad in 1938.
16), PEC Georgy Eduardovich. Born in 1897 in Arkhangelsk. Lived in Leningrad. Arrested on 27 February 1933 on charges under article 58-7 of the criminal code of the RSFSR. Sentenced by a Troika of the OGPU PP in LVO may 9, 1933 to 10 years in prison. Died on zone in Vorkuta 21.11.1942 year.
17), Leuzinger Arkady Yakovlevich. He was born in 1898 and lived in Arkhangelsk. Employee Selhozprodukti. Arrested on 23 February 1938 and charged under article 58-6, part 1 of the RSFSR criminal code. Sentenced by the NKVD Troika of the Northern region to capital punishment. Shot on November 31, 1938. Rehabilitated on 28 may 1956.
18), Leuzinger Vyacheslav Yakovlevich. He was born in 1888 and lived in Arkhangelsk. Lawyer. Arrested on 22 November 1937 on charges under article 58-6 of the RSFSR criminal code. 13.03.38 "died" during the investigation. Rehabilitated on 2 January 1957.
19) Lindes Harald ferdinandovich, born in 1895, a native of Arkhangelsk. Lived in Leningrad, Petrovsky PR., D. 3, sq. 16. Worked head. commercial Department of the plant "Soviet". Arrested on April 2, 1938 by the Commission of NKVD and Prosecutor of the USSR on 14 June 1938 sentenced under articles 58-6-7-9-11 criminal code of the RSFSR to a Supreme penalty. He was shot in Leningrad on June 28, 1938. There is no evidence of any crimes committed in the case.
20) Lindes Georgy Gansovich, born in 1913, a native and resident of Leningrad, a non-party, a student of LSU, lived: Povarskoy lane., D. 5, sq. 8. Arrested on 17 December 1937 by the Commission of NKVD and Prosecutor of the USSR on 10 January 1938 sentenced under articles 58-8-10-11 criminal code of the RSFSR to a Supreme penalty. He was shot in Leningrad on January 15, 1938.
21) Brautigam Anatoly E. (1893, Arkhangelsk — 1938, Arkhangelsk). Shot.
22) Brautigam Victor Emilyevich. (1920-1938) Shot.
23) Witt, Boris Vladimirovich. In 1940 he was sentenced to 8 years. 11.02.42 died in the camp.
24) Witt, Emma Vilgelmovna (1876, Arkhangelsk). In her apartment until 1929 lived Norwegian Consul Einar Anvik and the Secretary of the Consulate Arnold Wicklund. Died 07.10.38. at the age of 62 years in the chamber of the Arkhangelsk prison.
25), Hoevelaken William Ernestovich, 1908 born, born in the city of Kemi. Place of residence Arkhangelsk. Laboratory assistant in the College of communication. Have children. Arrested on 10 June 1938. By order of the "Troika" of the NKVD in article 56-6 illegally executed November 31, 1938. He was posthumously rehabilitated on 30 may 1957.
26), Hoevelaken Herman wilghelmovich, 1863 R., born in Arkhangelsk. Managing "Partnership KEMA sawmills" until 1917. Attracted in 1937 by the NKVD in the " Viklund case." Article 58-6-11 illegally shot 5 Nov 1938. Rehabilitated posthumously.
27), Hoevelaken German Germanovich, 1905 R., born in Kemi. Lived in Arkhangelsk, Isakogorskomu R-n, d. Zaostrov. Motorist yacht club. Sentenced on 28 August 1938 by the "Troika" of the NKVD in Arkhangelsk region on St. 58-10-11. Shot. Posthumously fully rehabilitated on October 15, 1954.
Give them eternal rest, o Lord! And let eternal light Shine upon them.
Gib ihnen die ewige Ruhe, o Herr! Und das ewige Licht, um sie glänzen.
As a result of criminal actions of the Bolshevik government (varieties of fascism), embarked on the path of destruction of their own people and systematic destruction of the spiritual colors of the whole country was destroyed by Russia, caused enormous damage to the gene pool (*according to estimates, Pitirim Sorokin, only the first five years of the Soviet regime claimed the lives of 13 500 000), of its morality.


As a result of criminal actions of the Bolshevik government more than 60 million people were killed in wars, from hunger and repressions. The cruel and bloody twentieth century, which brought Russia millions of victims and untold disasters, is a thing of the past. We missed many relatives during this time-two world wars, the tragedy of the October revolution, the murderous civil war unleashed by the Bolsheviks, the atrocities of the CHEK and NKVD, the years of the Soviet and post-Soviet "circus". Seemed irretrievably lost many information about our clan. Fortunately, there were people who understood that the history of the genus is a family jewel, and a very worthy occupation — to bring ancestors out of family and historical oblivion and connect them in time, that the genealogical line, which can be traced through generations, is beautiful in itself. Memories, old documents and photos were carefully kept.
And here are my ancestors: and a prudent spender, fussy and slow, revelers and their families, patient and quick-tempered, good and bad, indecisive and daring, harsh male and beautiful female and children's faces — they all live in the us, and I am one of the successors of their lives.
Each person is interesting individually, his achievements and failures, his plans and actions, whether he has lived his life worthily given by God, and how it ended.
According to the" Manifests "of Peter I and Catherine II, who promised immigrants religious tolerance and decent living conditions, my ancestors went to The Russian North, to the country of" baptized bears", to the country of barbarians, savages (it was believed then in the West) and Church apostates. And Russia has opened its doors and hearts, has become a second home, where came to him the glory, honor and respect. In the land of their dust still rests.
And we, the descendants of those "Germans" that a few centuries have made a considerable contribution to the development of trade, construction and culture of the Russian North and the whole of Russia, are proud of their ancestors.
"To be proud of the glory of their ancestors is not only possible, but also should.
Not respect thereof is shameful cowardice."
(A. S. Pushkin).
Annexes 1 to 6.
Sources used:
1. H. G. Ustryalov. History of the reign of Peter the Great. vol.3. St. Petersburg, 1858.
2. A. S. Lacinski. Peter the Great-Emperor of Russia in Holland in 1697 and 1717. " Russian Antiquity." 1916.
3. RGIA, f. 472, op. 16/850, d. 781197, 1835; f. 1405, Op. 45, d. 1238, d. 3735; f. 1405, op. 54, d. 1238, d. 3039; f. 1405, op. 46., 5811; f. 1405, op. 427, d. 199; f. 1286, op. 54, d. 104; f. 1341, op. 56, D. 575.
4. N. Doktor Erik Amburger. Die van Brinen und ihre Sippe in Archangel. Berlin. 1936.
5. Edward Lambton Carr. Extracts from the pedigrees of Arkhangelsk "Germans".
6. Letters: Heinrich Meyer – von ELTZ (Hamburg); Harold Lindes (Washington, D.C.); Dr. Erik Amburger (Germany); works by Sven-Rick Fischer (Hamburg).
7. Arnold PEC. German settlement in Arkhangelsk. From the book: the Germans in Russia (people and destinies). SCIENCES, ST. PETERSBURG. 1998. p. 18-28.
8. A. P. PEC. The story of PEC (1774-1996.). Local history almanac, vol. 2. Vologda. «Lehi.»
9. A. P. PEC. Colonel of the life guards Semenov regiment Nikolai Karlovich von Essen (1885-1945). Proceedings of the scientific seminar, 23-24 November 1999. Publishing House "Znak". St. Petersburg, 1999
10. L. A. Balagurov. Sawmill production in Karelia in the XVIII-XIX centuries. Petrozavodsk, 1946.
11. I. V. Olenev. Karelian region and its future in connection with the construction of the Murmansk railway. Helsingfors. One thousand nine hundred seventeen
12. A. I. Engelhard. Russian North. St. Petersburg, 1897
13. A. Ranges. The position of the pearl industry in Russia. SPb. 1897.
14. E. V. Anisimov. The young city (the St. Petersburg times of Peter the Great).
15. The archive of the UFSB RF po RK, the Foundation of criminal cases. d. arch. №P-3399.
16. The archive of the UFSB RF po RK, the Foundation of criminal cases. d. arch. #P-154.
17. A. I. Solzhenitsyn. The GULAG archipelago. vol. 5, 6, 7. «Inc.» 1991.
18. I. I. Cohen. Karelia 37: ideology and practice of terror. PetrSU. 1996.
19. G. V. Popov. Old Arkhangelsk. "True North". 2003.
20. white North. 1918-1920. Memoirs and documents. vol. 1 and 2. "True North". 1993.
21. A. N. Yakovlev. Twilight. «Mainland.» Moscow, 2005
22. G. N. Chebykina. The Germans in the Great Ustyug(second половина19-начало20 VV)wounds.St. Petersburg.2004.
23. Yuri Doikov. A native of Arkhangelsk. "Truth Of The North" 11.01.2001.
24. E. I. OVSYANKIN. ARKHANGELSK MERCHANT. Publishing House "Arkhkonsalt". 2000.
24. H. J. Maat. "600 jaar Haalboom-Hoolboom". Egaa in Nieuwegein. Jahr 1984.
25. Wilhelm Schlau. LM Ersten Weltkriege in Russland. (Shlau V. in the war In Russia. great Ustyug.) 1915-1918 years

APPENDIX 3. From a letter of Professor, Philipps University, Marburg Dr. Eric N. Amburger.
... In the Center (R-n of Hamburg) I have met many people from Arkhangelsk. In the house of the society in 22 people I was the only one not born in Arkhangelsk. I naturally used the opportunity to write down what I could learn about Archangel families. It turned out more than 30 tables. The biggest of them is the PEC family. Fraulein Emilia PEC the eldest, over 80 years as well as her sister Mrs. Matilda Clifton, which I yesterday visited. All are with each other and also with the Riga circle (Fontaines, Scholz, Maier), archangelicae in London and Copenhagen. This data is supplemented from the diary of Sophia Brandt, ur. The hamburger I found and studied with your uncle in Hamburg. The author of the diary refers to Peter (?), which devoted entire pages, although Sofia then (1850god) lived in St. Petersburg. I'm trying to describe what you should be interested in first. About Mrs. (?), nee PEC, old ladies remember, unfortunately, only vaguely and could not tell me her name. She must be the sister of the founder of the clan all Pecev Andreas –Reception of Weissenfels, the Baker in Arkhangelsk, married to Ernestine, Blumenroeder. It's a brave old PEC.......His eldest son Augustus married Hermine Norman. Her grandmother had two sisters in Arkhangelsk, Hermine and Dorothea, married to Wilhelm Tieden, supervisor of Brandt mills. Her great-grandmother, old Frau, according to the diary, was born and died in Arkhangelsk 16.11.1851. Can make it the next addition to Peter Dressen. In the mid-1940s, he, along with Alexander Amburger are the closest employees of Edward Brandt in Arch-SKE, later a Pro-tourist. Since 1849, he is the liquidator of Brandt and his sons. Then he was appointed Pro-tourist of the new firm "Wilhelm and Edmund Brandt" in Arch-SKE, which did not take place as a result of the contract with Karl Brandt, the latter did not want competition.
27.12.1845 he was appointed Danish vicekonsulom A. Amburger, in 1850-51 he became Danish Consul after he moved to St. Petersburg.
26.5.1841 G. Madame Gums old, if ladies can do to age, yet vigorously teaches and supports Madame Rinek. Peter Dr. a month ago, a son was born, he had a little son(died in 1849 ?) and Dorothea's daughter. Sofia Maria : the genus. in Oct. 1851 + may 1853 ? Peter was married to Eugene Shergold(?) Then there was the daughter of Maria, who married Rudolf Meyer.
From the diary I was able to learn that Dressen came from the firm of Brandt and became a broker. Already in 1850, he succeeded or succeeded to the post of Abraham ? as a Bank broker.
13.9.1841 year. Among girls of marriageable age has been called Julchen PEC. Good Dressen regrets the fall of his old mother-in-law, who broke her leg in the thigh.
1.3.1842 year. August PEC sings bass, as Stromajer. Milda PEC is not involved in politics, which is a favorite occupation of these stubborn relatives.
4.8.1842 year. Dressed still as cheerful as before... Tailor Menk gave his eldest daughter to the PEC. These days, probably, was born the young stubborn. Christian PEC-traveling salesman in Ustyug. The case at all. Old PEC (*Andreas-Traugott) the brave and respect him very much. According to the testimony of absolwentow, graduated from the Medico – surgical Academy in St. Petersburg Rinek, passed the exam in 1864 for the title of doctor, in 1867 he became a doctor of medicine. August PEC was in 1878 94 years, while Herman PEC in 1895 – 99. Danish Consul in Arkhangelsk.
In 1955-56 by the KGB of the USSR in the Arkhangelsk region Department of the KGB of the USSR in the North sea basin at the direction of the Military Prosecutor of the white sea and Leningrad military district had been audited archival criminal cases the following individuals were arrested and convicted in connection with the Norwegian Consul in Arkhangelsk WIKLUND:
Archangel Boris Georgievich,
VASILIEV Ivan Mikhailovich,
WITT Boris Vladimirovich,
WITT George Vladimirovich,
GUERNET Eduard Eduardovich,
HOEVELAKEN, Herman wilghelmovich,
COLMET Arkady Fedorovich,
COLMET Ivan Fedorovich,
KRAMARENKO Lidiya Nikolaevna,
Kononov Alexander Dmitrievich,
LEUZINGER Arkady Yakovlevich,
MASLOVSKY, Nikolai Aleksandrovich,
MEYER Alexander Ernestovich,
PEC Elsa Brunovna,
POLITOV Vladimir Petrovich,
SAI Stepan Isidorovich,
EINSTEIN Valery Mikhailovich,
Criminal cases against all those persons convicted of espionage, was dismissed for lack of evidence.
Dropped cases are stored in the Archives 10 of the group of KGB of the USSR in the Arkhangelsk region.
The INVESTIGATOR of the KGB of the USSR IN the Arkhangelsk REGION
August 10, 1967, Arkhangelsk.
(Archive SU FSB in the Arkhangelsk region. Trunk.I. I. Gurkov case

APPENDIX 5. From Heinrich Meyer – background Altza.
I St. Petersburg und Arcbangel.
Mit der Einwanderung des Jan Poel nach Russland wurden, wie es scheint, die Verbindungen nach Holland abgebrochen. Spater noch lebte nur ein Urenkel Jan Роеls wieder in Holland, namlich Wilhelm Poel. Mit welchen Argchorigen Jan nach Russland kam, steht nicht fest. Sein Sonn Jacobus war jedenfalls noch 1712 in Holland geboren worden. In vier Generationen haben Angehorige der Familie Poel (Nunmehr diese Schreibweise !) enge Beziehungen zum russischen Reich gehabt. Sie brachten es zu Ansehen, Reichtum und zum Teil honen Hofamtern und gehorten, soweit sie solche innehatren, dem sog. Dienstadel an. Rechtlich waren sie russische Untertanen; tatsachlich hatten sie als Angehorige der hollandischen Kolonie und der evangelisch-reformierten Kirche einen besonderen Status. Personliche Beziehungen zur Zarenfamilie und Heiraten mit Tochtern einflussreicher und vermogender Familien (z.B. van Briennen und Baron Stieglitz) sicherten ihre Zugehorigkeit zur Oberschicht.
vgl. 1) Amburger, Die van Brienen .... 2)Gustav Poel, Bilder aus vergangener Zeit-Band I, Piter Bilder aus seiner Preunde Poels und Leben, Hamburg 1884. II, Karl Sievekings Bilder aus Leben, Hamburg 1887. 3) Mitteilung des Deutschen Adelsarchivs. Die russischen nachfolgenden Daten entsprechen in der Regel dem alten Stil.
Jan Pool. Zar Peter nahm Jan Poel mit offenen Armenia in St.Petersburg auf. Jan wirkte dort als Zimmermeister, er baute Schiffe und Muhlen. Jan und seine Ehefrau vor 1762 verstorben sind. Map weiss nur von seiner Kinder dreien.
1 N. N. Poel, Vorname nicht ermittelt. Sie heiratete einen russischen stehenden Diensten in dem Namen nach bekannten nicht Obersten. Die Familie zog in die Ukraine. Naheres ist nicht bekannt.
2 Wendelina Poel. Sterbedaten Geburts und nicht bekannt. Verheiratet mit dem weitverzweigten St.Galler Gescnlecht der Zollikofer entstammenden Kaufmann in St.Petersburg Johann Kasper Zollikofer. Er war wohl uber Russland gekommen nach Holland, Jan nannte sich zur Gesellschaft und gehorte der hollandischen Kaufleute. Zollikofer ist schon 1722 in St.Petersburg nachzuweisen. 1738 ist er Bevollmachtigter des preussischen Schweier Kaufmannss una Konsuls Ulrich Kuhn. Zwei Tochter: (a) Johanna, geboren St.Petersburg 1.November, getauft 6. November 1723. (b) Wendelina, verheiratet mit Johann Furst in Archangel, zahlreiche Nachkommen (vgl.Stammlisten bei Amburger, Die van Brienen...) V3 Jacobus Poel. Geboren in Holland 1712 (Geburtstag Geburtsort und nicht nachgewiesen); reformiert. Erzogen in Leiden. Kaufmann in St.Petersburg und Archangel. Grossfurstlicher und kaiserlicher Hof-und Kommerzienrat.
1. N. N. Meyer aus St.Petersburg.
2. Archangel um 1750, 1753 Jedenfalls vor, mit Magdalena van Brienen. Geburtsort Geburtstag und nicht bekannt. Begrabon Hamburg, Dom, 8.Oktober 1763 (Lautebuch der Kirche St.Petri: "Zviefach lauten lassen’). Magdalena war Tochter des Kaufmanns Rutger van Brienen in St.Petersburg (konfirmiert Hamburg, reformierte Kirche 1684), 1725 und 1745 Alterling der reformierten Kirche zu Archangel.
3. Hamburg, Kapelle der deutsch-reformierten Gemeinde, 6.August 1767 mit Judith Schreur van Hoghenstein, Witwe de konigl.preussischen Hofrats und Munzoffiziers Charles Sarry in Berlin (Naheres siehe: Bilder aus vergangener Zeit BAHD I ) ! Gestorben Hamburg, 12.Februar 1769, begraben Dom 16.Februar (Eintragung auch in der franzosisch-reformierten Kirche ; Lautebuch der Kirche St. Petri).
Jacobus Poel starb auf Zierov (Mecklenburg) und wurde begraben in Proseken am 25.September 1775.
II of the letters of Heinrich Meier – background Altza.

"...Hello, distant relatives ASTA A. des Fontaines and Natalia L., Leitinger! I was very glad to receive your greetings from Arkhangelsk. In 1803 my great-grandfather W. Ya Benjamin Meyer arrived in Arkhangelsk from Hamburg on merchant Affairs and remained there. In 1811, he bought from Madame Rieneck a small house in which long lived the elder master Paetz. (* August A. PEC) Son Benjamin married the daughter of Moses Clifton. And my son was born in Hamburg. So the circle has closed. I would like to thank you very much for your detailed letter. Who so wonderfully translated into German? You, however, could safely write in Russian. I can read it and I have friends who can translate me individual phrases that I do not understand well. Please pass unknown to Mr. Shumilov my thanks for many information about Meyer and the first Pesach in Arkhangelsk. And especially for what he had done great work for copying of gravestone inscriptions. It struck me that there still stands the headstone of my great-great-grandfather: "Hier ruhet in Gott Carl Christian Meyer. Geboren den 12 August 1814. Gestorben 24 Oktober 1888". You know Martha Hansen? She was buried in Hamburg. In this cemetery there is a grave with the inscription: "here rests my beloved husband, our dear father William PEC rod. 24 Dec 1885, died 18 APR 1928" Nearby is the tomb of William V. Hoevelaken from Arkhangelsk (this is the uncle of my dear aunt Herta) and others from this family...< >sorry, I don't know anything about the families Rohters and Sebald. In March, I meet with other researchers and maybe there will be something else to learn...< > Alexander des Fontaines wrote to me from Australia, as well as his sister Alice PEC, SD. des Fontaines...< > At the beginning of may (*1992) I'm going to visit Riga. Maybe from there I'll call you. If you (*Arnold Petrovic PEC) speak slowly and clearly, I will understand you well. And if you are in Riga in may, I would like to see you. Invite you to itself. From Riga to St. Petersburg, just 10 hours by train. Provide the address and phone number in Riga, where You will stay. I send you greetings and wish you to live safely through these difficult times until everything stabilizes and normal life comes. All the best! Yours Sincerely Heinrich".
ANNEX 6. FAMILY TREE Hoolboom – Pool – Paetz.

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